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England over; and with what greediness God's word , racy, and the remarkable purity and elegance of its style. was read, and what resort to places where the reading The circulation of it rapidly produced wonderful effects, dit was. Everybody that could, bought the book, and contributed more than any other means to extirpate a basily read it; or got others to read it to them if the errors and superstitions at that time prevalent. It they could not themselves; and divers more elderly people also formed the basis of most of the translations made in learned to read on purpose; and even little boys flocked the North of Europe at that period. More than one mong the rest to hear portions of the Holy Scriptures hundred and fifty translations of the whole Bible, or of read.' (2.) Taverner's Bible, in 1539, which was also a parts of it, have been made during the last half century. revision of Tyndale's, by Richard Taverner, a learned layman. (3.) Cranmer's Bible, in 1540, which was a Whilst the essential truths of Scripture are so fully revised edition of the Great Bible, with a preface by and plainly revealed that every sincere and prayerful the archbishop. (4.) The Geneva Bible, first printed inquirer may readily obtain a sufficient answer to his in 1580. This was a new translation, with annotations, question, 'What must I do to be saved' there is a conby William Whittingliam and two other English minis- siderable portion of the Bible which needs for its satisters, who took refuge at Geneva during the persecu- factory INTERPRETATION much diligent and well-directed tions of queen Mary. This became afterwards a great study. If this work be engaged in with an humble, unfavourite with the English people; 80 that out of one prejudiced, and teachable spirit, and a sound and cautious hundred and thirty distinct editions of Bibles and Testa- | judgment, the following simple rules will be found helpments, which were issued between 1560 and 1603, ninety ful in deriving the greatest benefits from it :veze of the Genevan text. (5.) The Bishop's Bible, with 1. The literal and primary meaning is first to be marginal notes, 1568; so called because archbishop Parker sought; and that is to be ascertained in precisely the same engaged several bishops and other learned men to prepare way as that of any other book. The Bible was written

It exhibits some material variations from former for the people, in the common language of men. persions. (6.) The Rheims and Douay Bible, made by the 2. In order to ascertain the precise impression intended Komanists; who, finding themselves unable to stop the to be produced upon the minds of those to whom the words spread of the Scriptures, resolved to have a version of of Scripture were originally addressed, a knowledge of the their own; the New Testament being printed at Rheims, persons, places, habits, and customs referred to is of great is 1582, and the Old Testament at Douay, in 1610. assistance. (7.) And, finally, the present Authorized Version, which 3. Attention should be paid to the peculiar character of tree out of a recommendation made by Dr. Reynolds, each book-whether it be prose or poetry, narrative or sze of the Puritan ministers present at the celebrated prophecy, address or dialogue, devotional or didactic. Hampton Court Conference, to king James I. By the 4. Observe the gradual unfolding of the Divine will king's command, it was executed by forty-seven learned to man, from the first dawn of hope in the first promise

:, who were divided into six companies, two of which to the fulness of the gospel, when the 'Sun of righteoussat at Westminster, two at Oxford, and two at Cam ness' had arisen. bridge. According to their instructions, they followed 5. It must not be supposed that everything in the the Bishops' Bible then in use as closely as adherence to Bible can be fully comprehended. It is probable that the original would permit. This work was commenced the Divine Being intended that revelation should have in 1607; and, after being revised by a committee of | its difficulties; in order to further our moral discipline, twelve, and then by Dr. Smith, who wrote the Preface, to make trial whether we would submit our reason to His ani by Dr. Bilson, it was printed in 1611. This transla will, to exercise our faith and diligence, to make us willtin is much admired by competent judges for its general ing to wait till the light of eternity shall disclose all-fidelity, as well as for the simplicity, energy, and purity perhaps also to afford us evidence that the book is Divine: of the style. It would be too much to affirm that it is not for when we find difficulties surrounding us in our search estrptible of improvement: but its general excellence is | into all the other works of God, was it to be expected attested by the fact that, with all the diversities of opinion that this one alone should be free from them? Much of en religious subjects, and the controversies which have the prophecy of the Old Testament was not understood been carried on between different denominations of Chris- till it was fulfilled : indeed obscurity seems to be a necestians, in our country, all have agreed in appealing to the sary condition of prophecy; else it might be said that it sarne version, and none have, in any matters of conse had occasioned the fulfilment. Prophecy, therefore, which quence, objected to it.

is still unfulfilled is likely to be obscure. The time has It would be interesting, were it possible, to ascertain not yet come for a clear understanding of it. what has been the whole extent of its circulation; but 1 6. Let the mind be thoroughly possessed with a conDo certain data exist until recent times. During the last viction of the infallible truth and supreme importance of half century the number of copies of the entire English the things here revealed; however opposed they may Bible, and of the New Testament separately, which have often seem to be to the opinions and principles of manissued from the press is upwards of twenty-seven millions. kind in general, even in nominally Christian countries. This wide and general diffusion of the word of God in 7. The Bible should be read with self-application ; inour land may well be regarded with devout gratitude as quiring how it bears upon our own character and conour greatest national blessing.

dition; and with a determination, by the grace of God, Besides the English, there were, about the period of to carry out in practice what we read. Thus will our the Reformation, translations of the Bible in most of the own experience both confirm and correct our interpretaEuropean languages, including the German, French, tion of Scripture. "Whosoever hath, to him shall be Italian, Spanish, and many others. Among these, that given, and he shall have more abundance,' Matt. xiii. ai Lather stands pre-eminent for its clearness and accu- | 12. "If any man will do His will, he shall know of the doctrine,' John vii. 17. And the guidance of that gracious in the text, so as to meet the eye in the most convenient Spirit, whose word this is, must be earnestly sought, form. But, as they vary much in value and importance while pressing the momentous inquiry, "What may I (many of them being merely literal translations of Hegather here to forward and secure my own salvation and brew idiomatic phrases, the true sense of which is better that of others?"

conveyed by the version in the text), those only have

been inserted which appear to convey an improved or It only remains to describe briefly the PLAN and illustrative rendering, or in some way to throw light DESIGN of this work.

upon the passage, either in itself or in its connection The text itself is a correct reprint of the authorized with some other. version; but it differs in its arrangement from the common editions in two particolars: (1.) Like other In the preparation of the EXPLANATORY NOTES, the books, it is divided, according to the changes in the chief objects have been, to give improved renderings in subject or pauses in the narrative, into paragraphs or many instances where our present translation appears sections, to which appropriate headings are given; the incorrect or faulty-to elucidate what is difficult or obchapters and verses being marked in the margin for scure-to bring out the true meaning and force of the facility of reference. (2.) The poetical parts are printed, text-to illustrate the language of the sacred writers, by according to the natural order of the original, in paral references to the manners, customs, geography, and hislelisms; by which the meaning is often more readily tory of the countries and of the times in which the events ascertained, and the spirit and beauty of this Divine of the Bible occurred to show the harmony and mutual poetry more fully exhibited. (See the General Remarks connection subsisting between different parts of the inprefixed to the Poetical Books.) It is well known that spired writings, and the progressive development of Divine the divisions into chapters and verses are no part of the truth-and, in short, in every practicable way, so far as original form in which the Scriptures were given; but the limits would allow, to promote the right understand. are of comparatively modern date. In the earliest manu ing of the Scriptures. In order to this, the help of the scripts the text was divided into lines, varying of course ablest and most judicious Biblical critics and commentain length according to the width of the page, and some tors has been diligently sought; and the endeavour has times into sentences, according to the sense; while the been to give in a small compass-in a condensed, but at several books were divided into sections of greater or the same time convenient and popular form—the subshorter length. Ancient authorities, however, do not stance of what the learning and piety of successive ages agree in the numbers of these divisions; some, for ex. | have contributed to the elucidation of the word of God. ample, reckoning in Matthew twenty-eight, and others upwards of sixty; so that the arrangement evidently de- The PREFACES to the respective books have been depended on the taste or skill of the translator. The present signed to furnish brief but comprehensive introductions, division into chapters was made by cardinal Hugo about embracing a short analysis of each book; in preparing the year 1250. The subdivision of the chapters into which, one aim, among others, has been to attain the verses had its origin, as regards the Old Testament, from | objects described by bishop Percy in the preface to his a division of a similar description made by a Jewish Key to the New Testament:'—'Aclear introductory illusrabbi named Mordecai Nathan, who prepared a concord- tration of the several books, showing the design of their ance of the Hebrew Bible about the year 1445; and, with writers, the nature of their contents, and whatsoever else respect to the New Testament, it originated with Robert is previously necessary to their being read with underStephens, a celebrated printer at Paris, who thus divided standing, is a work that, if well executed, must prove the an edition of the New Testament A. D. 1551. He, however, best of commentaries, and frequently supersede the want simply placed the figures in the margin, as in the present of any. Like an intelligent guide, it directs the reader edition, without forming every verse into a new paragraph. right at his first setting out; and thereby saves him the The method now commonly in use was first adopted in the trouble of much after inquiry: or like a map of a country Geneva English Bible, printed about the year 1560; and, through which he is to travel, if consulted beforehand, it in the millions of copies of the Scriptures which have gives him a general view of the journey, and prevents since been published, it has been almost universally his being afterwards lost and bewildered.' followed. Although some division of this sort is convenient for the sake of general reference, it must be con There is also added an entirely new selection of REfessed that, when made in this form, it necessarily breaks FERENCES TO PARALLEL AND ILLUSTRATIVE PASSAGES; the proper connection of the sentences; and in many which, it is hoped, will be found to possess great complaces, from the arbitrary and defective manner in which pleteness, without inconvenient copiousness. Such referthe division is made, it tends greatly to obscure the sense. ences are of great use to all who desire to study the

Scriptures accurately and deeply: as they make ScripThe" MARGINAL READINGS and translations of many ture its own interpreter; frequently throw a satisfactory Hebrew proper names, which were appended by our light upon the meaning of disputed passages; and in English translators to their work, so far as they have | many cases bring out, in a surprising manner, most rebeen retained here, have been incorporated within brackets | markable coincidences.




The first portion of the Bible is called, by the Jews, of the Egyptians,' id learning the maxims of the best

Torah,' the LAW (Luke xxiv. 44); and is also named, human government then known, and the other forty which from the Greek, the Pentateuch, or Five folds. Its were occupied in leading his flock to the wells and pastures dirision into five books is attributed to the Greek trans of the wilderness, through which he was to guide the Hektors, from whom the titles in common use are derived. brews during a similar period, had prepared him, by the The Jews have no other names for these books than the grace of God, for fulfilling his high destiny. And that Art Hebrew words of each ; in which way they also de grace so elevated his character as to make him appear in siznate the fifty-four sections into which they divide them every respect both great and amiable. Observe, for infor sabbath reading in the synagogue.

stance, his entire disinterestedness. In refusing to be called Both the Jews and the Samaritans always held the Law the son of Pharaoh's daughter, he renounced honour, in the highest veneration, and preserved it with most wealth, and pleasure; and in becoming, by the command jeslous care. To us it is of inestimable value, not only of God, the leader of the Israelites, he entered upon a as it contains authentic historical memorials of the first course so full of trials and dangers, that there were times age of the world, nowhere else to be obtained: but still when, in the bitterness of his soul, he would gladly have more as it gives the only satisfactory and authoritative been released from his painful pre-eminence. Nor did he explanation of many facts of the deepest interest to the | use his power to aggrandize his family; he left them to human race, which otherwise would be involved in im occupy the rank of ordinary Levites. How intensely he penetrable darkness; such as, the origin of the fallen and loved his people is evident from his earnest intercessions derraded condition of man, and the purposes

for which for them : and equally remarkable was his confidence in such a race is continued upon the earth : and, further, as God, amidst a multitude who were constantly rebelling it contains the earliest communications from God to men, and raising formidable conspiracies against him, while he and those Divinely-appointed types which prefigured to was without any human means of maintaining his authoancient believers the promised Redeemer.

rity. Nor did he cease from his labours till the very close

of a long life; so that, at the age of a hundred and twenty The unanimous testimony of antiquity, of the other years, he spent his last breath in exhorting the Israelites Old Testament writers, and, above all, of our Lord and to a remembrance of God's mercy and obedience to his laws. his apostles, shows that Moses was the author of these Moses, however, derives his chief honour from the rebooks; although it is possible that he may have been in- lation which he bore to the Great Prophet of whom he tructed to avail himself occasionally of earlier records of wrote (John v. 46), who was like unto him (Deu inspired patriarchs. At the same time it is evident that xviii. 15; Acts iii. 22); the Divine Builder and Lord of Semne subsequent writer-perhaps Joshua, Samuel, or Ezra that house in which Moses was faithful as a servant -has occasionally inserted a brief explanation, and has (Numb. xii, 7; Heb. üi. 2-5); and who associated him added the account of the great lawgiver's death and with himself and Elias in the glory of his transfiguration burial (Deut. xxxiv.).

(Matt. xvii. 3). As the saviour of the Israelites from the While Moses was signally honoured in being qualified bondage of Egypt; as their legislator, governor, teacher, and employed to communicate to the world these important and leader through the wilderness; and as the founder disclosures of the Divine purposes and will, he was equally of a new dispensation, he was a distinguished precursor extinguished by the endowments bestowed upon him for of Him who came from heaven to rescue men from the the responsibilities and duties of his active life. The forty slavery of sin, and to conduct his people to the heavenly Fears which he spent in Egypt, acquiring all the wisdom. I Canaan.



| The book of Genesis was so named by the ancient Greek | create and to destroy; as inflexible in his hatred of sin

trabaiators, because of the account it gives of the creation | and determination to punish it, yet mercifully f of all things. It is chiefly historical, relating the most and ready to forgive the penitent; and as sovereign in his wonderful events with the greatest simplicity. It gives purposes and promises, and faithful in fulfilling them. us all the information which its Divine Author has deemed necessary or desirable for us respecting the origin of the This book contains the history of 2369 years according world and of its inhabitants, and especially of man; in to Usher, or 3619 on Hales's system. It may be divided forming us of his state of innocence, the occasion and con as follows: sequences of his fall, and the hope of pardon and restora I. FROM THE CREATION TO THE DELUGE: including tion which his merciful Judge was pleased to give him. the creation of the world, the formation of man in the It thus opens the way for the gradual development of that image of God, the institution of the sabbath and of marplan of salvation which succeeding revelations more fully riage (chaps. i., ii.); the introduction of evil into the world, i unfold. Whilst it shows the deep and inveterate depravity the sentence upon the tempter and upon man, and God's

into which man sank after his fall, it affords cheering in gracious promise of a Saviour (ii.); the account of Cain brations of the early commencement of true religion in and Abel, and of Cain's descendants; the beginning of the world. It everywhere presents God as Almighty to l human occupations, manufactures, and arts (iv.); the

a John 1. 1. 2:

31 6: 89. 11. 12: 10. B; 136 5; 116 6: Is 42.5: 44 94: Jer.

24 : Col. 1. 16. 17: Heb. 11. 3, Rev. $.

6; 104. 30; Is. 13, 14

genealogy of the patriarchs from Adam to Noah (v.); the whom God chose and separated from the rest of the world, universal prevalence of wickedness, and the destruction of that from their race the promised Saviour might come; and the ungodly world by the flood, with the preservation of that in the meantime his church might be upheld in Noah and his family (vi.-viii.)

them, while all other people were involved in heathenism. II. PROX THE DELCGE TO THE TIME OF ABRAHAM: We have the history of Abraham and his family, with comprising God's covenant of mercy with the new world, ineidental notices of the origin and history of some of and Noah's prophecy respecting his three sons (ix.); the most ancient kings and nations (xii.- xxv.); of the re-peopling of the earth by Noah's descendants, the Isase and his family (Lxvi., xxvii.); of Jacob and his origin of national distinctions, and the commencement of family (xxviii.-XXXV.); and more particularly of Joseph, the principal ancient empires (x.); the confusion of tongues, leading to the introduction of the house of Israel intó and the dispersion of the human family over the earth (xi.) Egypt for their preservation during a general famine

III. FROM THE CALLING OF ABRAHAM TO THE DEATH (xxxvii.-rlvii.); followed by Jacob's prophecy respecting OF JOSEPH. In this portion of the book, the general his sons and their descendants, and the promised Reaffairs of mankind are only occasionally noticed, and it is deemer (xlvii. xlix.) The book concludes with Joseph's chiefly occupied with the patriarch and his descendants, I commandment concerning his remains, and his death (1.)

The creation; siz days' roork; Sabbath. 1 IN the beginning? God created the heaven and the earth. 2 And the earth was without form and void ;* and darkness was upon the face of Ex. 31:17: Ps. 83:

the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. 3 And God said, 'Let there be light:' and there was light. And God saw the

10 12: 51. 15: Zech. 5 light, that it was good:6 and God divided the light from the darkness. And 12 l; Ac. 14. 15; 17. God called the lights Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening

11. 10 6. and the morning were the first day.

e Jer. 433

4 Job. %. 13; Ps. 33 6 And God said, 'Let there be a firmament (expansion) in the midst of the waters, 7 and let it divide the waters from the waters. And God made the firmament,

PS .

/ Ps. 11. 3.5: hs. 45. i and divided the waters which were to under the firmament from the waters which

7: ? Cor. 46 8 were above the firmament: and it was so. And God called the firmament Heaven.''

6 Ps 76 16; 104. 20: And the evening and the morning were the second day.

A Job. 3. 18: Ps. 136

5. Jer. 10. 12, 13; 9 And God said, 'Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one

i Pro. 8. 99, 99. 10 place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so. And God called the dry land Pe 1884

Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas : and God saw ' P S 96.5: 101 11 that it was good. And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yield-9. Jer 52: P: ing seed, and the fruit tree yielding " fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, - Ps.164.14 -.6 7.

ver 29: eh. 2. 9. 12 upon the earth: and it was so. And the earth brought forth grass, and herb

Luke 6. 43, 44 yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, 13 after his kind : and God saw that it was good. And the evening and the morning

were the third day. 14 And God said, Let there be lights 12 in the firmament of the heaven to divide Dea 4. 19: 78.8.3;

74.16: 136.7: la. 45.7. the day fro.n the night;!3 and let them be for signs, and P for seasons, and for days, PPs. 74. 17, 104, 19. 15 and years : and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light 16 upon the earth: and it was so. And God made'' two great lights; the greater Ps:; 14. light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also. : P88 3.

• Job 387 17 And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, 18 and to rule 'over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the Jer. 31. 35. 19 darkness : and God saw that it was good. And the evening and the morning were

the fourth day. 20 And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving for, creeping

reature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firma21 ment of heaven. "And God created great whales, is and 'every living creature that "ch. 6. 20:7. 14; 8. moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every sin

* Ps. 30. 10. 11. 22 winged fowl after his kind : and God saw that it was good. And God blessed eh. 8. 1;Ps 107.35.

Jer. 33. 20

51 15.

3.5: Am


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19: Ps 104. 23, 25;

1 That implicit faith in every word of God which is 8 Or, 'expanse;" the space occupied by the atmosphere necessary to the right use of the Bible is called into which sustains the clouds and supports life. exercise by this simple and authoritative record (Heb. 9 This account appears to refer to the suspension of a xi. 3); of which highly poetical versions will be found portion of the water in the atmosphere. in Job xxxviii. 4-11; Psa. civ.; cxxxvi. 5-9; Prov. 10 Rather, "are. viii. 24–30.

11 This word signifies in some places the air; in others 2 The beginning here spoken of refers to a period of the regions in which the sun, moon, and stars are; and in undefined antiquity when God created the worlds out of others again the unseen dwelling-place of God. nothing.

12 Rather, 'luminaries:' not the same word as in ver. 3. 3 This represents the condition of the earth just before 13 Or, “Let the lights in the firmament of heaven be the six days work.

to divide the day from the night.” This does not neces4 Or, brooded;' a metaphor referring to the life and sarily signify that these lights were then first created; but beauty which the power of the Spirit would produce. I it may mean that they were then made to appear, by the

5 That is, upon the earth, which had lately been dark. dispersion of the dark and heavy vapours which before hid

6 This is often introduced to intimate that everything | them from the earth. as it comes from God is good; and therefore what is evil 14 Probably in the sense of appointed; as in 1 Sam. xi. cannot proceed from him. See James i. 17.

6; 2 Chr. xüi. 9; Job. xiv. 5; Psa. civ. 19. 7 The earth was turning on its axis, though the sun '15 Large animals of the reptile kind, and fish may be was not visible.

1 included here. See refs.

• ch. 2. 19.

29; Ac 17 26, 28, 29;

24: Col. 3. 10: Jam. 39. * ch. 9. 3, P. 8. -8;

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Cor. 11. 7.

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ch.9 1.7: Le. 26 9: Ps 197. 3: 1:2. 3. 4.

P. 104 14. 15: 136

i Ps. 145 15, 16: 117.9.

40. 15.

them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl |

multiply in the earth. And the evening and the morning were the fifth day. 24 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, 25 and creeping thing, and beast' of the earth after his kind : and it was so." And

God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind : and God saw that

it was good. 26 And God said, Let us make’ man in our image, after our likeness: and · let sh. 3:22;05.35.16

them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and Ps 100.3: E.ce. ?

over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth I Cor. 117 Eph 27 upon the earth. So God created man in his own image, in « the image of God 38 created he him; male and female created he them. And God blessed them, Jam. 37

And God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and char 21-25: 5.9 subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the : Mk 10.6.

air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. 29 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is a lis 16: Hos. 2.

upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree ch.9.3: Job 36. 31 30 yielding seed; "to you it shall be for meat. And torevery beast of the earth, 1, 5:146.7. Ac. 11.17

and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, Job :8. 11: 39..8;

wherein there is life a living soul], I have given every green herb for meat: and 31 it was so. And 'God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was * Pe 19.1: 101 24,31;

Fery good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day. 2 Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and on all the host of them. * And "P: .33 6. Is. 45, on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on "Ex 20,

rested on 205."11" 8. | 3 the seventh day from all his work which he had made. And God blessed the

seventh day, and sanctified' it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made.

Further account of creation ; Eden ; Adam and Eve in innocence. 4 THESE are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were ch.1:19: P.101.14 5 created, in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens, and every 63.911: Jer. 11 n.

plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it ich 3 19. 23: Pa. grew: for the LORD God had not' caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was 64.8:1Cor 15: 6 not a man' to till the ground. But there went up a mist from the earth, and 361 33. 4: Ac. 17.26. watered the whole face of the ground.

y 1 Cor. 15. 45 7 And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and " breathed into

his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. 8 And the LORD God planted : a garden“ eastwardo in Eden;" and there he put 12: Eze 27. 23. | 9 the man whom he had formed. And out of the ground made the Lord God to a Ese 31 8.

grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food; · the tree of life 11.307 Res. 2. 19; 10 also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil." And Wr. 17

I Tim. 4


12, s. " Ex 20. 11: 31. 17:

Deu. 5. 14, Heb. • Ex. 16. 29–30: 90.8

-Il: Neh 9 14: Is 56 2,7:58, 13, 14; Jer 17. 21-27; Mk.

Pch. 1. 1: Ps 90. 1.2.

Job 38.

6-18; Ps.

. ch. 3. 23.

Ich 7. 92: Is 2. 22.

!ch 13 10: - BÍ 3:

Eze. 28 13; Joel 2. 3. ach. 3. 24. b ch 4. 16: ? KL. 19.

1 This word, distinguished from cattle,' probably re- | xxxi. 13, 14), and now as a memorial of the great fact of 1 furs to animals not domesticated.

the Saviour's resurrection, and as set apart for the spiritual ! Many commentators are of opinion that the plural worship and services of his disciples (Acts xx. 7; 1 Cor.

is here used to indicate the threefold distinction in the xvi. 2; Rev. i. 10, etc.) 1 Godhead.

8 Rather, “This is the hi tory,' or 'account.' Such * With those intellectual and moral qualities which a phrase commonly indicates the commencement of a fitted him, as God's representative on earth, to govern the new narrative (see chap. v. 1; vi. 9; xi. 10; Matt. i. 1); lower creatures, and to know, love, and commune with and frequently a family history. This is a record of the his Creator. God's last and noblest work was man. He | earliest events in man's history. first created things which were only material, the heavens 9 Or, and before any plant of the field was in the and the earth. He then endowed matter with vegetable earth, and before any herb of the field grew. For the Lord life, and formed the grass and the trees; then with animal God, etc.; but there went up a mist, etc. This is probably life, bringing forth living creatures, from the lower to nother description of the state referred to, chap. i. 2. 6. 7. the higher orders. Now the material and the animal are 10 To the east of Canaan, or of the place where this united with the spiritual

history was written. * An emphatic rebuke to all those systems of idolatry 11 This region must have been somewhere along the i which consisted in the worship of these creatures. rivers Tigris and Euphrates; but its exact situation can

$ That is, 'food.' See note on the meat offering,' not be defined. Probably the surface of the country has | Exod. xxix. 41; Lev. ii. 1.

undergone great changes, so that part of the description 1 6 Or, "array;' all that belongs to them.

would not be applicable now. If, in ver. 10, we sub1 God set it apart for special religious use by manstitute 'afterwards' for from thence' (which the (Mark ii. 27). The artificial division of time into weeks, original will well bear), such a change will appear to be which was prevalent in the earliest ages (Gen. viii. 10, 1 referred to: so that what had originally been

en one vast 12; xxix. 27, 28), and the special provision of food for stream was afterwards divided into the four great Assyrian the Sabbath, and directions respecting it, before the law rivers, here called 'heads.' vre given at Sinai (Exod. xvi. 23), show that the Sabbath 12 These trees were so named from the uses to which existed from the beginning; although it has since been God applied them-appointing the one to be the means of | subjected to various regulations, first in its temporary preserving man's life, the other to be the test of his in

adaptation to the Mosaic economy (Exod. xx. 8-16, telligent obedience.

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