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the lip drawn up corresponds to and accompanies the contemptuous action of the nose.

A strong LOWER JAW shows strength, firmness of character; a receding jaw, weakness. The jaw is set firmly in self-control, resistance, antagonism ; it relaxes in pleasure, and opens in admiration, surprise, fear and terror. It hangs lifelessly in weakness, prostration, imbecility, despair. The jaw advances in threatening, anger, hatred.

Observe that almost all the conditions described in this lesson may be bearings, indicating various types of character. Do not be too hasty in judging your associates by these hints ; there are sometimes strange exceptions to general rules. Socrates, for instance, one of the greatest and noblest of all men, was in appearance almost repulsive. We may do much to overcome natural defects by the exercise of the will, and many men have conquered inborn tendencies of the most unlovely character while still retaining the stamp that nature placed on them at birth. So, many naturally symmetrical natures have allowed themselves to be warped out of all true moral poise, and yet to the superficial observer have lost little of their external beauty. Remember that “'tis the mind that makes the body rich” or poor, as the case may be. TO THE TEACHER:--The pupils should work out the facial ex.

pression of a given emotion, say surprise, indicating the ex. pression of each part, then adding the proper attitudes or actions of the torso and limbs. More advanced pupils may employ themselves with complex emotions, such as surprise with hatred, with fear, with joy; joy with humility, affection, arrogance, and the almost infinite number of similar combinations. My purpose in reserving the consideration of this subject until the last (and, indeed, I had some doubts as to the advisability of saying as much as I have on the subject), is that untrained pupils are very apt to overdo facial expression if they undertake it at all in the beginning. I have felt that these subtile manifestations would develop themselves naturally in connection with the broader phases of gesture and attitude previously discussed, provided those have been accompanied by the proper inward impulse, without which no expression, however studied, seems spontaneous. I have inserted this matter at the request of several teachers whose experience has differed from mine in this respect, and who find that many of their pupils have no facial expression at all. But I implore all teachers to be exceedingly careful to discourage the writhings of the lips, scowls, affected elevations of the brows, and fine-frenzy-rolling eyes, with which so many would-be dramatic readers afflict their unfortunate audiences.


The one with yawning made reply:
“What have we seen ?-Not much have I!
Trees, meadows, mountains, groves and streams,
Blue sky and clouds and sunny gleams."
The other, smiling, said the same;
But with face transfigured and eye of flame:
Trees, meadows, mountains, groves and streams!
Blue sky and clouds and sunny gleams!”Brooks

But hush! hark! a deep sound strikes like a rising knell
Did ye not hear it ? No; 'twas but the wind,
Or the car rattling o'er the stony street;
On with the dance! Let joy be unconfined;
No sleep till morn, when Youth and Pleasure meet,
To chase the glowing hours with flying feet,
But, hark!—that heavy sound breaks in once more.
As if the clouds its echo would repeat;
And nearer, clearer, deadlier than before!
Arm! arm! It is—It is the cannon's opening roar!--Byron.

Prop yer eyes wide open, Joey,

Fur I've brought you sumpin great.
ApplesNo, a heap sight better!

Don't you take no int’rest ? Wait!
Flowers, Joe-I know'd you'd like 'em-

Ain't them scrumptious ? Ain't them high?
Tears, my boy? Wot's them fur, Joey ?

There-poor little Joe!—don't cry!—Peleg Arkwright.
We are two travellers, Roger and I.

Roger's my dog. Come here, you scamp.
Jump for the gentlemen-mind your eye!

Over the table-look out for the lamp!
The rogue is growing a little old:

Five years we've tramped through wind and weather,
And slept out doors when nights were coid,

And ate, and drank, and starved together.
We've learned what comfort is, I tell you:

A bed on the floor, a bit of rosin,
A fire to thaw our thumbs (poor fellow,

The paw he holds up there has been frozen),
Plenty of catgut for my fiddle

(This out-door business is bad for strings),
Then a few nice buckwheats hot from the griddle,

And Roger and I set up for kings.
No, thank you, sir, I never drink.

Roger and I'are exceedingly moral,
Aren't we, Roger ? See him wink.

Well, something hot then, we won't quarrel.
He's thirsty, too—see him nod his head.

What a pity, sir, that dogs can't talk;
He understands every word that's said,
And he knows good milk from water and chalk.

—Trowbridge, The Vagabonds." SHYLOCK (asidel. How like a fawning publican he looks!

I hate him, for he is a Christian!
If I can catch him once upon the hip
I will feed fat the ancient grudge I bear him.

Cursed be my tribe

If I forgive him!
[TO ANTONIO.] Rest you fair, good signior;
Your worship was the last man in our mouths.


MACBETH. Didst thou not hear a noise ?

LADY MACBETH. I heard the owl scream, and the crickets cry. Did not you speak ?

MACB. . When ?
LADY M. Now.
MACB. As I descended ?
MACB. Hark! Who lies i’ the second chamber?
LADY M. Donalbain.-Shakespeare.



Pantomime has another office besides expressing emotions; it is very useful in assisting us to convey vivid impressions of what we may be describing. This function is called imitation or description. Gestures of indication are descriptive in their character. We convey impressions of great size, volume, majesty, by broad expansion of the arms; we bring the tips of the fingers of both hands near together to describe small, insignificant objects; when using one hand, the thumb touching the little finger suggests very tiny objects.

Actions that we call functional, like pushing, pulling, hammering, twisting, the action of the hand in writing, playing an instrument, waving a handkerchief, and a hundred others, are used imitatively.

The tremolo of the hand—that is, a rapid movement to and fro sideways—suggests many similar tremulous movements in nature, the ripple of water, of sunshine, the movement of the leaves. The tremolo should be very delicate, and requires much flexibility at the wrist.

All emotional manifestations are used imitatively when we describe an emotion in another. Descriptive actions of all kinds must not be overdone. Broad description is allowable only in comedy. In serious reading suggest rather than imitate: the more delicate the suggestion the more artistic will be your expression.

The voice also has an imitative function. All reproductions of peculiar qualities, as of an old man's voice, nasal, throaty, or flat tones, the vocal characteristics of different nations and races, are vocal imitations. The volume of the voice is sometimes made use of imitatively, the tone becoming more sonorous in describing grandeur, majesty, and more than usually delicate in suggesting delicate things. We often hear vocal imitations of various sounds in nature, the calls of animals, chirping of birds, the vibration of bells, and the like. Use imitation sparingly.

It is very essential in description, as, indeed, in all

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