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6. Ă, short, as in ăn, căn, făn; also plaid, raillery,
Notice that we are studying the sounds not merely the letters, and that in English one letter has often many very different sounds, and one sound is often represented in many different ways. E, for instance, is exactly like i in fatigue, ua in quay, ei in deceive, eo in people. I is heard in pretty, women, guinea, forfeit. Ā is heard in gauge, vein, obey. For that reason, we find it most convenient to call the sounds by their numbers rather than by their alphabetical names, thus, 1st or 2d sound, etc.
TO THE TEACHER:-These sounds follow each other in the order laid down by Prof. A. Melville Bell. From him I have also taken many of the illustrations. While no one pupil is deficient in all or many of these sounds, I have rarely found in my own experience a pupil who was perfect in every vowel. We have the testimony of no less a celebrity than Wendell Phillips to the practical value of careful drill in the elements of articulation. Occasional mistakes may be forgiven; but habitual disregard of the fundamentals of good pronunciation is inexcusable. I have not attempted to arrange the sounds in the order of their difficulty for the reason that no arrangement could be made that would answer for all or even a majority of our pupils. Special exercises should be assigned to individuals who are greatly deficient. Such may be found in the works of Bell, Monroe, and others, and in various treatises on voice. culture, stammering, etc.
RULES FOR ANALYSIS.
I. The emphatic word is the word that completes the new idea or picture.
I watch the mowers as they go.
Henceforth let me not hear you speak of Mortimer.
[Mortimer has already been spoken of in several preceding speeches (Henry IV., part 1.), otherwise the emphasis would fall on the name. See next rule.]
The clustered spires of Frederick stand.
II. A word once emphasized should not receive emphasis when repeated, unless it is repeated for intensity, or used with a new meaning.
That I have ta'en away this old man's daughter,
It is most true; true, I have married her, [not "true I have
married her, "—the new idea is "married."]
Answer me directly.
MARULLUS. But what trade art thou?
A trade, sir, that I hope I may use with a safe conscience; which is, indeed, sir, a mender of bad soles. MARULLUS. What trade, thou knave? [emphasis for intensity.] thou naughty knave, what TRADE?
2d CITIZEN. Nay, I beseech you, sir, be not out with me; yet if you be out, sir, I can mend you.
A horse a HORSE, [intensity] my KINGDOM for a horse.
I never would lay down my arms-never, NEVER, NEVER.
III. No word that can be omitted and still leave the meaning of the phrase clear, is emphatic, unless the word is used for intensity. With this exception, that word is most emphatic, which, when left out, would most completely destroy the meaning of the phrase or sentence.
True, I have married her.
Here it is evident that the omission of "married" would utterly obscure the meaning. We could say, "True, I have married," and the meaning would be less obscure. "I have married her," would not change the meaning in the least; "true-married her," while not graceful nor good English, would still be understood in connection with the preceding por-. tions of the speech.
I shall have nothing at all.
In this example the word that cannot be omitted is certainly "nothing;" yet we naturally throw the emphasis upon "all," a word that evidently is not necessary to the phrase, for, "I shall have nothing," would express the meaning quite as clearly. The reason for this apparent violation of our rule is that the expression "at all" is inserted especially for emphasis. Like "none whatever," it makes the idea more vivid. A good writer or speaker will use these expressions sparingly; they are like other extreme means for emphasis, allowable only when simpler ones fail.
We sometimes find two or more words combined to express what one cannot indicate fully. "Mender-ofbad-soles" is an example. "Nothing-at-all" might be considered as a similar combination. These groups are called "oratorical words," and are read as if they were compound words with the accent falling on the accented syllable of the last word, like "nevertheless," which is really a group of three words.
If the war must go on, why put off longer the declaration of Independence?
Yea, though I walk through the valley-of-the-shadow-of-death, I shall fear no evil.
Notice that in these sentences you will give a wrong impression if you emphasize only one of the italicized words. Of course, the unimportant words, of, the, at, and the like, are passed over lightly, just as if they were unaccented syllables of a long word.
For Independence of the Legs.
Standing in the Speaker's Position, carry the free foot forward as far as possible, that is, until the toe can barely touch the floor; then carry the foot back in the same way. Be careful that the body does not
twist around, nor move forward and back with the leg. Have no sense of effort anywhere.
Carry the free foot out at the side, then across the body to the opposite side in the same manner as in Exercise I.
Describe as great a part of a circle as possible with the free foot around the strong foot, the body remaining perfectly stationary.
Remember that the proper position of the body must be maintained without cramping the muscles or stiffening the joints, which would defeat the object of