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Circumflex inflections are either rising or falling, that is, conclude with a rising or a falling inflection. The rising inflections start from a high pitch, move downward and conclude with an upward turn.
The falling inflections start from below, move upward and conclude with a downward turn.
Practise these sounds with slight separation at first and then connect them with precisely the same melody.
We have also the double circumflex, used in sarcasm, irony, and the like.
Hath a dog money? Is it possible
A cur can lend three thousand ducats?—Shakespeare.
The rising or falling circumflex inflections are governed by the same laws as the simple inflections; that is, the rising slides inquire, express deference to the will of the listener, even if it be mock deference, indifference, indecision, doubt, or timidity; the falling circumflexes are positive, decided, complete.
15. O in old, beau, throe.
16. Û in pûll, fúll; also heard in wolf, foot. 17. ÔÔ in pool; also in rude, rule, shoe, you, cruise.
From 12 on, we notice a gradual protrusion of the lips, until in 17 we reach the last of our vowel-sounds, where the lips are pursed together to a considerable extent. Try to get these sounds with as little lip-action as possible.
TO THE TEACHER:-I have indicated in this lesson an interesting and valuable exercise. Let the pupils practise on simple exclamations and calls like "oh!" oh, dear! come here!" "John!" "ah!" etc. Have them also try to discover the elliptical meaning of impromptu exclamations by the teacher. Many excellent examples may be found in Bell's "Principles of Elocution." I do not, however, advise the use of marks to indicate the direction of the inflection, except occasionally by way of analogy, for the reason that they tend at first to confuse the student, and afterward to cause him to rely over. much upon the external, mechanical form of the slide, rather than upon the inner, mental condition that should prompt it. In other words, his reading is apt to be more mechanical than if he discarded all mechanical aids and relied solely upon his art instinct. Again, it is impossible to indicate the more minute shades of inflection that belong to truly natural expression; so that, after all, any notation falls short of absolute fidelity to nature. Since it is almost impossible to indicate to the eye, even approximately, the nicer shades of meaning, and since, also, the average inexperienced pupil makes a very poor connection in his mind between a mark on the blackboard and a sound in his ear, and therefore is quite as likely to be misled as helped by such marks, it is better to rely upon the ear and the intelligence altogether. The meaning of an ordinary inflection is patent to any intelligent child, and when once the meaning of an inflection is understood, it is usually conveyed with perfect accuracy. See that pupils do not cramp the throat. Use these inflections for vocal practice; nothing can be better for flexibility of the speakingvoice. Make all exercises in inflection mental. A word of warning should be given regarding a very common error in teaching vowel-production, and an error, too, which has the sanction of high authority, yet which, nevertheless, should be carefully avoided by the progressive teacher. I refer to the exaggerated mouthing of the vowels. Doubtless the majority of teachers who read this are familiar with dia grams in which ah, e, and oo seem intended as examples of facial distortion, rather than as exercises in intonation. Not only are these gapings, grinnings and poutings useless for the purposes for which they are given, but the faithful student
who practises them persistently will find, perhaps too late, that they tend to render all facial expression absolutely abnormal. My own experience as teacher and pupil long ago led me to discard this and similar exaggerations of normal actions, not only in articulation, but in expression everywhere.
EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE.
The Cynic is one who never sees a good quality in a man and never fails to see a bad one. If Mr. A is pronounced a religious man, he will reply: Yes-on Sundays. Mr. B has just joined the church: Certainly; the elections are coming on. Such a man is generous-of other men's money. This man is obliging— to lull suspicion and cheat you. That man is upright-because he is green.-Beecher.
That struck the foremost man of all this world
Down stept Lord Ronald from his tower:
"Ain't goin' to see the celebration?”
If to do were as easy as to know what were good to do, chapels had been churches, and poor men's cottages princes' palaces. It is a good divine that follows his own instructions. I can easier teach twenty what were good to be done than to be one of the twenty to follow mine own teaching. The brain may devise laws for the blood; but a hot temper leaps over a cold decree. -Shakespeare.
You, sir: what trade are you?
2D CITIZEN. Truly, sir, in respect of a fine workman, I am but, as you would say, a cobbler.
Answer me directly.
MAR. But what trade art thou? 2D CIT. A trade, sir, that, I hope, I may use with a safe conscience; which is, indeed, sir, a mender of bad soles.
MAR. What trade, thou knave? thou naughty knave, what trade?
2D CIT. Nay, I beseech you, sir, be not out with me: yet, if you be out, sir, I can mend you.
MAR. What mean'st thou by that?
Mend me, thou saucy
2D CIT. Truly, sir, all that I live by is with the awl.
FLAV. But wherefore art not in thy shop to-day? Why dost thou lead these men about the streets?
2D CIT. Truly, sir, to wear out their shoes, to get myself into more work. But, indeed, sir, we make holiday, to see Cæsar, and to rejoice in his triumph.-Shakespeare.
Is there, for honest poverty,
That hangs his head, and a' that?
Ye see yon birkie, ca'd a lord,
Wha struts, and stares, and a' that;
The legs are, as we know, the agents by which we advance or retreat from objects about us, and their attitudes indicate our relations with surrounding persons or things.
We know that usually the body should rest upon one foot; sometimes, however, the weight is equally upon both feet. We will consider both conditions.
Weight on One Foot.
We go towards objects that attract us or that we wish to influence; we draw back from things that displease or repel us. Hence, sympathy, attraction, animation, joy, and all expansive feelings, menace, attack, and pursuit, call for attitudes in which the weight is upon the advanced foot, that is, upon the foot that is supposed to be nearest the object of the action.
Antipathy, repulsion, melancholy, indifference, reflection, concentration, defence, defiance, etc., require the opposite attitude, where the weight is upon the