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LESSON XXXII.

Articulation.-Continued.

The middle of the tongue rises to form the conso

nant y.

K and g are formed by the shutting together and recoil of the back of the tongue and the soft-palate. Ng is the nasal sound in this position.

S and sh are hissing sounds made through the nearly closed teeth.

Z and zh are buzzing sounds in much the same position. (Zh represents the sound of z in azure and of g in rouge.)

Tsh is the best representation of the sound of ch in chin, church, much.

Luzh is the sound of j and soft g in June, age.
Kw is the sound of q in queer.
Ks is the sound of x in vex, text.

Many consonants stand for different sounds. It will be found that the list we have given covers the entire field, the various letters and combinations omitted being simply duplicates of these. Thus: ch hard in choir is the sound of k; c is either s or k according as it is hard or soft, as in cinder, cat.

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H is not usually regarded as a true consonant, being simply a rough breathing, or aspiration, as it is called. Compare hat, at, oyster, hoister, etc.

Th is not an aspirated t, but a separate sound having its own definite position of the tongue. So ph is not aspirated p, but f.

Vocal Exercises.-Continued.

For Forward Placing of the Voice. 1. Hum very softly the sound m. Open the mouth very gently, still keeping the soft humming sound.

2. Practise the hum with open mouth at the beginning.

3. Practise in combination with the various vowelsounds, thus: m-ä, mā, prolonging both the humming sound and the vowel.

4. With full voice explode the sounds , , , as directed in Lesson XXIX.

5. Also use , , , tö, both softly and loudly. With no break in the soft humming sound, make a series of vowels like äā ē o oo with the slightest possible action of the agents of articulation.

6. Practise crescendos and diminuendos; that is, increasing and diminishing the volume of sounds without changing the quality of the voice. TO THE TEACHER:—The proper sensation here should be of a warm

current of air passing through the face; or, in other words, of gentle vibration of the resonators. Enlarge this area of vibration until it includes both head and chest. Test by closing the nostrils; if the tone is properly placed, this will not interfere with it.

EXAMPLES FOR VOICE-PLACING

AND BREATH-CONTROL.

Full fathom five thy father lies;

Of his bones are coral made;
Those are pearls that were his eyes;

Nothing of him that doth fade
But doth suffer a sea-change
Into something rich and strange.
Sea-nymphs hourly ring his knell:

(Burden) Ding-dong-
Hark! now I hear them-Ding-dong, bell.

-Shakespeare.

Where the bee sucks, there suck I;
In a cowslip's bell I lie,
There I couch when owls do cry.
On the bat's back I do fly
After Summer, merrily.
Merrily, merrily shall I live now
Under the blossom that hangs on the bough.

-Shakespeare

1st FAIRY. You spotted snakes with double tongue,

Thorny hedgehogs, be not seen;
Newts and blind-worms, do no wrong,

Come not near our fairy queen.
CHORUS.

Philomel, with melody

Sing in our sweet lullaby ;
Lulla, lulla, lullaby; lulla, lulla, lullaby;
Never harm, nor spell, nor charm,

Come our lovely lady nigh;

So, good-night, with lullaby. 1st FAIRY. Weaving spiders, come not here;

Hence, you long-legg'd spinners, hence!
Beetles black, approach not near;

Worm nor snail, do no offence,
CHORUS.

Philomel, with melody, etc. --Shakespeare.

LESSON XXXIII. ·

Actions of the Hand.-Continued.

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V.- Appeal. Extend the hand in front, with palm up, fingers active, as if to take something. “Give it to me.”

This is the action of appeal. It is appropriate not only to a request for some object, but to all questions of appeal, such as “am I not right?” “won't you do it ?” and even to simple interrogations.

VI.-Rejection. With the hand extended in front, palm down, as if covering a flat surface, move the hand sideways outward, as if trying to push something away with thr, outer edge of the hand.

This is rejection, denial, negation. “Take it away,' nonsense,” “

pshaw,” “I don't believe it.” This action is stronger when the palm is “ from earth,” that is, as in IV. It is then called demonstrative rejection.

VII.- Declaration. Fold the hand slightly toward the body as in II., but without special activity of the forefinger; then carry the hand outward at the side until the palm is toward the audience, as if to show that you have nothing concealed in or about your hand.

This is declaration, revelation. “It is so,” “you can see for yourself."

VIII.- Declaration with Surrender.

As in V., but with a downward inclination of the hand as well.

This is a declarative movement with surrender. “ You are right,” “I acknowledge it,” “I was wrong, “I give it up.” (The downward tendency of the hand is in proportion to the degree of surrender, the outward to that of revelation.)

IX.- Concealment.

Place the hand upon the body, as if to conceal or caress some part of it.

This is the opposite of VII, and VIII. It is the action of apprehension, concealment, self-caress. When we feel pain the hand seeks the suffering part in this way.

Practise all the foregoing movements until the hand is flexible and free. At first relax the hand completely between the gestures, but when the gestures have been thoroughly learned separately, practise them in a connected series in the order in which they have been given, and in other combinations, i.e., (1) indicate, (2) beckon, (3) admire or caress, (4) repel, (5)

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