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but all these do not make a university. The real University is a thing of life, a life-bond between those who together teach and study here; hence a unity of spirit and of interest in all forms of University life.

There is danger, sometimes, of sectionalizing our University loyalty, of confining it to this or that fraternity, to this or that literary society, or to some branch of athletics. Far be it from me to decry the present lively interest in athletics, but I would plead for intellectual feats of strength as well. Let it not be said that interest in and loyalty to mental athletic contests are lacking at this institution of learning; let it not be said that the support and the cheers that are now properly given to our football team are not as heartily and loyally given to the oratorical and debating teams that shall reprebent us in the coming contests with our sister universities.

Let us all, then, bring our gifts, whatever they may be, to the altar of University loyalty; being assured that, as a university education should provide good citizens for the State, by the cultivation of a true University loyalty here and now, the students and alumni of the University of Texas shall never fail to perform the duties and exalt the meaning of American citizenship.

UNIVERSITY NOTES.

A. CASWELL ELLIS.

The total enrollment of students this year in all departments is 892, which exceeds that of any other year by ninety-two. The increase has been in the Academic Department. One hundred and eighty women have enrolled in the Academic, which exceeds all former years. Seven have enrolled in Medicine, four in Pharmacy, and twenty-two in Nursing. It is probable that the registration will go beyond nine hundred before the close of the session. This increase badly crowded many of the classes, and an increase in equipment and instructors was imperative and had to be provided even after the session opened.

The permanent establishment of a Summer Session of the University comes in response to the hearty appreciation by the teachers of the State,

manifested here last summer in the experimental Summer Term. session. Although the school was so late last

year in making its announcements, a large number of excellent students were enrolled. The good work done here by these students has shown a wide field of future usefulness for the University, and her friends may rest assured that she will rise to meet her responsibilities. The climatic conditions did not prove so unfavorable as was anticipated, and there remains now no reason why the summer session should not be one of the greatest importance. Because of the large opportunity there offered, especially to the active teachers of the public schools, this session should have a far reaching effect on the whole of the educational system of the State.

It is a well-known historical fact that educational reforms work downward from the universities, and it means much for Texas that the head of her educational system will now be in yearly living contact with her practical teachers, from the best to the humblest, sending them out each year with broader culture, new truth, fresh inspiration.

It is the purpose of the authorities to enlarge the work of this session from year to year, and to give the teachers and other students not only the benefit of instruction by the regular Faculty, but from time to time call in the leading educators of the country as instructors.

The furniture bought for the new wing marks the introduction of a definite plan for equipmer of our buildings in accordance, not merely with

good taste and economy, but with the laws of New Furniture. hygiene. It is intended that the furniture shall

be as handsome, dignified, and permanent as the building itself, that all rooms devoted to similar purposes shall have the same type of furniture, so that furniture may be moved from one place to another without marring the appearance of rooms. All lecture rooms have been furnished with a teacher's desk in solid cherry, with heavy carved oak screw-spring teacher's arm chair, and with individual solid cherry desks and chairs for the students. These students' desks and chairs are on heavy solid black jappanned castings and screwed to floor to prevent noise. The chairs are of special make, built to conform perfectly to the human figure and make an erect position easy. The desks have the adjustable tops, making it possible to set the lid at any angle or at any distance from the body, so that it is not necessary to lean forward in writing. Since these desks were ordered several of the classes have grown too large to be accommodated in this way in the lecture rooms, and it seems probable that the next best thing, tablet arm chairs, will have to be employed in several of the rooms to economize space.

Through a very fortunate deal, taking advantage of peculiar conditions last summer, this splendid furniture was purchased at a price below that frequently given for ordinary equipment.

In the blackboards a distinct advantage has been gained over the old stone slate with its troublesome joints and the dusty chalk, which is not only unpleasant to handle, but a serious menace to health, being especially injurious to eyes, nose, throat, and skin. The new Gregory patent process composition boards, giving long sheets of unbroken surface, and admitting of the use of natural talc, entirely do away with the unpleasant blackboard dust. They have proven quite noisy thus far, but those in charge are now working to get some means of deadening them, which will make them ideal.

The new heating apparatus in the new wing is a great improvement over anything used before in our buildings. By use of the vacuum system

i. e., producing a vacuum in the end of the re New Heating Apparatus,

turn pipe—the cold air and condensed steam are

drawn out of the radiators and pipes as soon as the steam is turned on, and the steam is drawn around instead of forced from behind by its own pressure. Thus the heating is much more rapid, much less expensive, and all danger from bursting of high pressure pipes is done away with. The introduction of the fresh air into the room just beneath the radiator and its immediate warming, together with the upper and lower ventilators in each room, give far more satisfactory ventilation. Not only is the heated air, carrying the organic impurities, allowed to escape at the upper ventilators, but by means of suction produced by heated coils in the attic, the heavy carbon dioxide is drawn out of the room through the ventilator at the floor.

It is to be hoped that the system in the older parts of the building may be modified to conform to these principles of economy and hygiene, and that the Chapel may be heated comfortably ere another winter.

After a great deal of talk the question of our University colors is still in a muddle. It seems that no color or colors have ever been officially

adopted by either Regents or Faculty, though University Colors, the Faculty several years ago appointed a com

mittee to consider the matter. The orange and white, though having no official recognition from Regents or Faculty, and apparently hit upon on an excursion by mere chance, yet have the sanction of custom for years, and are by most alumni considered the official colors.

Because of the ease with which these become soiled, the Athletic Council, without serious consideration and with no idea of changing University colors, decided three years ago to buy the football sweaters with some dark color in place of the white stripe, and hit upon orange and maroon. These colors were supposed by all outside the Council to have been adopted as official colors of the Athletic Association and have become more popular than the orange and white, though both are now worn. Indeed, on festal days, one may see nearly anything flaunted as University colors—all shades of yellow with white, and yellows and reds in endless variety.

After considerable discussion in the weekly papers, an interest in the matter has been aroused, both here and at the Medical Department. A strong sentiment in favor of the adoption of a single color has arisen, with royal blue leading the list of favorites. The Medical Department favors this almost unanimously, but the single color was voted down here in a mass meeting. This meeting was unable to decide on a combination and adjourned, after much noise, with the students fairly divided between orange and maroon and orange and white. It seems to be the intention to get an expression from students, Faculty and alumni; and, if possible, have some official action taken in June by the Regents to establish an University color or colors.

Through the medium of the daily press, under the caption "Chemical Production of Life,” Professor Jacques Loeb, of the University of Chicago,

has come into possession of an unenviable degree Professor Norman's

of notoriety. Inasmuch as some of these articles Work.

misquote and misrepresent a classical piece of experimental work done by our loved and lamented W. W. Norman, late Professor of Biology, in this University, it is not unreasonable to suppose that Prof. Loeb also is now suffering the martyrdom of newspaper sensationalism. At all events, when one calmly reads: "On the Nature of the Process of Fertilization and the Artificial Production of Normal Larvæ (Plutei) from the Unfertilized Eggs of the Sea Urchin,” by Jacques Loeb, M. D., The American Journal of Physiology, Vol. III., No. 3, October 2, 1899, then turns to the articles "going the rounds” of the daily press, startling as some of the statements in the original article really are, he must conclude that the latter possess the ear-marks of the flamboyant extravaganza. This leads to the suggestion that the daily press is not a reliable source for information upon scientific subjects--not the place where the truth concerning the chemical problem of life is likely to be found.

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In justice to the memory of the late Professor Norman it must be said that the reference to him refers to "Segmentation of the Nucleus without Segmentation of the Protoplasm.

1. Experiments on Sea-urchin Eggs.
II. Experiments on Fish Eggs.
III. The Origin of Multiple Mitosis.

By W. W. Norman.
Archiv für Entwickelungsmechanik der Organismen, III Band, 1 Heft.
Leipzig, Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, 1896.”

This publication is available, and it contains a full report of the work on the mentioned subject done by Prof. Norman. It was fully discussed by him before the Texas Academy of Science, 1895-96. The eggs were fertilized with normal sperm before the "artificial” treatment was commenced --the results of the experiments point to the conclusion expressed in the title of his publication. The following is Professor Norman's "Summary" (Zusammenfassung):

“1. If eggs of the sea-urchin are placed in sea-water the concentration of which has been raised by the addition of magnesium chloride or sodium chloride, with the right degree of concentration segmentation of the nucleus continues, while the protoplasm does not divide. If brought back into normal sea-water, such eggs at once split up into a number of blastomeres corresponding to the number of pre-formed nuclei.

2. In every case in which such nuclei were found in a state of seg. mentation, the segmentation was mitotic.

“3. Ctenolabrus eggs show, like Fundulus eggs, great indifference (lack of sensitiveness) to increased concentration of the sea-water, so that it was not possible to determine whether likewise in the case of these eggs segmentation of the nucleus or of the cell can be brought about by the withdrawal of water (concentration).

"4. It is possible, by daily increasing the temperature, to bring about karyokinetic nuclear division without division of the cell in the case of Ctenolabrus eggs.

"5. When segmentaton of the nucleus occurs without segmentation of the cell, it is at first regular. If, however, the circumstances which bring about this condition last for sometime, multiple karyokinesis appears. It seems as if finally the nuclear division also remains behind the division of centrosomes or systems of asters."

Recalling the fact that Professor Norman purposely fertilized the eggs used in his experiments, it is clear that he was dealing with a problem other than that of the parthenogenetic origin of embryos.

The chemical phenomena of life have long engaged the attention of biochemists, and a large number of interesting facts have been accumulated. Substantial progress has been made along some lines—the phenomena of acceleration, conservation and inhibition have been very profitably studied --and while "we have drawn a great step nearer to the chemical theory of life,” it cannot be said that we are near a solution of life. The chemical

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