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GENERAL REMARKS

ON THB

POETICAL BOOKS, AND ON HEBREW POETRY.

This division of the Holy Scriptures comprises Job, Different classifications of this poetical parallelism have Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon. been proposed. The following, which is substantially that Some portions of these are earlier in date, and others of bishop Lowth, is given not as the best, but as the one later, than many parts of the historical books; but they most generally adopted. are classed together as being almost wholly in Hebrew 1. The first kind is that in which the responsive, or verse. They are not, however, the only poetical books of | second clause, repeats the first with some diversity Scripture; for the writings of the Prophets are also, for of words or thought. This is denominated by Lowth the most part, in this form.

synonymous, because the two lines frequently correspond The chief excellence of the Hebrew poetry is un one to another by expressing the same sense in different doubtedly to be found in the sublime sentiments and but equivalent terms. It is called by others cognate, as the great moral and spiritual truths by which it is per expressing the close relationship, without absolute idenvaded. It possesses also the elevation of style, the em tity, between the two members of the sentence; and by phatic collocation of words, the animation and richness others, again, gradational, as describing the progression of thought, and the force and delicacy of feeling, which of thought or expression which is often observable in the distinguish the best poetry of all languages; and, like second clause. This species of parallelism is the most Eastern poetry in general, it surpasses that of the Western frequent of all. It prevails chiefly in the Psalms, and world in the boldness of its figures and metaphors. shorter poems. The following are examples. Psa. xix. 1 :

Hebrew poetry, being of comparatively limited extent, does not present so many varieties as are to be found

The heavens declare the glory of God : in other literature; but three species are clearly dis

And the firmament showeth his handywork. tinguishable :-1, Lyrical. Its earliest productions, like | Psa. cxii. 1: those of other nations, seem to have been of this class,

Blessed is the man that feareth Jehovah, the expressions of excited feeling, which were intended

That delighteth greatly in his commandments. to be sung with musical accompaniment (see Exod. xv. 1--18; Judg. v.) of this kind are the greater part of 1 2. A second form of parallelism is the antithetic; in the Psalms, the Lamentations of Jeremiah, and the Song | which the idea contained in the second clause is conof Solomon. 2. Didactic poetry; of which species are the trasted with that in the first, either in expression or in books of Job, the Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and some of the sense. This is found mostly in the book of Proverbs. Psalms. And, 3. Prophetic poetry; comprising the writ 3. A third form is the synthetic, or constructive ; in ings of the sixteen Prophets.

which a new thought is added in the second member of As to the external form of Hebrew poetry, and the the verse, which yet is so expressed that it corresponds in laws which governed its construction, various opinions form with the first; the parallelism in this case being have been held at different periods. It was at one time merely rythmical, and not one of meaning. As examples, supposed to consist of syllabic metres similar to those of see Job ii. 3—9; Psa. cxlviii. 7-13; Isa. i. 5–9; Iviii. the Greek and Roman poets; but this theory was based 5-8. This kind of parallelism occurs very frequently in upon a partial examination, and has been proved to be the Scriptures, especially in the Prophets. altogether inapplicable to the poetry of the Hebrew | There are numerous parallel triplets, both of the Scriptures in general. It is equally certain that rhyme synonymous and the synthetic class : as Psa. i. 1; lxvii. did not usually enter into its composition, though some 18, 19; xciii. 3, 4. There are also many double parallelisms of the poets evidently delighted in the occasional occur. of all the three classes : as Psa. xxxvii. 1, 2; ciii. 11, 12; rence of similar sounds : and it is now generally agreed Prov. xi. 24; Isa. i. 3, 19, 20; ix. 10; Hab. iii. 17, 18. that its chief external characteristic is PARALLELISM or In stanzas of four lines, sometimes the members have an terse-rhythm, which consists in such an arrangement of | alternate correspondence, the first line answering to the the words composing the sentence, or verse, that when third, and the second to the fourth : as in Psa. xxxii. complete it resolves itself into two or more symmetrical 13, 14 ; xl. 7; xliv. 3; Isa. i. 15; ix. 10; xxx. 16. members, generally of nearly equal length, between Each kind of parallelism admits many subordinate which there is a certain relation of resemblance, corre varieties; and, in combinations of verses, the several spondence, or contrast, either as to thought or language, kinds are perpetually intermingled; circumstances which or both. The juxtaposition in which the several proposi at once enliven and beautify the composition, and fretions, or sets of ideas, are thus placed, is capable of being quently give peculiar distinctness and precision to the beautifully modified by poetical art. In the simplest train of thought.'—Jebb. construction of the parallelism, the first member, forming The parallelism affords important aid in interpretation the rise of the verse, is succeeded by its counterpart which | by exhibiting the salient points of the passage in their forms the fall. Sometimes the second member is an echo true relation. It is especially useful where the construcor an expansion of the first, expressing the same senti tion is complicated or elliptical, or where uncommon ments in a varied form. In other cases, the proposition words occur, as one member of a sentence which is clear being too long for one member is extended through two contributes much towards determining the sense of or more, the first breaking off abruptly at an important another which is ambiguous. part of the sentence (as in Psa. ex. 5); or an accessory Another artificial form which sometimes appears in sentence is subjoined in a second member (as in Psa. | Hebrew po

poetry is an alphabetical arrang cxli. 10); or, to deepen the impression, the main idea is letters of the successive lines or stanzas following the expressed in contrast or in comparison with some other. order of the letters of the alphabet. This is found in It is worthy of notice, that this peculiar characteristic of Psa. xxv., xxxiv., xxxvii., cxi., cxii., cxix., cxlv.; in Hebrew poetry is one which is not lost in translation, | Lam. i.-iv; and in Prov. xxxi. 10—31. This device and is therefore specially valuable in a book designed to was perhaps intended to assist the memory: it is found be published in all the languages of the earth.

| chiefly in poems consisting of detached sentiments.

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The book of Job derives its name from the venerable asserted that his religion is mere selfishness, is per. patriarch on whose eventful history it is founded. It mitted to deprive him of his children, and of all his pas presents many interesting subjects of inquiry, some of

Reggions. The faith of the patriarch. however, sustaios which are confessedly difficult and obscure. Only the him under every trial. To the loss of property, and to more important of these will be briefly noticed here. domestic bereavements, is then added the infliction of s

That Job was a real person, and that the events of his most painful and loathsome disease. Still Job keeps hía life here narrated actually occurred, may be inferred | integrity, and piously submits to God's chastening hand! from the manner in which he is spoken of in other pas In this state of things, three of his friends come to sages of Scripture (Ezek. xiv. 14; James v. 11): and condole with him. The overwhelming calamities which this conclusion is sustained by the particular details given have come upon so good a man appear to confound them of persons, places, etc...

His case is contrary to all their views and maxims with The country in which Job dwelt is not easily deter respect to God's way of dealing with the righteous; and mined Some consider it to have been in Idumea, or when he breaks out into the language of complaint and Arabia Deserta; others fix it in Mesopotamia.

despair, cursing the day of his birth, and implying that We have still greater difficulty in ascertaining the God acted arbitrarily in sending afflictions, they come time at which Job lived. Many circumstances, however, at once to the conclusion, that, so far from being upright lead us to conclude that it was before the departure of and holy, as they had supposed, he must be a wicked the Israelites from Egypt. Some suppose it to have man and a hypocrite. This, therefore, originates an inbeen at a still earlier period, even before the age of portant discussion with reference to the principles en Abraham. In support of this opinion it is alleged : which the Divine government in this world is conducted; that, (1.) The long life of Job, extending to two hun. whether a life of piety is not invariably attended with dred years, agrees only with the lives of the patriarchs prosperity, and whether extraordinary sufferings are not between Peleg and Abraham, (2.) The manners and demonstrative of corresponding guilt. customs described are those of the earliest ages. (3.) Eliphaz leads the way in the argument, and is fol. The religion of Job, requiring sacrifice, but without a | lowed by his two companions. They hold that there is distinct priesthood or sacred place, is such as prevailed strict retribution in the present life, and that it is in patriarchal times. (4.) The worship of the sun and reasonable to infer what a man's character is, from the moon is the only form of idolatry spoken of (ch. xxxi. present dealings of God with him; and they insinuate that 26—28), and this was unquestionably the most ancient. Job's extraordinary calamities must be a punishment la (6.) There is no allusion to the Mosaic law, or to the peculiar wickedness. They reprove him for impatient Divine interpositions on behalf of the Israelites in their and irreverent complaints of God; and exhort him to deliverance from Egypt and their journey to Canaan; repentance and reformation as a certain means of regainwhich are constantly used by the other sacred writers to ing his former prosperity. illustrate the character and government of Jehovah. Job replies to each of the speakers, boldly denying (6.) Neither is there any reference to the destruction their charges. He maintains that God, in distributing of Sodom and Gomorrah, which, as a direct and signal good and evil, acts according to his sovereign pleasere, judgment of the Almighty occurring in this vicinity, and that prosperity and adversity are no evidence of would hardly have been omitted in an argument of this character; and appeals to indisputable facts in proof of kind. Some, on the other hand, think that they have the long life and success of the wicked. He complains detected allusions to the overthrow of the cities of the bitterly of the treatment of his friends, who, instead of plain (ch. xv. 34 ; xviii, 13; xx. 26); and adduce the offering him consolation, aggravate his distress by false coincidence of many names occurring in this book with accusations; and expresses his earnest desire to carry his those of some of Abraham's descendants through Ishmael cause at once before God, in n whom he still confides. and Esau as indications of a rather later age. It is worthy His friends are greatly offended at his sentiments, and of notice, that, if Job lived between the deluge and the call attempt to vindicate the conduct of God towards him; of Abraham, we have an additional proof that God has repeating their charges with increasing warmth and never left the world without witnesses to his truth. asperity, and even accusing him of particular crimes.

Considerable difference of opinion has prevailed also But the more they press their arguments, the more conrespecting the author of this book. Some have supposed fidently does Job assert his innocence, and appeal to God that it was written by Job himself, or by Elihu; others to vindicate his character; until they are reduced to have ascribed it to Moses; whilst some eminent critics, silence. on account of certain peculiarities of language and style, Elihu then, who appears to have been an attentire as compared with those of some other Hebrew poems, listener, comes forward to reason with Job. His leading regard it as the production of an inspired poet about the principle is, that afflictions are for the good of the sufferer; time of Solomon : but it appears, upon the whole, more and that, if the afflicted hearken to the counsel which probable that it was written not very long after the events God thus sends, and turn from their sins, they will end occurred. Whoever may have been its author, we have their sufferings to be sources of great benefit. Here sufficient evidence of its Divine authority from the testi- | proves Job for justifying himself rather than God; and mony borne by our Lord and his apostles to the inspira vindicates the character and government of the last tion of the whole collection of the Old Testament, in High. To illustrate bis views, and to shor the names it which it was included. See General Preface, p. iv. of submission, he concludes with a sublime description of

The poetical form, in which the greater part of this book the greatness and majesty of God. is written, was most in accordance with the genius of the After this, the Lord himself addresses Job; not con country and of the age of Job, and afforded an opportunity descending to enter into any particular explanatica d for expressing the sentiments of the speakers in the most his conduct; but, from the consideration of his infinite terse, beautiful, and impressive manner.

and unsearchable wisdom and greatness, as seen ered in

the works of creation and providence, convincing Job of The book opens with a description of the character and presumption, ignorance, and guilt, in arraigning the dissufferings of the patriarch. He is a man of large posses pensations of his providence. sions, highly honoured by all who know him, and of Job, subdued and humbled, confesses that he is vile. His unimpeachable uprightness before God. Satan having confession is accepted, and his general course approred

His three friends are rebuked; Job is directed to make Divine character and government. They lost their intercession for them; and prosperity is heaped upon him temper, and would have lost their labour, and have been more largely than ever.

more at variance than ever, if the controversy had not

been decided by the intervention of the highest auWhilst the course and result of the argument are suf thority ficiently clear, the object of the book has long been a This book also shows the opinions which prevailed, in subject of controversy. Perhaps the following remarks the early ages of the world, on an important question may set this in the right point of view. In asserting connected with the Divine government, which often tried that the religion of one of the best of men was only a the faith of believers (see Psa. lxxiii.; John ix. 2): why refined selfishness, the accuser of the brethren' had im the good are afflicted, and the wicked are often prosperous. pugned the fundamental principle of true piety. God, And while we see, on the one hand, the great superiority therefore, permits this to be put to the severest test by of the views of Divine Providence here expressed to any. the removal of everything that could be supposed to have thing which can be found in the writings of the Greek produced a mercenary religion; and the result is, that | and Roman sages, we see also, on the other, how much Satan's falsehood is completely refuted. For whilst Job | cause we have for gratitude on account of the clearer and too passionately maintains his innocence of those egre fuller revelation we enjoy. gious sins with which his friends had erroneously con It should be observed that, although the inspiration nected his unusual sufferings, and thus loses some of the of the book of Job is undoubted, it is clear that when consolation which he might have enjoyed, he is so far he or his friends utter erroneous opinions, or argue infrom turning away from God, and renouncing the desire correctly by drawing wrong inferences from right princiof his favour, that he only asks to obtain from him a ples, we are not to consider their sentiments as the voice hearing, fully assured that the Judge of all the earth' of inspiration. Their arguments and expressions must will do right,' and that it shall ultimately be well with be compared with the law of God, and with the nature of those who trust in him (ch. xix. 23-26). Herein Job true religion as exhibited in other portions of God's speaks of Him 'the thing that is right,' and in the end word, and especially as manifested in the example and is accepted and honoured as a true believer (ch. xlii. 7, 8). spirit of Him who was the only perfect Being who ever Thus the nature and power of confiding faith in God are appeared in our nature. illustrated, and it is shown that the principle of real piety was the same under the patriarchal dispensation as under

GENERAL ANALYSIS OF THE BOOK. those economies which are blessed with larger revelations I. The HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION in prose (ch. i., ii.) of the Divine will.

II. The ARGUMENT or CONTROVERSY in poetry, in five In connection with this, believers in all ages are taught divisions. that in the most inscrutable acts of God's sovereignty, 1 1. The first series of the controversy, comprising Job's his Divine justice, wisdom, and love are engaged. So that complaint (ch. iii.); speech of Eliphaz (iv., v.); however difficult it may sometimes be to discover why answer of Job (vi., vii.); speech of Bildad (viii.); afilictions are sent, the righteous ought to bear them

answer of Job (ix., x.); speech of Zophar (xi.); with patient resignation, and to maintain unimpaired answer of Job (xii.-xiv.) their confidence in the all-wise Disposer of events, wbo 2. The second series, consisting of the speech of Eliphaz sends such trials in mercy, and will give to them a happy (ch. xv.); answer of Job (xvi., xvii.); speech of issue. "Behold,' says the apostle James, we count them

Bildad (xviii.); answer of Job (xix.); speech of happy which endure. Ye have heard of the patience of Zophar (xx.); answer of Job (xxi.) Job, and have seen the end of the Lord; that the Lord is 3. The third series, comprising the speech of Eliphaz Fery pitiful, and of tender mercy,

(ch. xxii.); answer of Job (xxiii., xxiv.); speech We are also warned against hastily judging our brethren,

of Bildad (xxv.): answer of Job (xxvi. xxi.) and reminded of the bad effects of warm controversies on 4. The speech of Elihu (ch. xxxii.--xxxvi.) religious subjects. Job and his friends, though all pious 6. The Close of the discussion, by the address of the men, disputed till they became angry, censured and con

Almighty (ch. xxxvii.- xli.); and Job's response demned each other, departed in opposite directions from

and penitential confession (xlii. 1-6). the truth, and uttered many irreverent things about the III. The CONCLUSION in prose (ch. xlii. 7–17).

Job's prosperity; his afflictions, and submission. 1 THERE was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job; and that man was • Ge. 10. 23: 22. 20.91,

Hae: Jer, 25 20. 2 perfect and upright, and one that "feared God, and eschewed evil. And there 6 Eze, 14 14; Jan. 3. 3 were born unto him seven sons and three daughters. His substance ? also was e ver. 8; ch. 2. 3: 2

11, 12Gr. 69: 17. 1 Beren thousand sheep, and three thousand camels, and five hundred yoke of oxen, 1; 2 Ki. 20. 3; LI. and fire hundred she asses, and a very great household; so that this man was Pro. & 13; 166

s the greatest of all the men of the east. 4 And his sons went and feasted in their houses, every one his day;5 and sent and * ch. 2. 9, 10, 28 5 called for their three sisters to eat and to drink with them. And it was so, when i 10 m, 16 the days of their feasting were gone about, that Job sent and sanctified? them, Ex. 18. 12.

Ge. 6. 5; 1 Ki 21. 10, and rose up early in the morning, and offered burnt offerings according to the 13; Jer. 17. 9; M. number of them all: for Job said, It may be that my sons have sinned, and 1 eh, 2. 1.

mch, 37; 1 Kl. 22 * cursedGod in their hearts. Thus did Job continually. 6 Now 'there was a day when the sons of God O n came to present themselves a P1032

11.

'ch. 42.13 sch, 42. 12.

h Ge. 35. 2

Ex, 19.

19: Ps. 101. 4.

1 His general conduct was thoroughly consistent with is knowledge and professed piety.

2 Heb., 'cattle ;''in which the wealth of nomadic tribes 1 sainly consists. 3 She-asses are very valuable in the East, on account their milk. 4 Heb., sons of the East;' an expression often used in cripture to denote the inhabitants of Arabia, eastward of alestine. 3 These were periodical family festivals held in each ther's houses; perhaps on their respective birthdays.

6 The sisters lived, according to the custom of the East, with their mother.

7 Or, prepared them to offer sacrifice.' See refs. Job feared that their festivity might have thrown his sons off their guard, leading them perhaps to forget God while enjoying his bounties.

& The word here used commonly means to bless; hence sometimes to dismiss, and probably to forget or renounce. So in ver. 11, and ch. ii. 5, 9. .

9 Sometimes called "saints' (holy ones); more generally angels' (messengers). The first name refers to

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7 before the LORD, and Satan! (the adversary came also among them. And the l' E, 5-1

LORD said unto Satan, Whence comest thou? Then Satan answered the LORD, 1. 11: Ret 101

and said, From P going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in 1 Pet. 3o; ko a 8 it. And the LORD said unto Satan, Hast thou considered my servant Job, that 2x: $ ,

there is none like him in the earth,' a perfect and an upright man, one that it 9 feareth God, and escheweth evil? Then Satan answered the LORD, and said, ' I B; data. I 10 " Doth Job fear God for nought? Hast not thou made an hedge about him, and a

about his house, and about all that he hath on every side? - thou hast blessed. Gel

the work of his hands, and his substance for, cattle) is increased in the land. , SPLIT 11 y But put forth thine hand now, and touch all that he hath, and he will : curse Pra nga 12 thee to thy face. And the Lord said unto Satan, . Behold, all that he bath is in 1 kus

thy power; only upon himself put not forth thine hand. So Satan went forth

from the presence of the LORD. 13 And there was a day when his sons and his daughters were eating and 14 drinking wine in their eldest brother's house : and there came a messenger unto 15 Job, and said, The oxen were plowing, and the asses feeding beside them: and

the "Sabeans fell upon them, and took them away, yea, they have slain the 4 Gela 7, :10

servants with the edge of the sword; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee. 16 While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said, The fires of God is

fallen from heaven, and hath burned up the sheep, and the servants, and consumed 17 them; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee. While he was yet speaking,

there came also another, and said, The Chaldeans* made out three bands, and fell GeILS; EALLY

upon the camels, and have carried them away, yea, and slain the servants with 18 the edge of the sword; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee. While he was

yet speaking, there came also another, and said, 'Thy sons and thy daughters vers 1, 19 were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brether's house : and, behold, there

came a great wind from the wilderness, 6 and smote the four corners of the house, and it fell upon the young men, and they are dead; and I only am escaped alone

to tell thee. 20 Then Job arose, 5 and rent his mantle, and a shaved his head, and fell down 21 upon the ground, and worshipped, and said, *Naked came I out of my mother's

womb, and naked shall I return thither : the LORD 'gave, and the LORD hath 22 m taken away; " blessed be the name of the LORD.9 "In all this Job sinned not,

nor charged God foolishly. 2 Again P there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves

before the LORD, and Satan came also among them to present himself before the 2 LORD. And the LORD said unto Satan, From whence comest thou? And . Satan

answered the LORD, and said, From going to and fro in the earth, and from 3 walking up and down in it. And the LORD said unto Satan, Hast thou con

sidered my servant Job, that there is none like him in the earth, 'a perfect and an upright man, one that feareth God, and escheweth evil? and still he holdeth

fast his integrity, although thou movedst me against him, " to destroy him 4 without cause. And Satan answered the LORD, and said, Skin for skin, 10 yea, "all 5 that a man hath will he give for his life. But put forth thine hand now, and ach. L 12 6 touch his bone and his flesh, and he will curse thee to thy face. And the

LORD said unto Satan, Behold, he is in thine hand; but for, only) save his life. 7 So went Satan forth from the presence of the LORD, and smote Job with sore boils 11 8 < from the sole of his foot unto his crown. And he took him a potsherd to scrape.

himself withal; ' and he sat down among the ashes. 9 Then said his wife unto him, Dost thou still & retain thine integrity ? curse 1 Mai i

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their origin, the second to their character, the third to second causes of his afflictions, and found consolation in their office.

the belief that an infinitely wise and merciful Sovereign I For a similar mode of representation, see 1 Kings presided over his affairs. What a triumph over Satan's xxii. 19, and note; and Zech. iii. 1. These passages teach devices! us that even Satan is subject to the control of God.

10 This is a proverbial expression, of which the meaning 2 Rather, 'for;' indicating the cause of the question. is doubtful. Some consider the sense to be property 3 Lightning (Exod. ix. 23).

person ; skins forming a valuable part of an Arab's pines 4 Predatory inroads of the Chaldeans are mentioned in perty. Most recent commentators, howerer, regard Gen. xi. 28 : see also Hab. i. 6—11.

meaning one equal thing for another;" that is, while 5 For the purpose of surrounding the camels. See Gen. Job has preserved to him what is equivalent to property xiv. 15; Judg. vii. 16, 21; 1 Sam. xi. 11.

and children -- his own life - no wonder he retains 38 6 Rather, from beyond the wilderness;' having had all integrity. Satan's inference is, that Job's piety bsd Dot the desert to blow over. Such winds are very violent. yet been subjected to the severest test. See Isa. xxi. 1; Jer. iv, 11; Zech. ix. 14.

11 This is generally supposed to have been a species of 7 Or, young people;' including Job's sons and daughters. leprosy, called elephantiasis. The nature and execa e

8 Divesting himself, as a mourner, of whatever was the disease may be learned from other passages. See oli deemed ornamental.

ii. 6; vii. 4, 5; xiii. 14, 28; xvi. 8, 16, xvii. 1; xix, 30; 9 Job looked beyond the immediate instruments or 1 xxx. :7, 30.

38–41; John 18. 11; Rom. 12. 18: Hed. 12. 9-11; Jam. &

* ch. 1. 22.

P Jos. 15 11.
9 ch. 12. 11; Ge. 37.

35; John 11. 19;

12. 26; Heb. 13. 2

Lam. 2.10: Eze, %

30; Ac. 22. 23
( Ezra 9. 3: Ne. 1.
Ge. 50. 10; 1 Sam.

31. 13.
#ch. 4. 2

15. 10; 20. 14, 15

• Joel 22
« Deu. 11. 12

b ch. 10. 21, 22; 16. 16;

28 3: Px 2.4: 44 19: 107. 10,14; Is. 9. 4; Jer. 13 16; Am.

Exe. 34 12

10 God, and die. But he said unto her, Thou speakest as one of the foolish? women A 2 Sam. 19. 2; ML

16 33 speaketh. What? I shall we receive good at the hand of God, and shall we not ch. 1. 21: Lam. a

receive evil ! "In all this did not Job'sin with his lips. 11 Now when Job's three friends heard of all this evil that was come upon him, 10.11. they came every one from his own place; Eliphaz the ~ Temanite, * and Bildad the

i Ps 39. 1, Jam. 22

m Pro. 17. 17. Shuhite, and Zophar the ” Naamathite: for they had made an appointment

* Ge. 36 11; Jer. 19.7. 12 together to come to mourn with him and to comfort him. And when they • Ge. 25. 2

lifted up their eyes afar off, and knew him not, 5 they lifted up their voice, 6 and

wept; and they rent every one his mantle, and sprinkled dust upon their Ro. 12. 15; I Cor. 13 heads toward heaven. So they sat down with him upon the ground "seven : Ch. 1..

see refs. Jos. 7. 6 days? and seven nights, and none spake a word 8 unto him: for they saw that his grief was very great.

Job's complaint. 3 AFTER this opened Job his mouth, and cursed his day.' And Job spake,

and said, 3 Let the day perish wherein I was born,

y eh. 10. 18, 19; Jer. And the night in which it was said, -There is a man child conceived. 4 Let that day be darkness ; let not God regard it from above,

Neither let the light shine upon it. 5 Let darkness and the shadow of death 10 stain it;

Let a cloud dwell upon it;-let the blackness of the day terrify it. 6 As for that night, let darkness seize upon it;

Let it not be joined unto the days of the year,

Let it not come into the number of the months. 7 Lo, let that night be solitary,–let no joyful voice come therein. 8 Let them curse it that curse the day, who are ready to raise up their mourning. 114 Chr: 35 25; Jer. 9 Let the stars of the twilight thereof be dark ;— let it look for light, but have none; eh. 30. 26.

Neither let it see the dawning of the day: 10 Because it shut not up the doors of my mother's womb,

Jer. 20. 17. Nor hid sorrow froni mine eyes. 11 Why died I not from the womb ?

ch. 10. 18. Why did I not give up the ghost when I came out of the belly ? 13 12 A Why did the knees prevent 13 me ?-or why the breasts that I should suck? * Ge. 30. 3; I. 66. 12. 13 For now should I have lain still and been quiet,

I should have slept: then had I been at rest, 14 With kings and counsellors of the earth, Which built desolate places 14 for themselves;

lich. 15. 28; Is. 22 16; 15 Or with princes that had gold,—who filled their houses with silver: 16 Or kas an hidden untimely birth I had not been ;

* Ps. 58. & As infants which never saw light. 17 There 'the wicked cease from troubling;—and there the weary be " at rest. 1 ? Ther. 1. 6, 7.

Is. 57. 1,3; Heh. 18 There the prisoners rest together ;--* they hear not the voice of the oppressor. 19.The small and great are there ;-and the servant is free from his master. 20 Wherefore is light given to him that is in misery,

P Jer. n 18 And life unto the bitter in soul;

91 Sam. I. 10; 2 Ki. 21 Which " long for death, but it cometh not;

1 Kl. 19. A: Jon. 4. And dig for it more than for hid treasures ; 22 Which rejoice exceedingly, and are glad, when they can find the grave? 23 Why is light given to a man' whose way is hid,— and whom God hath hedged in? | kom.

Mt. 2. 59, 60.

9,11: Rev. 14 13. #ch. 39. 7. . ch. 30. 23; Fee. & 8;

Lk. 16. 22, 23; Heb.

4. 47: Pro. 31. 6

3; Rev. 9. & • Pro. 2, I ls. 10. 27. "ch. 12. 14; 19. 8:

Lam. 27, 9; Hos

1 This might be translated, either · Praise God, and 7 A usual time of mourning among Orientals. See refs. die !' i. e. Go on as you have done, serving God under 8 They were astonished at Job's sufferings, and unable the loss of your property and family, and you will lose all to offer any consolation in consequence of the views they that you have left, your life; or rather, Bid farewell to entertained of their cause (i.e. renounce) God, and die.' See note on ch. i. 5.

9 Overcome by his sufferings, Job uttered expressions 2 This often means wicked.' See Gen. xxxiv. 7. which cannot be vindicated. We must, however, remem

3 That is, "Shall we recognise God only in the bestow ber that the light he enjoyed, and the sources of comfort ment of blessings, and not also in the allotment of open to him, were far inferior to those which we possess. Borrow?"

* 10 An expression denoting the deepest darkness. It 4 These personal and geographical names, as well as occurs very frequently in this book. those in ch. i. 1, 15, 17, give some clue to the scene of the 11 Rather, who are skilful in calling up Leviathan ;' history. See ress. and Preface. These friends of Job seem i. e. by their incantations. to have been not only persons of distinction, but also men 12 That is, 'If I must be born, why did I not immeof wisdom and piety, though in the ensuing debate they diately perish ; and why, if this might not be, did not expressed many erroneous views.

my parents refuse to nourish me" (ver. 12). 3 So altered was his appearance by disease and suffering | 13" That is, anticipate my wants.' 6 See note on Ezra iii. 13.

1 14 Or, lonely places'--sepulchres.

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