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Study the movements separately, then blend them.

Indicate various parts of the body, using appropriate expressions, for instance : touching the forehead

with the forefinger, “let me see;" touching the lips,

“hush;" pressing

the palm against the heart, “Oh, I have suffered with

those that I saw suf. fer;" touching the side of the nose with the forefinger, “ Joey B. is sly, sir.” Fig. 23 illustrates an indication preceded by a folding movement. Where there is strong personal feeling, gestures are often begun in this way, mental gestures starting from the head, emotional gestures, love, indignation, etc., from the chest or heart region, vital gestures from the waist.

FIG. 23.

EXERCISE IV.

Suspense. An attitude of the hand and arm which often accompanies the attitude of suspense or hesitation in the legs is that in which the hand is drawn in toward the body, the palm downward, the fingers spread well apart, and the elbow active, very much as in Fig. 26, but with the hand much nearer the line of the waist, and not quite so near the body. Fig. 33 is also an example of another and stronger form of suspensive action, indicating a tendency to repel. These attitudes

always go finally into some fully developed gesture, varying, of course, according to the emotion that succeeds the state of suspense.

EXERCISE V.

Returning to Rest. In bringing the arm to rest again after one or more gestures, if the last gesture has been a folding movement, simply unfold again in inverse order (c, b, a) and let the arm fall back in a relaxed position; if the gesture is an extended one, turn the forearm until the wrist is downward, “to earth,” if pot already in that position, then relax the arm, still holding the hand in position, and sink the wrist; let the arm drop at the side, the wrist drawing the hand after it.

Practise this slowly until control is gained. Practise also carrying the arm from side to side, the hand following the movement of the arm in the same way, just as a handkerchief waved to and fro follows the hand.

Practise all the gestures described in Lessons XXXI. and XXXIII. with full-arm movements.

TO THE TEACHER:-In all gestures made with one hand only, except

the very lightest, there is a tendency in the less active hand to sympathize with the action of the other, either by acting in opposition, in less demonstrative parallelism, or by taking an atii. tude expressive of the emotion that prompts the gesture. This action of the weak hand is called the supporting gesture. To enter upon the study of these gestures in detail would be beyond the limits that I have assigned myself in the preparation of this book. The supporting action will be strong in proportion to the strength of the principal gesture. Encourage the pupils in the greatest freedom of movement. If there is genuine feeling behind the gesture, the supporting movement or attitude will take care of itself. See that it does not contradict the gesture, and at least insist on a corresponding attitude of the hand if there is reluctance on the part of the pupil to go further. The knowl. edge and ingenuity of the teacher must supplement the instructions given here as elsewhere. The voice and example of a good instructor are worth more than any written description of an exercise. Caution pupils against making too many gestures and against extravagant action. For instance, in declaration the arms may rise through all degrees of altitude to a considerable angle above the line of the shoulders, yet in ordinary expression an angle of thirty to forty-five degrees from the perpendicular is amply sufficient, and often, especially in conversation, the arm hardly more than pivots so as to bring the palm out. Teach your scholars that a gesture is a strong form of emphasis, and must be reserved for a climax, and, except in very light, trivial emo. tions, must be sustained until the end of the sentence in which it occurs, unless superseded by another action.

LESSON XXXVI.

xV

Oppositions of the Head and Arms.

If we wish to be sure that the

person

whom we address in Indication sees the object indicated, we look back from it to him, still pointing toward the object. For instance, in pointing out an object at the right, we would turn the head toward it; but when the arm began to move toward the object, the head would begin to turn back toward the person addressed. When the head and arm move in the same direction, they are said to have parallel motion. When, as described above, the head and arm move in opposite directions at the same time, they are said to be in opposition, or to oppose each other.

Law: Parallel movements should be successive, opposing movements should be simultaneous.

If the head and arm move in the same direction together, the appearance to the beholder is often very ridiculous and always awkward. When, on the contrary, opposing movements follow each other, the action seems to drag, and the harmony of the gesture is destroyed. The law applies to the whole body. When we draw back as in fear, the hand and arm go toward the object; when the hand is drawn back, the body advances. If there is parallel action, as in greeting a friend, the body and arm both advancing, be careful that the movements are always successive, the body first, the arm succeeding.

EXERCISE I.

Indication with Opposition of Head and Arm.

(Figs. 24, 25.)

Order of Movement. First, the eye and head turn toward the object, then as the arm begins to rise to its position, or “ develop,” as we sometimes say, the head and eyes return to their original position, or, if we are addressing a particular individual, until the gaze is fixed upon him. The arm is fully developed just as the eye and hand finish their return movement, so that both come to rest at the same time. With folding movement, fold as the head is turning toward the object.

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Rejection, or Denial. (Figs. 26, 27.) Action of head and eye as in Indication, the arm in front, folding it toward the body while the head turns toward the object rejected. As the head returns, the arm moves outward at the side as if pushing something away. This may be practised with the edge and with the palm. Ine edge is more graceful, while the palm gives the impression of greater strength being exerted. In the lighter forms of rejection, the arm hardly folds at all, but starts out at once. from its position at the side.

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