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lect. Every man possesses in his primal structure an understanding form and a will form, adapted for the recipiency of all the Divine affections and knowledges ; so that every human being who lovingly receives and faithfully obeys Divine inspirations, becomes at last representative of God in every Divine quality. The will comprises the whole octave of affections, desires, impulses, sensations, and volitions; the understanding the whole octave of thought, reasonings, fancies, ideas, and intellectual capacities. In the will reside the great cumulative and causative forces, the primal causes of all thought and consequent reasoning “Out of it are the issues of life." By the term WILL is not meant the determinate act, but the seat of all action, either in first principles or in external embodiment. In the will originate all the elements that mirror themselves in the understanding; indeed, the understanding is a plane lower down than the will, upon which are dramatised the forces and affections of the will. The will is the womb of all affectional, mental, and intellectual life ; it is the “Eve” or mother of all the living forces in the being ; hence, what the will is as to its quality, the whole man really is. Love is life ; what a man most loves, he thinks and lives ; consequently, as Swedenborg and Fichte assert, man is just what his will part makes him. The understanding form is subordinate, and plays only a secondary part. When the will clasps the ideal good presented to it by God, the understanding, from intimate and intense sympathy, thinks the truth. The intellect is the wardrobe of the will, wherein it clothes its affections. The great fountain-head of true thought is the renovated heart. The doorway to high and true culture is by the moral quickening of the will. Hence all genuine regeneration can only be attained by affectional culture and heart goodness.
Swedenborg has most beautifully and metaphysically described the action of the elements of will and understanding. He has proved that the mind is capable of thinking according to a threefold operation ; or, in other words, that the mind has its progressive series of planes, known as the outermost, the middle, and the innermost. To each of these divisions is reserved a distinct and novel exercise of the mental faculties, suited to its own peculiar tastes, inclinations, and possibilities. Every one of us admits the evidence of the senses when we say—a house may have more than one storey, and that the topmost windows command a view which from the basement is invisible. So we may comprehend that there are degrees in the mind -storeys in the mental house--and different knowledges and activities of thought, according to their quality, upon the higher or lower floor. Some men are content to live in the corporeal plane, and keep converse only with the thoughts inhabiting the basement—this is a state germane to our natural condition. The soul has other rooms. Other men rise higher, through culture and moral growth, into the higher regions of the mind, and sit in the meditative chambers, whence the sun may be seen rising in its glory and setting in its pomp. Swedenborg has explored these various degrees of the mind, and describes the action of each with every charm of exact diagnosis and metaphysical accuracy. But I must endeavour to show you that Swedenborg was more than a natural metaphysician. In the realm of ordinary metaphysics we claim for him nothing very extravagant; in this ocean nearly all swimmers touch ground and are safe enough. It is when an attempt is made to go into deeper places of the soul, and to higher altitudes of the being, that so many stumble and fall. Swedenborg, with kindled taper, trod onwards through the dark planes of the soul, and saw that within the human cocoon resided a human Psyche, with mighty faculties and immortal powers. Others before him had said that man was, as to his internal being, a spirit; but Swedenborg declares that he is, as to his internal being, a spirit-MAN, with a spiritual body, more real and organic than his external covering. Other metaphysicians had said—“Man is a man by reason of his external body, his spirit is a breath, an effluence, an airy, phantom;" Swedenborg says that man is a man by virtue of his possessing a spiritual body independent of the natural body, and that this spiritual body is an organism, presenting every assemblance of parts, and possessed of every feature, and active in every organic function, which the human body on a lower plane exhibits. Every power, faculty, possibility, capacity, sensation, and perception predicable of the natural body is predicable of the spiritual body. “ There is a spiritual body and there is a natural body.” The form of the ! spirit-body is the “human form divine,” and like the one enveloping it. Similar as we are now in the flesh we are
n the spirit, only that in the latter we are spiritual eings, active in spiritual organs and functions. And t is not difficult to see the just grounds of Swedenborg's loctrine of the “Resurrection” and of the spiritual world rom this stand-point. The soul being in itself a higher rganism than the material and natural, it must have a yorld or sphere adapted and commensurate with its spiriial and superior nature. This world or sphere is the piritual world lying everywhere around us. The records [ the ages, and the expressed declarations of the Divine Vord, leave us no room to doubt that at times men's biritual
eyes have been opened for vision into the Siritual world. The examples of the prophets and seers, nd other Bible worthies, prove this doctrine most indisutably. Only by the admission of this spiritual and sychological truth that there is a spiritual body withby with its powers of vision and action, can we exain the phenomena of spirit-vision, and other equally teresting facts. A reference to spiritism, I hope, need st be made for confirmation of the truth we are now tempting to set forth. Spiritism is not the highest,
by any means the most interesting, fact of our e. One thing, however, is obvious, that the soui, under ven conditions, can transcend (and has transcended) munune conditions, and may have its spiritual faculties won:rfully excited by visions of the spiritual world. This irit-world is not far from any one of us ; we are in it W, though consciously not alive to the fact.
It is curious to observe that on this subject our theolocal opinions and our feelings are often at extreme vari
When we are bereft of a beloved child, or darling fe, or faithful husband, we dismiss our religious and eological notions of the soul and heaven, and straightway sure ourselves that our loved one is in Heaven. Our ved one! Yes ; still ours—still a being—still the objecte daughter, son, wife, father, husband. Gone to Heaven ! hat is gone? If they have no spiritual body or form, aat is that which we call our loved ones? What is it of aich we say,
“He is gone to Heaven ?" Why, our spiritother, husband, wife, child.
WINDS AND WAVES, &C.
FORT MAJOR THOS. AUSTIN, F.G.S.
[Outline of a Lecture on Winds, Waves, Magnetic Storms, and Earth Cur.
rents, delivered in the Institution, Bristol.]
HE lecturer commenced by treating the atmosphere as
being as important a part of the system of the universe as the earth or waters ; and showed that a study of the phenomena of weather was in reality an investigation of the changes to which the atmosphere is subject. He ridiculed the pretensions of the would-be weatherwise, and noticed the glaringly-absurd, unfulfilled predictions of a correspondent in the Bristol “Daily Post.” After glancing at popular superstitions regarding atmospheric phenomena, the lecturer remarked that whilst some of the proverbs respecting the weather were idle speculations, others were founded on natural truths. He instanced the couplet,
“ A rainbow at night is the shepherd's delight,
A rainbow in the morning the shepherd's warning," -explaining how very frequently this is true, because a rainbow only appears when the clouds charged with rain, or from which rain is falling, are opposite the sun ; therefore in the evening the rainbow is in the east, and in the morning it is in the west, the quarter from which our heavy rains most frequently come: so that a rainbow in the west indicates that the wet weather is on the way to us; whereas a rainbow in the east gladdens the shepherd's heart, by showing that the clouds surcharged with rain are passing away from us. It is absurd to suppose that the compilers of “weather almanacs can predict the weather twelve months in advance. Instead of calling such false prophets “ weatherwise," ought they not to be designated otherwise ?"
The subject of tides has of late years attracted much attention, and a great amount of labour has been bestowed ou the inquiry. Maps have been prepared, in which were
inserted the times of high-water at many different localities on the globe. This was done for the purpose of tracing the march of the tide-wave over the surface of the ocean. The crest of this wave travels over the surface of the sea with great rapidity. In the Atlantic—with which ocean we are most familiar—the tide-wave takes about sixteen hours in proceeding from the Cape of Good Hope to Brest, its course being northwards up the Atlantic Ocean. Although elaborate tables have been carefully constructed, they do not always indicate correctly the time of high-water, as irregularities from accidental causes often occur, and the predicted heights will frequently be out a foot, or even more. These irregularities are occasioned by the action of particular winds, which drive the sea along and on to one coast, and consequently away from an opposite one. This subject is of great interest to a maritime nation like England
“ Whose march is o'er the mountain wave,
Whose home is on the deep,” and whose ships and fleets may be seen traversing every sea and navigable river in the known world ; for wherever the tide flows, British energy and enterprise are sure to find their way.
Not only does the merchant find the way and establish a trade, but a British ship of war visits the place, and as her anchor drops from the bow, the national flag waves aloft, and seems to say for the ship—“If any one wants me, friend or foe, here I am."
We depend so much on the weather for our material comforts, and even our subsistence, that atmospheric changes have always been observed with extreme solicitude ; and the storms which strew the ocean with the wreck of noble ships, and the land with scattered ruins, always attract the deepest interest. The number of ships reported wrecked from January up to November of the present year (1862), amounted to 1,461. In our temperate zone, storms, though of frequent occurrence, are as zephyrs compared to tropical hurricanes. We therefore naturally seek for an explanation of such phenomena in latitudes where the atmospheric energy acts with so much greater force. It is only recently that attempts have been made to investigate this subject, which so much concerns us as a commercial people. Colonel James Capper, who in 1801 published a work on the winds and monsoons, appears to have been the