The Law of Nations: Or, Principles of the Law of Nature, Applied to the Conduct and Affairs of Nations and Sovereigns. From the French of Monsieur de Vattel

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G.G. and J. Robinson, 1797 - 500페이지
 

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Seet page 142 What foundation is required for ordinary preſcription 189
xxxix
Sect page
xlii
How ſhe is obliged to reſtore it 238
xlvii
Equivocal expreſſions 250
xlvii
Sca page
xlvii
CHA P VIII
xlvii
Of the Rights of Nations in War and firſt of what we have a Right to do and what we are allowed to do to the Enemys Perſon in a juft War Sect page ...
xlvii
Seet page 165 Contributions 366
xlvii
CHA P XIII
l
Seet page
lii
Sect page
liii
War a mode of acquiſition 384
lvii
Sect page
lvii
Advantages of glory
lvii
23 Subjects cannot commit hoftilities without the ſovereigns
2
Who is an enemy 321
7
Education of youth
48
Arts and ſciences ibid 114 Freedom of philoſophical diſcuſſion
49
Love of virtue and abhorrence of vice to be excited
51
The nation may hence diſcover the intention of her rulers ib 117 The nation or public perſon bound to perfect her under standing and will
52
Whether women and children are to be accounted enemies
72
Of Juſtice and Polity
77
A nation is bound to make juſtice flouriſh
78
Criminal laws ibid
83
Obligation to cultivare doineſtic trade
86
Valour
88
Example of the Swiſs ibid
92
Eſabliſhment of a Nation in a Country
98
What is our country IOI 212 Citizens and natives ibid 213 Inhabitants
102
Settlement ibid its miniſter at a foreign court
103
Vagrants ibid 225 Whether a perſon may quit his country ibid 221 How a perſon may abſent himſelf for a time
105
Caſes in which a citizen has a right to quit his country ib 224 Emigrants
106
If the ſovereign infringes their right he injures them
107
The exile and the baniſhed man have a right to live fome where
108
Dominion over public property
113
The ſovereign may make laws reſpecting the uſe of things poſſeſſed in common ibid
113
Alienation of the property of a corporation ibid 248 Uſe of common property
114
How each member is to enjoy it ibid 250 Right of anticipation in the uſe of it ibid 251 The ſame right in another caſe ibid 252 Preſervation and repair...
116
Duties of the nation in that reſpect ibid 259 Duties of the prince
117
Alienation of a part of the ſtate
118
Rights of the diſmembered party ibid 265 Whether the prince has power to diſmember the ſtate 119
119
Of Rivers Streams and Lakes 266 A river that ſeparates two territories
120
Bed of a river which is dried up or takes another courſe
121
Conſequence of a river changing its bed
122
Works tending to turn the current ibid 272 or generally prejudicial to the rights of others ibid 273 Rules relative to interfering rights ibid 274 Lakes...
123
Increaſe of a lake ibid
124
Land formed on the banks of a lake
125
Booty ibid
164
foreigners
171
Entering the territory
172
Foreigners are ſubject to the laws ibid 102 and puniſhable according to the laws ibid 103 Who is the judge of their diſputes
173
Increaſe of population
179
Other military virtues 89
182
Difference between equal treaties and equal alliances
200
The violation of one treaty does not cancel another ibid
201
Unequal treaties and unequal alliances ibid 176 An alliance with dininution of ſovereignty may annul pre cerling creatics
202
We ought as much as poſſible to avoid making unequal alliances
203
The treaty is void by the deſtruction of one of the contracte
216
Thoſe made by ſubordinate powers
218
Treaties concluded by a public perſon without orders from the ſovereign or without ſufficient powers 219
219
A nation cannot puniſh them for faults committed out of her territories 109
232
233 except ſuch as affect the common ſafety of mankind ibid
233
What the Romans called res communes
234
Aggregate wealth of a nation and its diviſions ibid
235
It gives the guarantee no right to interfere unaſked in the execution of a treaty 236
236
Two modes of acquiring public property 110
237
The nation may grant him the uſe and property of her com mon poſſeſſions ibid
238
or allow him the domain and reſerve to herſelf the uſe of them ibid
239
Treaties with ſurely ibid
240
Taxes 111
241
Sovereign pofſeffing that power ibid
242
Duries of the prince with reſpect to taxes 112
244
rules
247
General rule of interpretation ibid 271 The terms are to be explained conformably to common uſage
248
Interpretation of ancient treaties ibid 273 Quibbles on words
249
Things of a mixed nature
266
Interpretation of favourable things ibid 308 Interpretation of odious things
267
Examples
268
How we ought to interpret deeds of pure liberality
270
zu Colliſion of laws or treaties
271
A rule on that ſubject ibid
274
Mental reſervations ibid
275
Interprelation of technical terms ibid
276
Terms whoſe ſignification admits of degrecs 250
278
How we acquire a right of recurring to force in a doubt
280
order 399
311
Firſt rule in caſes of colliſion ibid
312
Second rule ibid
313
Third rule ibid
314
Fourth rule 272
316
Sixth rule 273
318
Things belonging to the enemy
322
Refuſal of the ſuccours due in virtue of an alliance ibid
328
Retortion ibid
341
What is required to render them lawful 284
344
The ſovereign alone can order repriſals ibid
346
What may be deemned a refuſal to do juſtice 287
351
Stratagems and artifices in war
373
Spies
375
Clandeſtine ſeduction of the enemys people
376
Whether the offers of a traitor may be accepted 377 Od 182 Deceitful intelligence
377
H A P XI
378
Great guilt of the ſovereign who undertakes it ibid 185 His obligations
379
Difficulty of repairing the injury he has done ibid 187 Whether the nation and the military are bound to any thing
380
CH A P XII
381
Why they are bound to admit the voluntary law of nations ib 190 Regular war as to its effects is to be accounted juſt on both ſides
382
Whatever is permitted to one party is ſo to the other ibid 192 The voluntary law gives no more than impunity w hiin who wages an unjust war
383
Preciſe meaning of the order
400
Privateers ibid 230 Volunteers
401
What ſoldiers and ſubalterns may do ibid 232 Whether the ſtate is bound to indemnify the ſubjects for damages ſuſtained in war 402
402
Of various Conventions made during the Courſe of the War 233 Truce and ſuſpenſion of arms
404
General truce for many years ibid 237 By whom thoſe agreements may be concluded
405
The ſovereigns faith engaged in them
406
When the vuce begins to be obligatory ibid 240 Publication of the truce ibid
406
Subjects contravening the truce ibid 242 Violation of the truce
407
what is allowed or not during its continuance Firſt ruleEach party may do at home what they have a right to do in time of peace
408
Second rule Not to take advantage of the truce in doing what hoſtilities would have prevented
409
or introducing ſuccours ibid 249 Diſtinction of a particular caſe
410
Retreat of an army during a ſuſpenſion of hoftilities ibid 251 Third rule Nothing to be attempted in conteſted places but every thing to be left as it was
411
Protection due to foreigners ibid 105 Their duties ibidores 106 To what burthens they are ſubject 174
430

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131 페이지 - All commerce is entirely prohibited with a besieged town. If I lay siege to a place, or only form the blockade. I have a right to hinder any one from entering, and to treat as an enemy whoever attempts to enter the place, or carry any thing to the besieged, without my leave.
19 페이지 - All mankind have an equal right to things that have not yet fallen into the possession of any one, and those things belong to the person who first takes possession of them. When, therefore, a nation finds a country uninhabited and without an owner, it may lawfully take possession of it, and after it has sufficiently made known its will in this respect, it cannot...
20 페이지 - In effect, when navigators have met with desert countries in which those of other nations had, in their transient visits, erected some monument to show their having taken possession of them, they have paid as little regard to that empty ceremony as to the regulation of the popes, who divided a great part of the world between the crowns of Castile and Portugal.
123 페이지 - ... to the calamities of war, when he has it in his power to maintain them in the enjoyment of an honourable and falutary peace. And if to this imprudence, this want of love for his people, he moreover adds...
104 페이지 - The voice of equity and the general rule of contracts require that the conditions between the parties should be equal. We are not to presume, without very strong reasons, that one of the Contracting Parties intended to favour the other to his own prejudice ; but there is no danger in extending what is for the common advantage. If, therefore, it happens that the Contracting Parties have not made known their...
66 페이지 - CHAP. vii. certam persons or for certain particular purposes, according as he may think it advantageous to the state. There is nothing in all this that does not flow from the rights of domain and sovereignty : every one is obliged to pay respect to the prohibition ; and whoever dares to violate it, incurs the penalty decreed to render it effectual. But the prohibition ought to be known, as well as the penalty annexed to disobedience : those who are ignorant of it, ought to be informed of it when...
xxv 페이지 - It is not allowable to interpret what has no need of interpretation, and when the words have a definite and precise meaning, to go elsewhere in search of conjecture in order to restrict or extend the meaning.
51 페이지 - Further, one country is fitter for some kind of products than another; as, for instance, fitter for the vine than for tillage, If trade and barter take place, every nation, on the certainty of procuring what it wants, will employ its land and its industry in the most advantageous manner; and mankind in general prove gainers by it.
69 페이지 - ... liberty of living in the country without respecting the laws. If he violates them he is punishable as a disturber of the public peace, and guilty of a crime against the society in which he lives; but he is not obliged to submit, like the subjects, to all the commands of the sovereign ; and if such things are required of him as he is unwilling to perform he may quit the country."— Vattel.
68 페이지 - Even in the countries where every stranger freely enters, the sovereign is supposed to allow him access only upon this tacit condition, that he be subject to the laws ; I mean the general laws made to maintain good order, and which have no relation to the title of citizen, or of subject of the state.

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