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retired foot, that farthest from the object exciting the emotion.
When the body has a position suitable to the exercise of great effort, as, for instance, with the feet firmly braced to resist a blow, it is said to be in a strong position. When the body does not offer great resistance, as when the feet are near together, or when the weight is entirely on one foot with the free leg weak, as in the Speaker's Position, the attitude is said to be weak.
Laws of Attitude.
I.-Conscious strength assumes weak positions; conscious weakness assumes strong positions.
When the feet are wide apart, the body is said to have a strong or broad base, when the feet are near together, a weak base.
II. In proportion to the degree of energy will be the strength of the base.
LAW I.-A speaker coming before an audience in a timid frame of mind would naturally try to hide his condition; and, in so doing, would stand in a very strong attitude, as much as to say: "I am not afraid;" while one accustomed to public appearance, and fully confident of his control over his body, would assume the most easy and graceful position at his command. A blustering bully would plant his legs wide apart, and, in other ways which we have marked
out elsewhere, indicate to an experienced observer that he was assuming a bravery that he really did not possess; while his antagonist, if cool and collected, would stand in an attitude of comparative weakness, with weight resting lightly on one foot.
LAW II. The attitude of respect is unemotional; but if you were in that attitude, and suddenly saw something that interested you, you would advance, and, if very much excited, might fairly spring toward it. So your attitude when standing still would express strong excitement, just in proportion to its similarity to the same expression of the legs and feet when in motion.
Weight on Both Feet.
With the feet as in walking, expresses suspense, uncertainty, as if you did not know whether to advance. or retreat. With the feet wide apart sideways, expresses vulgar ease, familiarity, pomposity, arrogance. With the feet near together, expresses timidity, respect, subordination, weakness.
Under like conditions, the attitudes of the feet when sitting are the same as in standing. For instance, in animated attention the feet would be well apart, one foot being under the chair, perhaps, as if you were about to spring from your seat, which is just what you would do if your excitement became very great.
EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE IN ATTITUDE..
It does not matter how little or how much any of us have read either of Homer or Shakespeare; everything round us, in substance or in thought, has been moulded by them. All Greek gentlemen were educated under Homer; all Roman gentlemen by Greek literature; all Italian and French and English gentlemen by Roman literature and by its principles. Of the scope of Shakespeare, I will say only that the intellectual measure of every man since born in the domains of creative thought may be assigned to him according to the degree in which he has been taught by Shakespeare.-Ruskin.
So boldly he entered the Netherby hall,
'Mong bridesmen, and kinsmen, and brothers, and all:
Or to dance at our bridal, young Lord Lochinvar ?"-Scott.
'Ye call me chief, and ye do well to call him chief who, for twelve long years, has met upon the arena every shape of man or beast that the broad Empire of Rome could furnish, and yet never has lowered his arm. And if there be one among you who can say that, ever, in public fight or private brawl, my actions did belie my tongue, let him step forth and say it. If there be three in all your throng dare face me on the bloody sand, let them step forth!"-Kellogg.
It is an ancient mariner,
And he stoppeth one of three:
"By thy long grey beard and glittering eye,
He holds him with his skinny hand:
"Hands off, unhand me, greybeard loon!"
Eftsoons his hand drops he.-Coleridge.
Now glory to the Lord of hosts, from whom all glories are,
A thousand spurs are striking deep, a thousand spears at rest, A thousand knights are pressing close behind the snow-white crest.-Macaulay.
He drew the covering closer on his lip,
Crying "Unclean! unclean!" and in the folds
"Ho! why dost thou shiver and shake, Gaffer Gray ?
""Tis the weather that's cold,
"Tis I'm grown very old,
And my doublet is not very new. Well-a-day !”
In there came old Alice, the nurse,
Said, "Who was this that went from thee?" "It was my cousin," said Lady Clare;
"To-morrow he weds with me."
"Oh, God be thanked!" said Alice, the nurse,
"And you are not the Lady Clare."
"Are ye out of your mind, my nurse, my nurse?"
'I speak the truth-you are my child." -Tennyson.
The Vowels.- Continued.
We have now gone through the list of simple vowelsounds;-all other vowels are combinations of some of these. I is 9-1 blended, thus, ah-e; ow in now is 917; oi in oil is 13-1; u is 1-17, except when it follows r, when it has the sound 17 alone, as in rule, true. Careless speakers often say "floot" when they mean flute, "dooty" for duty, and so on. No one, however, says "poo" for pew, nor "foo" for few, though there is equally good reason for such pronunciation. One of the marks of a well-educated person is his careful enunciation of this much-abused vowel u. When a vowel occurs in an unaccented syllable, it is not pronounced with such care and exactness as when it receives the accent; for instance, we say syl'-la-b'l, not syl'-la-běl. The vowels in the second and third syllables here are said to be obscure, because it is not always easy to determine which sound is