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REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT OF 1974
(Public Law 93-533; 88 Stat. 1724; 12 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.)
SECTION 1. (12 U.S.C. 2601 note] This Act may be cited as the "Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act of 1974".
FINDINGS AND PURPOSE SEC. 2. (12 U.S.C. 2601) (a) The Congress finds that significant reforms in the real estate settlement process are needed to insure that consumers throughout the Nation are provided with greater and more timely information on the nature and costs of the settlement process and are protected from unnecessarily high settlement charges caused by certain abusive practices that have developed in some areas of the country. The Congress also finds that it has been over two years since the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and the Administrator of Veterans Affairs submitted their joint report to the Congress on “Mortgage Settlement Costs” and that the time has come for the recommendations for Federal legislative action made in that report to be imple mented.
(b) It is the purpose of this Act to effect certain changes in the settlement process for residential real estate that will result,
(1) in more effective advance disclosure to home buyers and sellers of settlement costs;
(2) in the elimination of kickbacks or referral fees that tend to increase unnecessarily the costs of certain settlement services;
(3) in a reduction in the amounts home buyers are required to place in escrow accounts established to insure the payment of real estate taxes and insurance; and
(4) in significant reform and modernization of local record keeping of land title information.
(1) the term "federally related mortgage loan" includes any loan (other than temporary financing such as a construction loan) which
(A) is secured by a first or subordinate lien on residential real property (including individual units of condominiums and cooperatives) designed principally for the occupancy of from one to four families, including any such secured loan, the proceeds of which are used to prepay or
pay off an existing loan secured by the same property; and (B)(i) is made in whole or in part by any lender the deposits or accounts of which are insured by any agency of the Federal Government, or is made in whole or in part by any lender which is regulated by any agency of the Federal Government; or
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(ii) is made in whole or in part, or insured, guaranteed, supplemented, or assisted in any way, by the Secretary or any other officer or agency of the Federal Government or under or in connection with a housing or urban development program administered by the Secretary or a housing or related program administered by any other such officer or agency, or
(ii) is intended to be sold by the originating lender to the Federal National Mortgage Association, the Govertment National Mortgage Association, the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, or a financial institution from which it is to be purchased by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation; or
(iv) is made in whole or in part by any "creditor", as defined in section 103(4) of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 U.S.C. 1602(1)), who makes or invests in residential real estate loans aggregating more than $1,000,000 per year, except that for the purpose of this Act, the term "creditor" does not include any agency or instrumentality of any state;
(2) the term "thing of value” includes any payment, advance, funds, loan, service, or other consideration;
(3) the term "settlement services includes any service pro vided in connection with a real estate settlement including, but not limited to, the following: title searchers, title examinations, the provision of title certificates, title insurance, services rendered by an attorney, the preparation of documents, property surveys, the rendering of credit reports or appraisals, pest and fungus inspections, services rendered by a real estate agent or broker, the origination of a federally related mortgage loan (including, but not limited to, the taking of loan applications, loan processing, and the underwriting and funding of loans), and the handling of the processing, and closing or settlement;
(4) the term "title company” means any institution which is qualified to issue title insurance, directly or through its agents, and also refers to any duly authorized agent of a title company;
(5) the term “person” includes individuals, corporations, associations, partnerships, and trusts;
(6) the term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development;
(7) the term “affiliated business arrangement" means an arrangement in which (A) a person who is in a position to refer business incident to or a part of a real estate settlement service involving a federally related mortgage loan, or an associate of such person, has either an affiliate relationship with or a direct or beneficial ownership interest of more than 1 percent in a provider of settlement services; and (B) either of such persons directly or indirectly refers such business to that provider or affirmately influences the selection of that provider; and
(8) the term "associate” means one who has one or more of the following relationships with a person in a position to refer settlement business: (A) a spouse, parent, or child of such person; (B) a corporation or business entity that controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with such person; (C) an employer, officer, director, partner, franchisor, or franchisee of such person; or (D) anyone who has an agreement, arrangement, or understanding, with such person, the purpose or substantial effect of which is to enable the person in a position to refer settlement business to benefit financially from the referals of such business.
UNIFORM SETTLEMENT STATEMENT
SEC. 4. (12 U.S.C. 2603) (a) The Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, and the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision, shall develop and prescribe a standard form for the statement of settlement costs which shall be used (with such variations as may be necessary to reflect differences in legal and administrative requirements or practices in different areas of the country) as the standard real estate settlement form in all transactions in the United States which involve federally related mortgage loans. Such form shall conspicuously and clearly itemize all charges imposed upon the borrower and all charges imposed upon the seller in connection with the settlement and shall indicate whether any title insurance premium included in such charges covers or insures the lender's interest in the property, the borrower's interest, or both. The Secretary may, by regulation, permit the deletion from the form prescribed under this section of items which are not, under local laws or customs, applicable in any locality, except that such regulation shall require that the numerical code prescribed by the Secretary be retained in forms to be used in all localities. Nothing in this section may be construed to require that that part of the standard form which relates to the borrower's transaction to be furnished to the seller, or to require that that part of the standard form which relates to the seller be furnished to the borrower.
(b) The form prescribed under this section shall be completed and made available for inspection by the borrower at or before settlement by the person conducting the settlement, except that (1) the Secretary may exempt from the requirements of this section settlements occurring in localities where the final settlement statement is not customarily provided at or before the date of settlement, or settlements where such requirements are impractical and (2) the borrower may, in accordance with regulations of the Secretary, waive his right to have the form made available at such time. Upon the request of the borrower to inspect the form prescribed under this section during the business day immediately preceding the day of settlement, the person who will conduct the settlement shall permit the borrower to inspect those items which are known to such person during such preceding day.
SPECIAL INFORMATION BOOKLETS Sec. 5. (12 U.S.C. 2604) (a) The Secretary shall prepare and distribute booklets to help persons borrowing money to finance the purchase of residential real estate better to understand the nature and costs of real estate settlement services. The Secretary shall distribute such booklets to all lenders which make federally related mortgage loans.
(b) Each booklet shall be in such form and detail as the Secretary shall prescribe and, in addition to such other information as the Secretary may provide, shall include in clear and concise language
(1) a description and explanation of the nature and purpose of each cost incident to a real estate settlement;
(2) an explanation and sample of the standard real estate settlement form developed and prescribed under section 4;
(3) a description and explanation of the nature and purpose of escrow accounts when used in connection with loans secured by residential real estate;
(4) an explanation of the choices available to buyers of residential real estate in selecting persons to provide necessary services incident to a real estate settlement; and
(5) an explanation of the unfair practices and unreasonable or unnecessary charges to be avoided by the prospective buyer with respect to a real estate settlement.
(c) Each lender shall include with the booklet a good faith estimate of the amount or range of charges for specific settlement services the borrower is likely to incur in connection with the settlement as prescribed by the Secretary. Such booklets shall take into consideration differences in real estate settlement procedures which may exist among the several States and territories of the United States and among separate political subdivisions within the same State and territory.
(d) Each lender referred to in subsection (a) shall provide the booklet described in such subsection to each person from whom it receives or for whom it prepares a written application to borrow money to finance the purchase of residential real estate. Such booklet shall be provided by delivering it or placing it in the mail not later than 3 business days after the lender receives the application, but no booklet need be provided if the lender denies the application for credit before the end of the 3-day period.
(e) Booklets may be printed and distributed by lenders if their form and content are approved by the Secretary as meeting the requirements of subsection (b) of this section.
SERVICING OF MORTGAGE LOANS AND ADMINISTRATION OF ESCROW
SEC. 6. (12 U.S.C. 2605] (a) DISCLOSURE TO APPLICANT RELATING TO ASSIGNMENT, SALE, OR TRANSFER OF LOAN SERVICING.— Each person who makes a federally related mortgage loan shall disclose to each person who applies for the loan, at the time of application for the loan, whether the servicing of the loan may be assigned, sold, or transferred to any other person at any time while the loan is outstanding.