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tut the elements are essentially the same. We have, for instance, triple and common movements, phrases beginning upon various beats of the measure, and pauses, which correspond to rests in music, and, like them, should be proportioned to the movement of the spoken words. Our combinations, however, are, as we have said, much more varied than in music, for we have frequent alternations of triple and common time, abrupt changes in the rate of movement, and much greater freedom in the use of pauses. However, when we consider what we have learned with respect to the melody of speech in connection with the above-mentioned resemblances in rhythm, we find that speech and song are much nearer together than are commonly supposed.

We can easily illustrate both the resemblances and differences of the two by a few characteristic examples : The words “Yankee Doodle” are pronounced just about as they are sung, so far as the rhythm is concerned, though as much cannot be said for the remaining words of the song, which are subordinated to the melody. By using dotted notes, however, the melody, simple as it is, may be brought pretty near to the natural rhythm of the lines. “Come

is, virtually, three-four time, thus 3 do dold* || Come

les || Come to my house is 4 rhythm did . || or, if

very phatic, 4 d. d d = || Come to my house

to my house"

em

LESSON XXX.

Rhythm.

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In our first studies in emphasis we noticed that the important word of the phrase was often dwelt upon, while the subordinate words were spoken more rapidly in comparison. For instance, “I stood on the bridge,” if spoken naturally, would exhibit quite a variety of movement; the words “I stood” would about equal the word “bridge” in time value, while

on the” would be spoken quite rapidly, “the” being only an obscure sound with no greater value than if it were an unaccented syllable.

It is easy to see that this variety of movement not only serves the purpose of showing the proper relations of the various words with one another, but is more agreeable to the ear than a measured and monotonous rendering could possibly be. It is this harmonious variety of movement that constitutes rhythm. It is not alone necessary, remember, that there should be variety, but the variety must have a reason behind it.

Rhythm in speech does not differ very widely from musical rhythm. It is more varied and changeable, tut the elements are essentially the same. We have, for instance, triple and common movements, phrases beginning upon various beats of the measure, and pauses, which correspond to rests in music, and, like them, should be proportioned to the movement of the spoken words. Our combinations, however, are, as we have said, much more varied than in music, for we have frequent alternations of triple and common time, abrupt changes in the rate of movement, and much greater freedom in the use of pauses. However, when we consider what we have learned with respect to the melody of speech in connection with the above-mentioned resemblances in rhythm, we find that speech and song are much nearer together than are commonly supposed.

We can easily illustrate both the resemblances and differences of the two by a few characteristic examples : The words “Yankee Doodle” are pronounced just about as they are sung, so far as the rhythm is concerned, though as much cannot be said for the remaining words of the song, which are subordinated to the melody. By using dotted notes, however, the melody, simple as it is, may be brought pretty near to the natural rhythm of the lines. “ Come to my houseis, virtually, three-four time, thus donds* || Come to my house is rhythm dinid

|| or, if

very phatic, 4 d. d *॥

|| Come to my house

em

3

11. J = || Come to my house 4

4 This evening is

4

1 Come to my house

4 this evening, if spoken naturally, would correspond to å din NO d

or better, perhaps, .INDD Here we have a mixture of triple and quadruple or common time, which is not rare in music, but is much more common in speech.

The relations of words, phrases, and sentences are shown quite as clearly by their rhythmical proportions as by variations in pitch.

It is easy to see that important phrases, sentences, and paragraphs will, other things being equal, have slower movement and broader rhythm than less necessary passages. Often, however, where the expression is of an impetuous nature, the climax is attained by rush and stress, rather than by breadth. Compare the following from “Henry IV.,” Part I. : KING. Sirrah, from henceforth

Let me not hear you speak of Mortimer :
Send me your prisoners with the speediest means,
Or you shall hear in such a kind from me
As will displease you.
Send us your prisoners or you'll hear of it. [Slow and
[Exit.]

impressive.] HOTSPUR. An if the Devil come and roar for them,

I will not send them : I will after straight,
And tell him so ; for I will ease my heart,
Although it be with hazard of my head.--Shakespeare,

Contrast the commanding manner of the King with the impetuosity of the fiery Hotspur.

Play uppe, play uppe, O Boston bells !
Ply all your changes, all your swells,
Play uppe “The Brides of Enderby.”-Jean Ingelow.

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Here, again, the impetuosity and excitement cause more rapid movement at the climax. 66 Sheridan's Ride” and Coleridge's “Hymn to Mont Blanc

may be instanced as examples at opposite extremes of rhythmical expression.

EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE.

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When Ajax strives some rock's vast weight to throw,
The line, too, labors, and the words move slow;
Not so, when swift Camilla scours the plain,
Flies o'er the unbending corn and skims along the main.

- Pope.
I sprang to the stirrup, and Joris, and he;
I galloped, Dirck galloped, we galloped all three.

Good speed!” cried the watch, as the gate-bolts undrew;
“Speed !” echoed the wall to us galloping through.
Behind shut the postern, the lights sank to rest,
And into the midnight we galloped abreast.
Not a word to each other; we kept the great pace
Neck by neck, stride for stride, never changing our place;
I turned in my saddle and made its girths tight,
Then shortened each stirrup, and set the pique right,
Rebuckled the cheek-strap, chained slacker the bit
Nor galloped less steadily Roland, a whit.

-Robert Browning.

Oh, you and I have heard our fathers say
There was a Brutus once, that would have brooked
The eternal devil to keep his state in Rome,
As easily as a king.--Shakespeare.

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