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Common act exists where either the act of each participant constitutes the factual elements of a crime, or a crime is perpetrated by the convergence of the act of the participants.

Under the circumstances set out above, each participant will be subject to the same punishment. If a person assists another in the commission of an act. but before the crime is committed, such person will not be deemed to be a principal but an accomplice and will be punished under the provisions of Article 47. The distinction between the two cases is that the act of the perpetrator is an act of commission whereas the act of an accomplice is an act of assistarce before the commission of the crime. If a person has offered assistance at the time of the commission, such person shall be deemed to be an accomplice during the act and shall be punished as a perpetrator.

QUESTION 14

A rule similar to "felony-murder” does not exist in Greek criminal law.

QUESTION 16

Article 195 specifies that whoever, without authority, forms, supplies, or two dertakes the leadership of an armed group, as well as anyone who participales therein, shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than 6 months.

QUESTION 17 Where the victim consents to certain acts, then either there is no crime, or there is a crime but it is not punishable.

The first occurs whenever an element of a crime is that it is perpetraire against the will of the victim, and such an element is lacking (consent given). Here no crime exists (e.g., illegal detention) (Art. 325).

In the second case, the factual elements of a crime are perpetrated but the act is not punishable due to the victim's consent. This happens only wow minor bodily injuries are involved which were caused with the consent of the victim in a way not contrary to good morals (Art. 308, par. 2).

Drugs are governed by the Law 5539/1932 and Law 3084/1954 in comhics. tion with Laws 6169/1934, 911/1937, 803/1948, and 1765/1951. It is spelled it therein what narcotic substances are, and that their possession or sale shall punished by confinement in a penitentiary for up to 10 years and a fine of to 10 million metallic drachmas. When the quantity of narcotics in the pe sion of the accused is trivial, the penalty shall be up to 2 years imprisonment.1

Violation of the aforementioned laws is a major crime and therefore sh. be tried by a criminal court.2 The factual element of the above crimes is *** mere possession or sale of narcotics. It is irrelevant whether or not the Trs tims consent or that they are customers of the defendant.

By virtue of Law 256/1939 as amended by Laws 621/1937, 2155 1943, 3-3 1620/1951, gambling is permitted only where permission is given by a met tent authority (Ministry of Public Security). The facual element of the enq of gambling is perpetrated if it is done without authorization. Consent is a element of the crime.

According to Law 3310/1955 which has replaced Law 3032/1922, a commit has been established with the objective of implementing the provision concer ing prostitution. Generally, women engaging in prostitution are not proses provided that the various regulations established by the committee are 1 + serred, mainly that women under 18 years of age are not involved or tha: 3% or more women do not practice the prostitution in joint enterprise.

Obscenity is regulated by Law 5060/1931 which was enacted in complian with the international Geneva Agreement of December 19, 1923, as amended Law 2306/1953, enacted to implement a protocol agreement signed by the more bers of the United Nations at Lake Success on December 11, 1947.

According to the provisions of the above laws, the judge must deckt whether material is obscene or not, taking into consideration the personality the author, the purpose of the document and the effect which it may have to:

1 Athens Court of Appeals 188/1958.
? Supreme Court (Arelos pagos) 330,'1957.

tie public. If the court decides that the material 1° otsene, It is unfainian 20 destroyed.

The above-mentioned laws are not contained in the Criminal Cana

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Gafou, Elia. Poinikou Dikaiou (Criminal Law). Thessalonike, Theodoride,

1948, 447 p. Moschandrea, Bas. Hermaneia tou neou poinikou Kodikos (Interpretation of

the New Criminal Code). Athens, 1951. 321 p. Staikou, Ant. Hermeneia poinikes Dikonomias (Interpretation of the Code of Criminal Procedure). Athens, Fragouli, 1955. 1070 p.

Hermeneia tou poinikou Kodikos (Interpretation of the Criminal Code). Athens, Fragouli, 1955. 2000 p.

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QUESTION 12 I. General Remarks

A State may claim jurisdiction over an offense on the ground that a crime affects the national interests, although it has been committed abroad. In regulating this matter, some principles have been developed which have been followed by most of the European countries. These principles (universality, territoriality, personality and the protective principle) are often referred to as “principles of international law" and the group of criminal laws which governs these cases as “international criminal law.” These terms are misused because each State, when enacting such laws, does not act to regulate its relations with other States, but acts as a sovereign (imperium) in stipulating under which circumstances its criminal law should apply to offenses which have been committed abroad but nevertheless effect its legal order.

According to the principle of universality, a country may apply its law to any crime, regardless of the place where the crime was committed, the nationality of the perpetrator or whether its national interests are affected or not. It stems from the necessity for international cooperation in combating crime, but it lacks legal realism and has been criticized as extremely broad and difficult to apply. More particularly, its application by a State may be in the nature of a violation of the sovereignty of the other States, and the difficulty in collecting the evidence necessary for the prosecution, especially when the crime has been committed in a remote country, is apparent. In addition, the difference between the laws of different States may lead to injustices, for an act mar not be regarded as an offense according to the law of one country, whereas the same act constitutes a crime in another State.

However, the necessity for cooperation in the field of criminal law is unquestionable. International agreements with the objective of combating some crimes, such as the agreements of 1910 and 1923 on obscene literature, and the agreement of 1925 and 1931 on narcotics, is an expression of that need.

Under the territoriality principle, a country may claim jurisdiction over offenses which have occurred only within its own territory. No distinction is made as to the nationality of the perpetrator.

This system although advocated by many prominent authors, has been abandoned as an exclusive concept. It postulates that each State must preserve the existing legal order and secure the rights of its own citizens. Therefore, any deed violating those interests must be punished by its laws, even if it is committed by an alien within the territory.

This principle ignores the fact that such acts may occur within as well as outside the State. Therefore, it does not provide for those acts which are committed abroad and which affect the national interests, or its nationals.

Under the personality principle, the criminal laws of a State are personal and must apply to citizens wherever they commit a wrongful act. The concept is based upon an inner relationship between the State and its citizens. On the one hand, it prevents a State from extraditing its nationals for crimes which they have committed abroad and on the other hand, it enables the State to punish them for each acts. For aliens who violate the laws, the principle creates a “fictio juris" by virtue of which aliens living in a country are regarded as its citizens (subditus temporarius). Thus, the laws apply to them not because the wrongful act was committed within the legislating State, but because under a fictio juris, they are regarded as nationals.

The personality principle does not offer complete protection because, besides the fact that the creation of a "fictio juris” is out of place here, it does not provide for crimes which are committed by aliens abroad and affect the national interests.

The basis of the protective principle is that each State has the right to secure its national interests. These interests can be affected not only by acts

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(g) Offenses against the currency ;
(h) Unlawful traffic in narcotics;
(i) Commerce in obscene literature:

(j) Any offense for which the application of Greek law is provided by international agreement.

Articles 9, 10, and 11 specify that if the perpetrator has committed a crime abroad and was convicted or acquitted, or if the prosecution of the act has been barred for lapse of time, or pardoned, or if prosecution has not been requested by the for ign country, it may not be prosecuted in Greece. If the perpetrator has serral part of the sentence, that time shall be deducted from a punishment subset;uently imposed by the Greek court for the same offense (Article 10). If a Greek national has been convicted abroad for a crime which entails additional punishment according to Greek law, the Greek court may inpose such punishment. Likewise, the Greek court may impose security measures, if ther are provided for by the Greek law. A translation of the above-mentioned Articles follows in the Appendix.

APPENDIX: TRANSLATION FROM THE GREEK

Articles 5-11, Greek Criminal Code Art. 5, par. 1. Greek criminal laws shall apply to all offenses committed within the state, even if the offender is an alien.

Par. 2. Greek ships and planes shall be regarded as Greek territory, whererer they are, unless subject to alien jurisdiction, in accordance with international law.

Årt. 6. par. 1. Greek criminal laws shall apply to major and minor crimes committed abroad by Greek citizens if such acts are punishable according to the law of the place of the commission, or if that place is not subject to the sovereignty of any State.

Par. 2. Prosecution may be instituted against an alien who was a Greek at the time of the commission of the crime as well as against anyone who acquired Greek citizenship after the commission of the act.

Par. 3. In the case of minor crimes, it is necessary for the application of paragraphs 1 and 2 that either the injured party or the country where the act occurs, requests the prosecution of the perpetrator.

Par. 4. Petty offenses committed abroad are punished only where the law er. pressly provides therefor.

Art. 1, par. 1. The Greek criminal law shall apply to acts committed by aliens abroad against Greek nationals if such acts are major or minor crimes under Greek law and are also etences where committed or if the place of commission is not subject to the sorereignty of any State.

Par. 2. The provisions of paragraphs 3 and 4 of Article 6 shall be applicable to this Article.

Art. 8. The Greek criminal laws shall apply to the following acts regardless of the nationality of the perpetrator and the place of commission:

(1) High treason or treason against the Greek State;
(2) Offenses a painst the national defense;
13) Offenses connitted br Greek officials;

(+) Acts against Greek oficials during the performance of their duties or in relation to such duties;

15) Perjury in proceedings pending before Greek authorities;
161 Piracy ;
iii Oferses against the currency;
19) Slave tnte:
(91 [rlawful tratie in narenties;
(10) Commene in obscene literature:

(11) Any other case where the application of Greek law is provided for br international agreements.

Art. par. 1. Prose ution for an aet committed abroad may not be instituted:

(a) If the perpetrator was tried abroad and acquitted or has served the penalty imposeu:

b) If the prosecution of the act or the penalty imposed has been barred for lapse of time;

1c) If no prosecution was requested, although required by the law of the place of commission.

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