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to sit up in his bed, and move his legs, which were io much pain; when he regularly addressed himself to fervent prayer; and though, sometimes, his voice failed him, his sense never did, during that time. The only sustenance he received, was cyder and water. He said his mind was prepared, and the time to his dissolution seemed long. At six in the morning, he enquired the hour, and, on being informed, said that all went on regularly, and he felt he had but a few hours to live.
At ten o'clock in the morning he parted from Cawston, saying, You should not detain Mr. Windhain's servant :-1 thank you ; bear my remembrance to your master. Cawston says, that no man could appear more collected, more devout, or less terrified at the thoughts of the approaching mjoute.
This account, which is so much more agreeable than, and somewhat Jifferent from, yours, has given us the satisfaction of thinkiog that that great man died as he lived, full of resignation, strengthened in faith, and joyful in hope.
A few days before his death, he had asked Sir John Hawkins, as one of his executors, where he should be buried; and on being answered, Donbtless, in Westminster-Abbey, seemed to feel a satisfaction, very natnral to a poet; and indeed in my opinion very natural to every man of any imagination, who has no family sepulebre in which he can be laid with his fathers. Accordingly, upon Monday, December 20, his remains were deposited in that noble and renowned edifice; and over his grave was placed a large blue flag-stone, with this inscription :
SAMUEL JOANIOX, LL.D.
His funeral was attended by a respectable number of his friends, particularly such of the members of the Literary Club) as were then in town; and was also honoured with the presence of several of the Reverend Chapter of Westminster. Mr. Burke, Sir Joseph Banks, Mr. Windham, Mr. Langton, Sir Charles Bunbury, and Mr. Colman, bore his pull. His school-fellow, Dr. Taylor, performed the mourgful office of reading the burial service.
I trust I shall not be accused of affectation, when I declare, that I find myself unable to express all that I felt upon the loss of such a Guide, Philosopher, and Friend. I shall, therefore not say one word of my own, but adopt those of an eminent friend, which he ottered with an abrupt felicity, superior to all studied compositions :—He has made a chasm, which not only nothing can fill up, but which pothing has a tendency to fill up.-Johnson is dead.-Let us go to the next best :-there is nobody; no man can be said to put you in mind of Johuson.
As Johnson had abundant homage paid to him during his life, so no writer in this Dalion ever had such an accumulation of literary honours after his death. A sermon upon that event was prenched in St. Mary's church, Oxford, before tbe University, by the Reverend Mr. Agutser, of Magdalen College, The Lives, the Memoirs, the Essays, both in prose
which have been published concerning him, would make many volumes. The oumerous attacks too opon him, I consider as part of his consequence, upon the principle which he vimself so well knew and asserted. Many who trembled at his presence, were fyrward in assault, when they no longer apprehended danger. When one of his little pragmatical fues was invidiously snarling at his fame, at Sir Joshua Reynolds's table, the Reverend Dr. Parr exclaimed, with his usual bald animation, Ay, now that the old lion is dead, every ass ebooks he may kick
A monument for him, in Westminster-Abbey, was re-olved ulion soon after his death, aud was supported by a most respectable contribution: but the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's liaving come to a resolution of admitting monuments there, upon a liberal and magwiticent pliin, that Cathedral was afterwards fixed on, as the place in which a cenotaph should be erected to bis memory; and in the cathedral of his native city of Lichfield, a smaller one is to be erecter?. To coin pose his epitaph, could not but excite the warmest competion of genius. Ir laudarid laudato viro be praise which is highly estimable, I should not forgive !nyself were I to omit the following sepulchral verses on the author of The English Dictionary, written by the Right Honourable Henry Flood :
Ś No need of Latin or of Greek lu grace
Qur JOHNSON's memory, or itiscribe his grave;
To pay the inmortality he gave.'
The character of Sumvel Jobosoo hus, I trust, been so developed in the course of this work, that they, who have honoured it with y perusal may be considered as well acquainted with himn. As, however it may be expected that I should collect into one view the capital aud distinguishing features of this extraordmary man, I shall endeavour to acquit myself of that part of my biographical undertaking, however difficulty it may be to do that which many of my readers will do better for them selves.
His figure was large and well forined, and his countenance of the cast of su ancient sritue; yet his appearance was rendered range and soinen hat wucouth, by convulsive cramps, by the scars of that distemper which it was once imagined the royul touch could core, aod by a slo, denly mode of dress, He had the use only of one eye; yet so much does mind govern,' and even supply' the deficiency of organs that his visual perceptions, as far as "they extended, were uncommonly quick and accurate. So morbid was his temperament, that he'stever knew the natural joy of a free and vigorous use of his Timbs: when he walked it was like the struggling gait of one'infetters; when he rode,' he had po command' or direction of his horse, but was carried 'as if in a balloon. That with his constitution and habits of life he should have lived seventyfive years, is a proof that' an inhereut vivida vis is a powerful preservative of the huinao frame.
Man is, is general, made up of contradictory qualities; and these will ever shew themselves in strange succession, where a consistency in appearance at least, if not reality, has not been attained by 'long habits of philosophical discipline. In proportion to the native vigour of the mind, the contradictory qualities will be the more prominent; and more difficult to be adjusted ; 'and, therefore, we are not to wouder that Johnson exhibited an eminent example of this remark which I have made upon human nature. At different times, he seemed a different man, in some respects; pot, however, in any great' of essential article, upon which he had fully employed his mind, and settled certain principles of duty, but only in his manners, and in the display of argument and fancy in his talk. He was prone to superstition, bot not to credulity. Though his imagination might incline him toʻa belief of the warvellous and the mysterious, his vigorous reason 'examined the evidence with jealousy. He was a sincere and zealous Christian, of high Church of England and monarchical principles, which he would not tamely, suffer to be questioned ; and had, perbaps at an early period, 'narrowed his mind somewhat too much, both as to religion and politics. His being im
pressed with the danger of extreme latitude in either, though he was of .... a very independent spirit, occasioned' bis appearing somewhat dtfavour
able to the prevalence of that leble freedom of sentiment which is the best possession of man. Nor can it bë denied," that he had many prejudices : which, however, frequently suggested many of his pointed sayings, that rather shew'a playfulness of fancy than 'any settled malignity, He was steady und inflexible in maintaining the obligationis of religion and morality; both from a regard for the order of society, and from a veneration for the Great Source of all order; correct, 'Day stern, in his taste; hard to please, and easily offended; 'impétuous and irritabte in his temper, but of a most 'humane and benevolent heart, which strewed itself not only in a most liberal charity, as far as his circumstances would allow, but in a thousand instances of active benevolence. He was afflicted with a bodily disease, which made him restless and fretfal; and with a constitutional inelancholy, the clouds of which darkened the brightness of his fancy, and gave a gloomy cast to his whole course of thinking; we, therefore, ought not to wonder at his 'sallies of impatience and passion at any time; especially when provoked by obtrusive ignorance, or presuming petulance; and allowance in ust be made for his attering basty and satirical sallies even against his best frievds. And, surely, when, it is considered, that, “amidst sickness and sorrow," he exerted his faculties in so many works for the benefit of maukind, and particularly that he atchieved the great and admirable Dictionary of our language, we must be astonished at his resolution. The soleiu text, “of him to whom much is given, much will be required," seems to have been ever present to his mind, in a rigorous sense, and to have made him dissatisfied with his labours and acts of goodness, however comparatively great; so that the unavoidable consciousness of his superiority was, in that respect, a cause of disquiet. He suffered so much from this, and fion the gloom which perpetually haunted him, and made solitude frightful, that it may be said of liin. “If in this life only he had hope, he was of all men most miserable.” He loved p: aise, when it was brought to him; but was too proud to seek for it. He was somewhat susceptible of flattery. As he was general and unconfined in his studies, he cannot be considered as master of any one particular science; but he had aceumuliatod a vast and various collection of learning and knowledge, which was su arranged in his mind, as to be ever in readiness to be brought forth.
Bat his superiority over other learned men consisted chiefly in what may be called the art of thinking, the art of using his neiud ; a certain continual pou er of sizing the useful substance of all that he knew, and exhibiting it in a clear and forcible manner; so that knowledge, which we often see to be no bet. ter than luinber in men of dull understanding, was, in bin, irue, evident, and actual wisdom. His moral precepts are practical; for they are drawn from an intimate acquaintance with human nature. His maxims carry conviction; for they are founded on the basis of common-sense, and a very attentive and minute survey of real life. His wind was so full of imagery, that he might have been perpetually a poet; yet il is remarkable, that, however rich his prose is in this respect, his poetical pieces, in general, have not much of that splendour, but are rather distinguished by strong sentiment, and acute observation, conveyed in harmonious and energetic verse, particularly in hereic couplets. Though usually grave, and even awful io his deportment, he possessed uncommon and peculiar powers of wit and humour; he frequently indulged himself in colloquial pleasantry; and the beartiest merriment has been enjoyed in his company ; with this great advantage, that, as it was entirely free from any poisonous tincture of vice or impiety, it was salutary to those who shared in it. He had accustomed himself to such accuracy in his common conversation, that he at all times expressed his thoughts with great force, and an elegant choice of language, the effect of which was aided by his having a loud voice, and a slow deliberate utterance. In bim were united a most logical head with a most fertile imagination, which gave him an extraordinary advantage in arguing; for he could reason close or wide, as he saw best for the moment. Exulting in his intellectual strength and dexterity, he could, when he pleased, be the greatest sophist that ever contended in the list of declamation; and from a spirit of contradiction, and a delight in shewing his poners, he would often maiotain the wrong side with equal warmth and ingenuity; so that, wheu there was an audience, his real opinions could seldom be gathered from his talk; though when he was in company with a single friend, he would discuss a subject with genuine fairness ; but he was too conscientious to make error permanent and pernicious, by deliberately writing it; and, in all his numerous works, he earnestly inculcated what appeared to bim to be the truth; his piety being constant, and the ruling principle of all his couduct.