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pass that point! Up with the helm! Now turn! Pull hard! quick! quick! quick! pull for your lives! pull till the blood starts from the nostrils, and the veins stand like whip-cords upon thy brow! Set the mast in the socket! hoist the sail!-ah! ah! it is too late! Shrieking, cursing, howling, blaspheming, over they go.
Thousands go over the rapids every year, through the power of habit, crying all the while, "When I find out that it is injuring me I will give it up!"-John B. Gough.
The eye is the leader in all expression. If we wish to direct attention toward anything about us, we must first look at it ourselves; if we feel emotion of any sort, the first manifestation of it is seen in the eye. To be exact, we should treat of the actions of the lids and brows separately from those of the eye proper; but for convenience we will consider the eye as comprising the upper and lower lids, the eye proper, and the eyebrows above.
The eye in its normal condition, looking straight forward, indicates calmness, confidence, equality with the person toward whom we gaze. The eye lifted, looking upward, indicates calm and confident regard of something superior to ourselves; looking downward indicates regard of an inferior. We call these the direct actions of the eye.
Starting from the normal size, the eye opens wider,
through the following degrees: (1) an mated attention; (2) surprise, pain, fear; (3) frenzy. The eye contracts through (1) indifference; (2) slyness, craftiness, scrutiny, antagonism, to (3) sleep, or death. With all, except the last, we may have the three regards of the eye; that is, we may look toward a superior, an equal, or an inferior with hatred, indifference, animation, or whatever may be the emotion required.
The position of the eyebrows would sometimes be parallel with the upper lid, as in surprise, when both lid and brow rise, or in opposition, as in horror. In extreme terror the eyebrows rise. In threatening anger, physical pain, the brows contract; they contract with less intensity in puzzled thought, application. The brows rise in surprise, patient endurance, suffering.
The indirect eye, as it is called, that is, the eye not looking straight forward, up or down, but more or less sideways, like the indirect inflections of the voice, has a double meaning. With the eye indirect we look at an object with suspicion, fear, affection, indifference, raillery, or various other emotions, according to the attitude of the head. For instance, the indirect eye with the head inclined toward an object, indicates not merely attention, but attention to some one or some thing we are attracted tcrd; with the head in the opposite direction the indirect eye is suspicious, fearful, or, at least, critical. It will be seen that the attitudes of the head must be carefully studied before we can have certainty in determining the meaning of a glance. The indirect eye may be normal, lifted, or lowered, as well as the direct eye.
The various attitudes of the head combine with and modify the meaning of the direct eye in many instances. Thus, with the head drawn back we would have harsh regard, of superior, inferior or equal, as the case might be; with the head lifted, adoration or contempt, according to the direction of the eye, etc.
In bowing to an audience the head bends, then the torso inclines slightly; the torso first returns to an erect position, then the head follows. Be careful to observe this order. The attitude of respect is, of course, the proper one for the legs. Do not bend the knees. Glance about the room as you bow, or else bow several times, i. e., to right, to left, and in front; the first method is much the better.
A lady's bow may have a suggestion of the courtesy, carrying the free foot back and then retiring. the weight to the free foot, with a slight bend of the retired knee.
TO THE TEACHER:-The hints given above regarding the combinations of head and eye will suggest to the earnest teacher a broad field for investigation. How far the student may be allowed to work out these problems will depend upon his natural ability and mental advancement. The teacher can demand as much or as little of independent investigation as he deems fit. I have usually found, however, that pupils who are sufficiently advanced to comprehend this work at all take delight in such problems, and derive much greater benefit from original investigation than from merely learning what is already laid down for them. The order of movement in attention is, first, eye, then head; but in declamation and dialogues, where the action is determined and studied beforehand, pupils are very apt to make a mechanical turn of the head in inverse order: first, head, then eye. To overcome this may require much patience; but the habit must be conquered before the pupil proceeds further in pantomime.
EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE.
KING HENRY. My blood has been too cold and temperate, Unapt to stir at these indignities,
As you have found me; for, accordingly,
You tread upon my patience; but be sure
I will, from henceforth, rather be myself
Mighty and to be feared, than my condition;
Which hath been smooth as oil, soft as young down,
And therefore lost that title of respect
Which the proud soul ne'er pays but to the proud.
WORCESTER. Our House, my sovereign liege, little deserves
The scourge of greatness to be used on it;
And that same greatness, too, which our own hands
Have holp to make so portly.
My good lord
KING. Worcester, get thee gone; for do I see
Danger and disobedience in thine eye:
O sir, your presence is too bold and peremptory,
And majesty might never yet endure
The moody frontier of a servant brow.
You have good leave to leave us: when we need
Your use and counsel, we shall send for you. [Exit WORCESTER.] [TO NORTH.] You were about to speak.
-Shakespeare, "Henry IV.," Part I.
So stately his form, and so lovely her face,
Hear the loud alarum bells-brazen bells!
How they scream out their affright!—Poe.
In our first studies in emphasis we noticed that the important word of the phrase was often dwelt upon, while the subordinate words were spoken more rapidly in comparison. For instance, "I stood on the bridge,” if spoken naturally, would exhibit quite a variety of movement; the words "I stood" would about equal the word "bridge" in time value, while on the" would be spoken quite rapidly, "the" being only an obscure sound with no greater value than if it were an unaccented syllable.
It is easy to see that this variety of movement not only serves the purpose of showing the proper relations of the various words with one another, but is more agreeable to the ear than a measured and monotonous rendering could possibly be. It is this harmonious variety of movement that constitutes rhythm. It is not alone necessary, remember, that there should be variety, but the variety must have a reason behind it.
Rhythm in speech does not differ very widely from musical rhythm. It is more varied and changeable,