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concerning this event, that "any mystical horror," "any invisible contortions, as from the lash of demons, in the soul of that holy victim," is a fabulous idea, of which no hint is to be found in the record of the Gospel, he proceeds to give the following as his own conception of it:"I conceive of it, then, as manifesting the last degree of moral perfection in the Holy One of God; and believe, that in thus being an expression of character, it has its primary and everlasting value. I conceive of it as the needful preliminary to his resurrection and ascension, by which the severest difficulties in the theory of providence, life, and duty, are alleviated or solved. I conceive of it as immediately procuring the universality and spirituality of the Gospel, by dissolving those corporeal ties which gave nationality to Jesus, and making him, in his heavenly and immortal form, the Messiah of humanity; blessing, sanctifying, regenerating, not a people from the centre of Jerusalem, but a world from his station in the heavens. And these views, under unimportant modifications, I submit, are the only ones of which Scripture contains a trace." (p. 6.)

The title of Mr. Martineau's lecture indicates the division which he pursues, after his preliminary observations. He first shows, that the Vicarious Scheme of Redemption is inconsistent with itself. It is proved to be inconsistent with itself; first, "in its manner of treating the principles of natural religion." (p. 9.) Professing to furnish the only true solution of the existence of evil in the creation, by referring it to the fall of Adam, it in reality thereby explains nothing; on the contrary, the objection to the Divine benevolence, which it proposes to solve, is infinitely increased, inasmuch as the weal or woe of a world is made dependent on the conduct of one, or of one pair of beings-that weal or woe to be eternal! Nor is the case much mended by saying, that the consequences of Adam's first sin are counteracted by Christ's Vicarious Redemption; for, while the evil consequences of Adam's fall are held to be universal, the Vicarious Redemption is but partial in its effects. We regret that our limits prevent us from here quoting some of our author's argument. In his next head, he exposes the inconsistency of the orthodox system, on account of the view which it

gives of the Divine justice and veracity, which it professes to magnify, but in fact misrepresents.

Admitting, for the sake of argument, that since man has sinned, God cannot forgive freely, in consistency with his own character,-Mr. Martineau thus proceeds to scrutinise the claims of the vicarious atonement as pretending to vindicate the perfection of God. "What


notions of veracity have we here? When a sentence is proclaimed against crime, is it indifferent to judicial truth upon whom it falls? Personally addressed to the guilty, may it descend without a lie upon the guiltless? Provided there is the suffering, is it no matter where? Oh! what deplorable reflection of human artifice is this, that Heaven is too veracious to abandon its proclamation of menace against transgressors; yet is content to vent it on goodness the most perfect! No darker deed can be imagined, than is thus ascribed to the Source of all perfection, under the insulted names of truth and holiness. What reliance could we have on the faithfulness of such a Being? If it be consistent with his nature to punish by substitution, what security is there that he will not reward vicariously? All must be loose and unsettled, the sentiments of reverence confused, the perceptions of conscience indistinct, where the terms expressive of those great moral qualities which render God himself most venerable, are thus sported with and profaned." p.18.

The last self-inconsistency which Mr. Martineau points out in the doctrine of Vicarious Redemption, "will be found in the view which it gives of the work of Christ," -in its representing the sufferings of Jesus Christ, a finite being, as infinite; or else affirming the impossibility, that God suffered and died. On this head we have already, in a former part of this review, quoted from our lecturer; and shall therefore advance to the second great division of his discourse, wherein it is proved, that the scheme of Vicarious Redemption is inconsistent with the Christian idea of Salvation. Here, first, Mr. M. "tests the Vicarious scheme by reference to the sentiments of Scripture generally, and of our Lord and his Apostles especially," until the time when internal controversy occupied the attention of the Christian Church, concerning the equality of the Jews and Gentiles, and

some other relative topics. Mr. M. affirms, that not till after the rise of such controversy, did the death of Christ occupy so important a place in the New Testament as it does. And the reasons for its holding this important place, after the rise of such controversy, are at great length unfolded by him in the second branch of this division with which the discourse is concluded. To this latter part, as containing what is most striking and ingenious in his investigation, the remainder of this notice, imperfect as it is, will be devoted. The first view here illustrated by Mr. M. relates directly to the controversy, as to the equality of the Gentiles with the Jews under Christianity. The Jews had believed, that for them only, or such as with them revered and conformed to the Mosaic law, was the Messiah appointed to give to them, as the elect, or kingdom of God, peculiar power and advantages over other nations. "In Jerusalem, as the centre of the vanquished nations-before the temple, as the altar of a humbled world, did they expect the Messiah to erect his throne; and when he had taken the seat of judgment, to summon all the tribes before his tribunal, and pass on the Gentiles, excepting the few who might submit to the law, a sentence of perpetual exclusion from his realm; while his own people would be invited to the seats of honour, occupy the place of authority, and sit down with him (the greatest on his right hand and his left) at his table in his kingdom." (p. 32.) Now, how was this prejudice removed by Divine providence? How did God take away the darkness of this bigotry, and bring to light and exercise the universal spirit of Christianity? The answer is, by the death of Christ, and his resurrection and ascension. "So long as Christ remained on earth, he necessarily confined his ministry to his nation. He would not have been the Messiah had he done otherwise. By birth, by lineage, by locality, by habit, he was altogether theirs. Whoever, then, of his own people, during his mortal life, believed in him and followed him, became a subject of the Messiah. It was otherwise, however, with the Gentiles. They could not become his followers in his mortal lifetime. * * * The Messiah must cease to be Jewish before he could become universal; and this implied his death, by which alone the per

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sonal relations which made him the property of a nation could be annihilated. To this he submitted; he disrobed himself of his corporeality-he became an immortal spirit; thereby instantly burst his religion open to the dimensions of the world; and as he ascended to the skies, sent it forth to scatter the seeds of blessing over the field of the world, long ploughed with cares, and moist with griefs, and softened now to nourish in its bosom the tree of life.

"Now, how would the effect of this great revolution be described to the proselyte Gentiles, so long vainly praying for admission to the Israelitish hope? At once it destroyed their exclusion; put away as valueless the Jewish claims of circumcision and law; nailed the handwriting of ordinances to the cross; reconciled them that had been afar off; redeemed them to God by his blood out of every tongue, and kindred, and people, and nation; washed them in his blood; justified them by his resurrection and ascension,-an expression, I would remark, unmeaning on any other explanation." (p. 34, 35.)

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"On the cross, all the cognate peculiarities of the Nazarene ceased to exist. When the seal of the sepulchre gave way, the seal of the law was broken too; the nationality of his person passed away, for how can an immortal be a Jew? This, then, was the time to open wide the scope of his mission, and to invite to God's acceptance all that fear him in every nation. Though, before, the disciple might have known Christ after the flesh,' and followed his steps as the Hebrew Messiah, yet now henceforth was he to know him so no more;' these 'old things have passed away,' since he had died for all,'died to become universal-to drop all exclusive relations, and 'reconcile the world,' the Gentile world, to God. As if to show that it is exclusively the risen Christ who belongs to all men, and that his death was the instrument of the Gentiles' admission, their great Apostle was one Paul, who had not known the Saviour in his mortal life; who never listened to his voice till it spake from heaven; who himself was the convert of his ascension; and bore to him the relation, not of subject to the person of a Hebrew King, but of spirit to spirit, unembarrassed by anything earthly, legal, or historical. Well did Paul un

derstand the freedom and the sanctity of this relation; and around the idea of the Heavenly Messiah, gathered all his conceptions of the spirituality of the Gospel, of its power over the unconscious affections, rather than a reluctant will." (p. 36.)

At great length has Mr. Martineau pursued this interesting topic, applying the view here asserted to many passages of Scripture. But we must proceed to consider his next view. We have seen the benefits of the resurrection and exaltation of Christ, in reference to the Gentiles; now we have to contemplate these events in reference to the unbelieving Jews. According to our lecturer's interpretation of Scripture, the death, resurrection, and ascension of Christ, were the means of granting forbearance and mercy towards the unbelieving Jews, who, instead of being called immediately to judgment by the Christ sitting in his throne of glory, were allowed a respite for repentance, since that Saviour had submitted to death, and risen, and departed for a season ere his coming to judgment. Had not this been the case-had Christ, "instead of making his first advent a mere preliminary and warning visit in the flesh,' set up the kingdom forthwith, and gathered with him his few followers to 'reign on the earth,' what would have become of his own nation, who had rejected him; who must have been tried by that law which was their boast, and under which he came; who had long been notorious offenders against its conditions, and now brought down its final curse by despising the claims of its accredited Messiah? They must have been utterly cut off,' and cast out among the aliens from the commonwealth of Israel,' 'without Messiah,' 'without hope,' without God;' for while circumcision verily profiteth, if thou keep the law; yet if thou be a breaker of the law, thy circumcision is made uncircumcision.' * * * The sins and prospects of Israel being thus terrible, and its rejection imminent (for Messiah was already in the midst of them), he withheld his hand, refused to precipitate their just fate, and said, 'Let us give them time, and wait; I will go apart into the heavens, and peradventure they will repent; only, they must receive me then spiritually, and by hearty faith, not by carnal sight; admitting thus the willing Gentile with themselves. And so he

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