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three hours daily or an equivalent amount of time to farm mechanics and to farm project work conducted by him on a commercially productive basis, and at least three hours daily or an equivalent amount of time to academic work in school or in class, a part of which shall supplement the practical work; and provided, further, that each pupil of a class pursuing a part-time course in commerce, industry, trade, or other vocational subject shall devote, under the direct supervision of a competent teacher holding a vocational certificate in the special subject, at least three hours daily or an equivalent amount of time to educative practical work under employment and at least three hours daily or an equivalent amount of time in school or class to academic work, a part of which shall supplement the practical work.

[Transportation for teachers of agriculture.] The high-school board of any highschool district maintaining a part-time agricultural course as provided above may, at its option and in such manner as it may deem advisable, furnish the necessary transportation for teachers of agriculture engaged in supervising the project work of the pupils and may pay any expense so incurred from the county or district high-school funds of the district.

History: Enactment approved May 31, 1917, Stats, and Amdts. 1917, p. 1382. in effect July 30, 1917.

ARTICLE XVI.
COUNTY BOARDS OF EDUCATION.
$ 1771. Powers of county boards of education.
$ 1775. County boards of education. Duties of.

8 1771. POWERS OF COUNTY BOARDS OF EDUCATION. County boards of education have power:

1. To adopt rules and regulations, not inconsistent with the laws of this state, for their own government.

2. To prescribe and enforce rules for the examination of teachers, to examine applicants for elementary school certificates and to establish a standard of proficiency which will entitle the person examined to a certificate.

3. [Grant certificates.] To grant, in accordance with sections one thousand seven hundred seventy-two and one thousand seven hundred seventy-five of this code, the following certificates, renewable at the option of the board:

(a) [Secondary school.] Secondary school certificates, authorizing the holders to teach in any secondary or elementary school in the county.

(b) [Elementary school.] Elementary school certificates authorizing the holders to teach in any elementary school of the county, and in the first two years of any intermediate school course established as provided in section one thousand seven hundred fifty a of the Political Code; provided, that holders of elementary school certificates who have completed two years of work in a college, or one year of work in a college in addition to a normal school course, under regulations prescribed by the state board of education, may teach in the third year of any intermediate school course.

(c) [Kindergarten-primary.] Kindergarten-primary certificates, authorizing the holders to teach in any kindergarten class in the county.

(d) [Special certificates.] Special certificates, authorizing the holders to teach in the schools of the county such branch or branches of learning and in such grades as are named in such certificates. No special certificate shall be granted except for the oral teaching of the deaf or for the teaching of atypical children or for the teaching of special classes in citizenship, or for teaching a subject included under the manual and fine arts, oral and dramatic expression, library craft, technique and use, music, physical education, agriculture, commercial branches, commercial Spanish, vocational guidance and technical, household and industrial arts, and other vocational arts, not herein specified.

4, [Grant permanent certificates.) To grant, in accordance with the provisions of this code, permanent certificates of the grade and kind designated therein. Every certificate except a permanent certificate shall be valid for six years; provided, that when any certificate shall be granted on a recommendation or credential given for a limited period only, such certificate shall not be valid for a longer period than that specified in such recommendation or credential; and provided, further, that any certificate granted to a candidate who has not had at least one year of experience in teaching shall not be valid for a longer period than two years. All certificates must be issued upon blank forms prepared by the superintendent of public instruction, and must have the impress of the seal of the county board of education and be signed by a majority of the members of the county board of education issuing such certificate; and it is further provided, that the holder of any certificate issued for a limited period as hereinabove provided, may, upon application to the county board of education issuing the same, have said certificate renewed for a period of six years from the date of its expiration, provided that the holder of such limited certificate has completed one year of successful public school teaching and shall file application for such renewal with the county board of education prior to the date of expiration of such limited certificate.

5. [Adopt list of books.] To adopt a list of books and apparatus for district school libraries and books for supplementary use in elementary schools in their respective counties and cities and counties, as required by section one thousand seven hundred twelve of the Political Code; provided, that no pupil shall be required to purchase said supplementary books, and pupils must be expressly notified by teachers that it is not required or desirable that such books for supplementary use be purchased by pupils or parents. When supplementary books are purchased, they must be paid for by the school district. Except in cities having a city board of education, to prescribe and enforce in the public schools a course of study and the use of a uniform series of text. books.

6. [Revoke or suspend certificates.] To revoke or suspend, for immoral or unprofessional conduct, evident unfitness for teaching, or persistent defiance of, and refusal to obey the laws regulating the duties of teachers, the certificates granted by them. But no certificate shall be revoked or suspended until after a hearing before the county board of education, and then only upon the affirmative vote of at least four members of the board. All charges of immoral or unprofessional conduct, of evident unfitness for teaching, or persistent defiance of, and refusal to obey the laws regulating the duties of teachers, shall be presented to the board in writing and shall be verified under oath. Notice of the time of hearing and a full and complete copy of the charges shall be furnished to the accused at least ten days before the hearing. The accused shall be given a fair and impartial hearing and shall have the right to be represented by counsel. The hearing shall be governed by, and conducted under, the rules of the board.

7. To keep a record of their proceedings.

8. [Issue diplomas.] To provide for the conferring of diplomas of graduation, by examination by the county board of education, and to issue such diplomas of graduation from the elementary schools of the county except city schools governed by city boards of education; provided, that nothing herein shall be construed as prohibiting the county board of education from issuing diplomas of graduation without examination to the pupils in any school which has been accredited by the said county board of education. Such diplomas shall be conferred only upon such pupils as have completed the course of study prescribed by the board. All diplomas granted by the county board of education shall be on blanks furnished by the superintendent of public instruction and shall be signed by the president and secretary of the board.

9. [Seal.] To adopt and use in authentication of their acts, an official seal, and to have such printing done as may be necessary.

10. [Prescribe course of study.) To prescribe and it shall be their duty to prescribe, on or before the first day of July of each year, the course of study in and for each grade of the elementary schools of the county for the ensuing school year; provided, that such course of study shall not apply to elementary schools in cities governed by city boards of education. Whenever necessary the board may amend and change the course of study, subject to section one thousand six hundred sixty-five of this code.

History: Enacted March 12, 1872; amended March 28, 1874, Code Amdts. 1873-4, p. 102; March 16, 1878, Code Amdts. 1877-8, p. 30; April 7, 1880, Code Amdts. 1880 (Pol. C. pt.), p. 41; March 4, 1881, Stats. and Amdts. 1881, p. 44; March 15, 1889, Stats, and Amdts. 1889, p. 191; March 23, 1893, Stats, and Amdts. 1893, p. 258; March 23, 1901, Stats. and Amdts. 1900-1, p. 670; April 17, 1909, Stats. and Amdts. 1909, p. 976; May 22, 1915, Stats. and Amdts. 1915, p. 773; May 29, 1917, Stats. and Amdts. 1917, p. 1315. in effect July 28, 1917.

$ 1775. COUNTY BOARDS OF EDUCATION. DUTIES OF. CERTIFI. CATES WITHOUT EXAMINATION.

1. County boards of education may, without examination, grant certificates as follows:

(a) High-school certificates: (1) To the holders of high-school credentials approved by the state board of education in accordance with the provisions of this code; (2) to the holders of special credentials issued by said state board in accordance with the provisions of this code; (3) to holders of high-school certificates issued by any county or city and county board of education in this state.

(b) Elementary school certificates: To holders of the following credentials: (1) Life diplomas or certificates of any state; provided, the state board of education in this state shall have decided that said diplomas or certificates represent experience and scholarship equivalent to the requirements for the elementary life diploma in California; (2) California state normal school diplomas, San Francisco city normal school diplomas heretofore granted, and other normal school diplomas; provided, that the state board of education of this state shall have recommended the normal school issuing said diploma as being of equal rank with the state normal schools of California; (3) elementary school teachers' certificates of any county, or city and county of California; provided, that the holder thereof has had eight months of successful teaching experience; (4) diplomas of graduation with the bachelor's degree based upon a four-year course, granted by the University of California or any other university accredited by the state board of education for high-school certification; provided, that the holder thereof has successfully completed ten months of experience in teaching, or twelve units of pedagogy according to regulations prescribed by the state board of education; (5) temporary two-year certificates heretofore granted by county, or city and county superintendents of schools in accordance with law.

(c) Kindergarten-primary certificates: (1) To the holders of kindergarten-primary certificates of any county, or city and county of California; (2) to the holders of diplomas of graduation from the kindergarten department of any state normal-school in the state; (3) to the holders of credentials showing that the applicant has had professional kindergarten training in an institution approved by the state board of education, and also a general education equivalent to the requirements for graduation from the kindergarten department of a California state normal school.

(d) Special certificates: (1) To the holders of credentials approved by the state board of education, in accordance with the provisions of this code; (2) to the holders of special credentials issued by the state board of education, in accordance with the provisions of this code.

2. [Elementary certificates to primary grade certificate holders.] Elementary school certificates may be granted to the holders of primary grade certificates who shall pass satisfactory examinations in such branches as do not appear on their certificates, or in the record of the examination upon which the original certificate was granted.

3. [Certificates now valid continue in force.] All certificates and diplomas now valid in California shall continue in force and effect for the full term for which they were granted. County boards of education may renew any certificate issued by them prior to the adoption of this law, and now in force, and may renew certificates granted

by authority of law. Except as otherwise provided, renewed certificates shall be valid for a period of six years.

4. [Permanent certificate after five years teaching.) When the holder of any certificate or state diploma shall have taught successfully in the same county, or city and county, for five years, the board of education of such county, or city and county, may grant a permanent certificate of the kind and grade which said applicant holds, valid in the county, or city and county, in which issued, during the life of the holder, or until revoked for any of the causes designated in subdivision six of section one thousand seven hundred seventy-one of this code; provided, that such permanent certificate shall in no case be of a higher grade than the grade of the certificate or state diploma on which the teaching has been done; and for a permanent high-school certificate twenty months of said teaching shall have consisted of regular high-school work; and provided, further, that a certificate when renewed the second time, or any time thereafter, shall become, by such renewal, a permanent certificate, if the holder of said certificate shall have complied with all the conditions of this subdivision.

5. No teacher shall be employed to teach in any way in any school if the certificate held by the teacher is of a grade below that of the school or class to be taught, nor shall a teacher holding a special certificate be employed to teach any subject not authorized in such certificate;

(Holders of existing certificates.] provided, that the holders of existing primary certificates, or of the same when hereafter renewed. or made permanent shall be eligible to teach in any of the grades of the day or evening elementary schools below the sixth Fear, and not including the kindergarten grades; and in any day or evening elementary school of the county, or city and county, which the county or city and county superintendent shall designate as a primary school; and provided, further, that the holder of any valid special certificate for kindergarten work, or of any kindergarten-primary cer. tificate, who has had at least one year of training in a state normal-school in California, or other normal-school accredited by the state board of education, or one year of teaching in an elementary school shall be entitled to teach in the first grade of the elementary school.

6. [High-school librarian.) No librarian shall be employed for more than two hours a day in any high-school, unless such librarian holds a high-school certificate or a special teachers' certificate in library craft technique and use, of secondary grade, granted in accordance with the provisions of this code. Such librarians shall rank as teachers, and shall be subject to the burdens and entitled to the benefits of the public school teachers retirement salary fund law on the same basis as other teachers.

History: Enacted March 12, 1872; amended March 28, 1874, Code Amdts. 1873-4, p. 103; February 14, 1876, Code Amdts. 1875-6, p. 29; March 30, 1878, Code Amdts. 1877-8, p. 30; April 7, 1880, Code Amdts. 1880 (Pol. C. pt.), p. 42; March 4, 1881, Stats, and Amdts. 1881, p. 45; March 15, 1889, Stats. and Amdts, 1889, p. 193; March 20, 1891, Stats. and Amdts. 1891, p. 163; March 23, 1893, Stats. and Amdts, 1893, p. 260; March 23, 1901, Stats. and Amdts. 1900-1, p. 673; March 20, 1905, Stats. and Amdts, 1905, p. 488; March 8, 1909, Stats. and Amdts. 1909, p. 207; May 22, 1915, Stats, and Amdts. 1915, p. 775; May 29, 1917, Stats, and Amdts. 1917, p. 1315. In effect July 28, 1917.

ARTICLE XIX.

DISTRICT SCHOOL-TAX. $ 1838. Estimate of amount needed for building purposes [new]. $ 1838. ESTIMATE OF AMOUNT NEEDED FOR BUILDING PURPOSES. The board of school trustees or the board of education of any school district or of any city, or city and county, may, at least fifteen days before the first day of the month in Which the board of supervisors is required by law to levy the taxes required for county purposes, submit to the county superintendent of schools an estimate of any amount of money in excess of the amounts on hand and available for building purposes, which will be required for purchasing school lots, for building or purchasing one or more school buildings or making alterations or additions to any school building or buildings, for repairing, restoring or rebuilding any school building damaged, injured, or destroyed by fire, or other public calamity, for insuring school buildings, for supplying school buildings with furniture or necessary apparatus or for improving school grounds, in their several districts for the ensuing school year, or for liquidating any indebtedness incurred for said purposes or any of them during the preceding school year.

The county superintendent of schools shall thereupon examine said estimates, and submit copies of the same with his approval or disapproval endorsed thereon, to the board of supervisors and to the county auditor at the time he submits to them his estimate for the county school tax for the ensuing school year.

[Levy of tax.] If the county superintendent of schools approve such estimate, the said board of supervisors may, at the time and in the manner of levying other taxes, levy and cause to be collected in the several school districts for which estimates have been submitted and approved as herein provided, the excess amounts so submitted and approved.

[Building fund.] The funds so levied and collected shall be known as the building fund of ....... school district (as the case may be), and shall be available for any or all of the purposes hereinbefore enumerated, and the moneys drawn from such fund shall be paid out in the same manner as are moneys from the building funds of school districts; provided, that the maximum rate of taxation which may be levied under this section shall not exceed fifteen cents on the one hundred dollars;

[Maximum rate.] provided, this section shall not be so construed as to repeal sections one thousand eight hundred thirty and one thousand eight hundred thirty-seven, inclusive, and one thousand eight hundred forty of the Political Code, or any part or parts thereof and any tax levied under the provisions of this section shall be in addition to any tax for maintenance levied under the provisions of section one thousand eight hundred forty of the Political Code.

History: Original section enacted March 12, 1872, relating to levying of taxes; amended March 28, 1874, Code Amdts. 1873-4, p. 106; repealed April 7, 1880, Code Amdts. 1880 (Pol. C. pt.), p. 48; present section approved June 1, 1917, Stats, and Amdts. 1917, p. 1560. in effect July 31, 1917.

ARTICLE XX.
GENERAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO SCHOOL-FUNDS AND TAXES.

$ 1858. Apportionment of school money by superintendent. $ 1858. APPORTIONMENT OF SCHOOL MONEY BY SUPERINTENDENT. The school superintendent of every county and city and county must apportion all state and county school moneys for the elementary grades of his county or city and county as follows:

1. He must ascertain the number of teachers each school district is entitled to by calculating one teacher for every district having thirty-five or a less number of units of average daily attendance and one additional teacher for each additional thirty-five units of average daily attendance, or fraction of thirty-five not less than ten units of average daily attendance as shown by the annual school report of the school district for the next preceding school year; and two additional teachers shall be allowed to each district for every seven hundred units of average daily attendance; and in districts wherein separate classes are established for the instruction of the deaf, as provided in section one thousand six hundred eighteen of this code, an additional teacher for each nine deaf children, or fraction of such number, not less than five, actually attending such classes.

2. He must ascertain the total number of teachers for the county or city and county by adding together the number of teachers allowed to the several districts. He must

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