Observations on the Law and Constitution of India: On the Nature of Landed Tenures, and on the System of Revenue and Finance, as Established by the Moohummudum Law and Moghul Government; with an Inquiry Into the Revenue and Judicial Administration, and Regulations of Police at Present Existing in Bengal
Kingsbury, Parbury, and Allen, 1825 - 404페이지
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accounts administration admit Akbar altumgha amount appears assessment authority average beegah Behar Benares Bengal Bengal presidency Calcutta cantaray fanam capitation tax causes Ceded and Conquered Ceded Districts cent circuit Colebrooke Conquered Provinces constitution of India Court of Directors criminal crop cultivation curnum dirhums district duty England English established European field fixed give government of India Governor-General grant Hindoo Hindoo law Imaum improvement individual inhabitants jageer judicial jumma jureeb justice khurauj labour lacs land revenue land-tax landholders law and constitution law of India levied Lord Lord Cornwallis Lower Provinces maaush malikana maunds means measure ment mode Moohum Moohummudan law Moslem native officers opinion owner paid permanent settlement persons police possession produce proprietor provincial courts regulations rent rupees ryots says servants shew soil sovereign square miles Sudder Dewannee Adawlut surveyors tenures Timour tion Upper Provinces village whole zillah zumeendarry zumeendars
166 페이지 - Department, and to bear interest at the rate of three and a half per cent, per annum.
131 페이지 - Government, I am also convinced that, failing the claim of right of the zemindars, it would be necessary for the public good to grant a right of property in the soil to them, or to persons of other descriptions.
90 페이지 - ... established rent To permit him to dispossess one cultivator for the sole purpose of giving the land to another, would be vesting him with a power to commit a wanton act of oppression, from which he could derive no benefit.
91 페이지 - The rents of an estate can only be raised by inducing the ryots to cultivate the more valuable articles of produce, and to clear the extensive tracts of waste land which are to be found in almost every zemindarry in Bengal.
147 페이지 - By reserving the collection of the internal duties on commerce, Government may at all times appropriate to itself a share of the accumulating wealth of its subjects without their being sensible of it.
34 페이지 - There shall be left for every man who cultivates his land as much as he requires for his own support till the next crop be reaped, and that of his family, and for seed. This much shall be left to him ; what remains is land-tax, and shall go to the public treasury.
213 페이지 - If Mr. Shore means, that, after having declared the zemindar proprietor of the soil, in order to be consistent, we have no right to prevent his imposing new abwabs, or taxes, on the lands in cultivation, I must differ with him in opinion, unless we suppose the ryots to be absolute slaves of the zemindars ; every...
52 페이지 - And of Behar the same author says : " It is not customary in Behar to divide the crop. The husbandman brings the rent himself, and when he makes his first payment, comes dressed in his best attire." (2) . The date of this authentic record is little more than two hundred years ago. How has, or by whom has, the right of property in the soil been totally subverted throughout a country containing twentyfive to thirty millions of people in so short a period ? If these...