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respond. The head will not only incline away but be drawn back from Antonio, whose approach he is watch. ing.
King Robert crossed both bands upon his breast
Oh, I die, Horatio;
By my troth, Nerissa, my little body is a-weary of this great world. IX.
-Shakespeare. In practising these attitudes, always try to feel the corresponding emotion. Take a sentence like “ what shall I do,” and give it with each attitude, expressing by your voice, as well, the different meanings that it would have.
Thus, with I. the question would be simply for information, or to express willingness to perform what might be required.
With II. it should express submission (willing or unwilling) or great courtesy; or it might be reflective in character, or indicate that you are greatly perplexed.
With III. it might express joyous willingness,“ how can I best show my pleasure?”
With IV. it would indicate a degree of uncertainty if you pivoted the head from side to side; or a great degree of attention if the head were quiet; or you might express contempt by turning the head away,“how shall I get rid of this fellow ?”
With V. indifference, or trustful affection might be shown in the voice.
With VI. and VII. the meanings would be obvious. With VIII, it would express despair or shame.
With IX. it would indicate either agony, or terrible mental suffering; or, if given with but partial relaxation, weariness or disgust. TO THE TEACHER:—Be careful that the pupils do not mix the atti.
tudes in practising, as, for instance, bowing and hanging, lifting and throwing back, pivoting and inclining. At the same time, do not forget that many of these attitudes may be legitimately combined. Space will not allow of indicating or exemplifying these here, but it will be found very useful to work out such combinations, with their appropriate definitions, as, for instance, inclining and bowing toward the object denotes trustful submission, while the opposite inclination would indicate distrustful submission.
We have studied the relations of the words in a phrase. It remains now to show that the phrases in a sentence are related to one another, just as the words in a phrase are; that sentences, again, combine in groups, of which one will be the most important; that, again
these groups or paragraphs bear similar relations to one another. So we shall find, in every piece that we study, one paragraph that is the most important, one sentence in that paragraph that is the most important, one phrase in that sentence and one word in that phrase that is the most important of all. When we arrive at this word we have reached the climax of that particular piece.
We speak of a word being emphatic, and of other words in the phrase as being subordinate to that word. Just as we have a series of emphatic words more or less subordinate to the principal emphatic word in a sentence, so we have subordinate climaxes in pieces of considerable length.
-Shakespeare. Here are three emphatic words in as many phrases. Each phrase starts a little higher than the preceding. Each emphatic word is further from the subordinate word that precedes it. “You worse than senseless things" is the climax, and, of course, “ blocks” and “stones” are emphases subordinate to "worse," as are their respective phrases to the last phrase.
The well-known oration of Mark Antony is a splendid illustration of a series of climaxes, culminating at
the very last line. Often the principal climax will be followed by subordinate passages, but a truly dramatic outburst leaves the audience at the highest pitch of emotion. After a subordinate climax, there should be a period of comparatively quiet expression, gradually culminating in another strongly emphatic passage.
Just as a painter gets his effects of light by putting surrounding objects more or less in shadow, so we intensify our climax by using moderation in the passages that precede and follow it. In the above example, if all our force of emphasis were expended upon "you blocks,” there would be nothing left to give added strength to what follows; and if a passage of this kind were of any great length, the reader would be exhausted before reaching the end, and unable even to sustain what force he had already given, the result of which would be an anti-climax, which is usually either very painful to the listener or very ridiculous.
“King Robert of Sicily,” “Catiline's Defiance, " “Mrs. Caudle's Curtain Lectures,” “The Vagabonds,” “Bay Billy,” and similar selections, are good examples of a succession of climaxes.
The means for attaining this effect are various, depending upon the kind of emotion portrayed. Sometimes the climax is attained simply by high pitch, sometimes by force, and again by sinking the voice and reducing its volume to a whisper. We will discuss some of these means in the following lessons. In the meantime, analyze some of the selections mentioned above, bearing in mind that the rules for emphasis given in previous lessons apply exactly as well to phrases, sentences and paragraphs as to words.
Pibroch of Donuil Dhu, Pibroch of Donuil,
Come from deep glen, and from mountain so rocky;
Come as the winds come, when forests are rended,
Fast they come, fast they come; see how they gather!
“Young men, ahoy there!”
“Ha! ha! we will laugh and quaff; all things delight us. What care we for the future! No man ever saw it. Sufficient for the day is the evil thereof. We will enjoy life while we may; will catch pleasure as it flies. This is enjoyment; time enough to steer out of danger when we are sailing swiftly with the current.”
“Young men, ahoy!” " What is it ?” “ Beware! Beware! The rapids are below you!” Now you see the water foaming all around. See how fast you