The Law of Nations: Or, Principles of the Law of Nature, Applied to the Conduct and Affairs of Nations and Sovereigns. From the French of Monsieur de Vattel

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G.G. and J. Robinson, 1797 - 500페이지
 

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Sca page 320 Ninth rule 274
xli
Sect page
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What is facred among nations 229
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How ſhe is obliged to reſtore it 238
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Seet page
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H A P VIII
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Se page
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Of the Rights of Nations in War and firſt of what we have a Right to do and what we are allowed to do to the Enemys Perſon in a juft War Sect page ...
xlvii
Contributions 366
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Seet page
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Ninth rule 274
liv
CHAP XVIII
liv
Particular limitation with reſpect to the prince 141 ibid
17
No nation ought to injure others
18
Arbitration between the king and his ſubjects
20
Obedience which ſubjects owe to a ſovereign
21
In what caſes they may reſiſt him ibid 55 Miniſters
23
Whether elective kings be real ſovereigns
24
Cultivation of the fuil a natural obligation ibid 82 Public granaries
36
H A P VIII
37
Education of youth
48
Arts and ſciences ibid 114 Freedom of philoſophical diſcuſſion
49
Love of virtue and abhorrence of vice to be excited
51
origin of the right of ſuc ceflion ibid
58
Other origin of that right ibid
59
Of the Right to Security and the Effects of the Sovereignty
67
Who is an enemy 321
70
terrupting ihe courſe of juſtice
75
Duty of the aggreſſors ſovereign 163
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Another caſe in which the nation is guilty of the crimes
78
Utility of domeſtic trade ibid
84
Utility of foreign trade ibid
85
Obligation to cultivate domeſtic trade ibid
86
Valour
88
Other military virtues
89
Riches ibid 183 Public revenues and taxes
90
Advantages of glory
91
Duty of the members of a ſtate or ſubjects of a prince
97
The nation may hence diſcover the intention of her rulers
116
The nation or public perſon bound to perfect her under ſtanding and will 52
117
The right over the enemys perſon ibid
139
an cnemy not to be killed after ceaſing to refilt ibid
140
What foundation is required for ordinary preſcription 189 ibid
142
Immeinorial preſcription
143
Claimant alleging reaſons for his filence 190
145
Preſcription founded on the actions of the proprietor ibid
146
How far lawful to give up by treaty the liberty of trading
147
Ulucaption and preſcription take place between nations ibid
147
A nation may appropriate to herſelf a particular branch
147
More difficult between nations to found them on a pre ſumptive deſertion ibid
148
Other principles that enforce preſcription 191
150
Nature of treaties 192
153
Right to ſecurity
154
Whether a ftate under protection may make treaties 193
156
Validity of treaties 194
158
Duty of nations in that reſpect ibid
159
Neceffity of the obſervance of juſtice in human ſociety
160
Nuliity of treaties made for an unjuſt or diſhoneſt purpoſe 195
162
Obligation to obſerve treaties ibid
163
the citizens
164
What is comprehended in the domain of a nation 165
165
A conſequence of that principle ibid 83 Connection of the domain of the nation with the ſovereigntyib 84 Juriſdiction
166
Effects of the juriſdiction in foreign countries ibid 86 Deſert and uncultivated places
167
Duty of the nation in that reſpect
168
Right of poſſeſſing things that have no owner ibid 89 Rights granted to another nation ibid go Notallowable to expela nation from the country ſhe inh...
169
The limits of territories ought to be carefully aſcertained ibid 93 Violation of territory ibid 94 Prohibition to enter the territory
170
A country poffeffed by ſeveral nations at the ſame time ibid 96 A country poflefled by a private perſon ibid 97 Independent families in a country ibi...
171
Entering the territory
172
Foreigners are ſubject to the laws ibid 102 and puniſhable according to the laws ibid 103 Who is the judge of their diſputes
173
Sea page 109 nor over his property
174
Who are the heirs of a foreigner
175
Will of a foreigner ibid 112 Eſcheatage
176
CHAP IX
179
Right of making uſe of things belonging to others ibid 122 Right of carrying off women ibid 123 Right of paffage
181
and of procuring neceffaries ibid 125 Right of dwelling in a foreign country ibid 126 Things of which the uſe is inexhauſtible
181
Right of innocent uſe ibid
181
Right of innocent uſe ibid 128 Nature of that right in general
182
Nuliity of treaties made for an unjuſt or diſhoneſt purpoſe
195
Obligation to obſerve treaties ibid 164 The violation of a treaty is an act of injuſtice
196
Treaties cannot be made contrary to thoſe already exiſting ib 166 How creaties inay be concluded with ſeveral nations with the faine view
197
Collition of thoſe creaties with the duties we owe to our felves
198
Obligation to preſerve equality in treaties
199
Difference between equal treaties and equal alliances
200
Unequal treaties and unequal alliances ibid 126 An alliance with dininution of ſovereignty may annul pre celing creaties
202
We ought as inuch as poſſible to avoid making unequal alliances
203
Uſucapion and prcícription derived from the law of natureib
217
Of other public Conventions of thoſe that are made by Subordi
218
Treaties ſacred between nations ibid
219
The faith of treaties is ſacred ibid
220
He who violates his treaties violates the law of nations ibid
221
Right of nations againſt him who diſregards the faith
222
Source of the neceflity of ſuch an order ibid
225
Why the law of nations ſhould have adopted this rule ibid
226
Seet page
228
treaties
230
The law of nations violated by the popes ibid 224 This abule authoriſed by princes
231
Uſe of an oath in creaties It does not conſtitute the obligation
232
It does not change the nature of obligations ibid 227 It gives no preeminence to one treaty above another ibid 228 It cannot give force to a treaty tha...
233
Faith tacitly pledged ibid
234
Of Securities given for the Obſervance of Treaties 235 Guaranty
235
le gives the guarantee no right to interfere unalked in the execution of a treaty
236
Nature of the obligation it impoſes ibid 238 The guaranty cannot impair the rights of a third party ibid 239 Duration of the guaranty
237
Treaties with furety jbid
240
Pawns ſecurities and mortgages ibid
241
A nations right over what the holds as a pledge ibid
242
rules
247
General rule of interpretation ibid 271 The terms are to be explained conformabiy to common uſage
248
Interpretation of ancient treaties ibid 273 Quibbles on words
249
A rule on that ſubject ibid
274
Mental reſervations ibid 275 Interpretation of technical terms ibid
275
Mental reſervations 276 Interpretation of technical terms ibid
276
Compromiſe ibid 328 Mediation ibid 329 Arbitration
277
Terms whoſe fignification admits of degrees 250
278
Eſſential rights and thoſe of leſs importance
279
and even without attempting other meaſures ibid 335 Voluntary law of nations on that ſubject ibid 336 Equitable conditions to be offerred
281
Poſſeſſors righe in doubtful caſes
282
How reparation of an injury is to be fought ibid 339 Retaliation ibid 340 Various modes of puniſhing without having recourſe to arms
283
Retortion ibid 342 Repriſals ibid 343 What is required to render them lawful
284
priſals
285
Things belonging to the enemy
322
Refuſal of the ſuccours due in virtue of an alliance ibid
328
The ſovereign alone can order repriſals ibid
346
Repriſals againſt a nation for actions of her ſubjects and in favour of the injured ſubjects ibid
347
but not in favour of foreiguers ibid
348
Thoſe who have given cauſe for repriſals are bound to in demnify thoſe who ſuffer by them 286
349
Fugitives and deſerters
351
What may be deemed a refuſal to do juſtice 287
351
Women children the aged and ſick ibid 146 Clergy men of letters c
352
Our right againſt thoſe who oppole sepriſals 288
353
How we ought to confine ourſelves to repriſals or at length proceed to hoſtilities ibid
354
How priſoners of war are to be treated ibid 151 Whether priſoners who cannot be kept or fed may be put to death
355
Whether priſoners of war may be made ſlaves
356
Exchange and ranſom of priſoners
357
The ſtate is bound to procure their releaſe ibid 155 Whether an enemy niay lawfully be aſſafinated or poi foned
358
Wether poiſoned weapons may be uſed in war
361
Whether ſprings inay be poiſoned ibid 158 Difpofition to be entertained towards an enemy
362
Tenderneſs for the perſon of a king who is in arms againſt us
363
Principles of the right over things belonging to the enemy
364
The right of ſeizing them ibid 162 What is taken from the enemy by way of penalty ibid 163 What is withheld from him in order to oblige him to gi...
365
Stratagems and artifices in war
373
Spies
375
Clandeſtine ſeduction of the enemys people
376
Whether the offers of a traitor may be accepted
377
Terms whoſe fignification adınits of degrees 250
378
Great guilt of the ſovereign who undertakes it ibid 185 His obligations
379
Difficulty of repairing the injury he has done ibid 187 Whether the nation and the military are bound to any thing
380
H A P XII
381
Of the Voluntary Law of Nations as it regards the Efifts of Rea gular Warfare independently of the Juſtice of the Cauſe 188 Nations not rigidly to enf...
381
Why they are bound to admit the voluntary law of nations ib 196 Regular war as to its effects is to be accounted juſt on both fides
382
19r Whatever is permitted to one party is ſo to the other ibid 192 The voluntary law gives no more than impunity to him who wages an unjuſt war
387
Volunteers
401
Subjects contravening the truce ibid
407
what is allowed or not during
408
Protection due to foreigners ibid 105 Their duties ibido 106 To what burthens they are ſubject 174
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131 페이지 - All commerce is entirely prohibited with a besieged town. If I lay siege to a place, or only form the blockade. I have a right to hinder any one from entering, and to treat as an enemy whoever attempts to enter the place, or carry any thing to the besieged, without my leave.
19 페이지 - All mankind have an equal right to things that have not yet fallen into the possession of any one, and those things belong to the person who first takes possession of them. When, therefore, a nation finds a country uninhabited and without an owner, it may lawfully take possession of it, and after it has sufficiently made known its will in this respect, it cannot...
20 페이지 - In effect, when navigators have met with desert countries in which those of other nations had, in their transient visits, erected some monument to show their having taken possession of them, they have paid as little regard to that empty ceremony as to the regulation of the popes, who divided a great part of the world between the crowns of Castile and Portugal.
123 페이지 - ... to the calamities of war, when he has it in his power to maintain them in the enjoyment of an honourable and falutary peace. And if to this imprudence, this want of love for his people, he moreover adds...
104 페이지 - The voice of equity and the general rule of contracts require that the conditions between the parties should be equal. We are not to presume, without very strong reasons, that one of the Contracting Parties intended to favour the other to his own prejudice ; but there is no danger in extending what is for the common advantage. If, therefore, it happens that the Contracting Parties have not made known their...
66 페이지 - CHAP. vii. certam persons or for certain particular purposes, according as he may think it advantageous to the state. There is nothing in all this that does not flow from the rights of domain and sovereignty : every one is obliged to pay respect to the prohibition ; and whoever dares to violate it, incurs the penalty decreed to render it effectual. But the prohibition ought to be known, as well as the penalty annexed to disobedience : those who are ignorant of it, ought to be informed of it when...
xxix 페이지 - It is not allowable to interpret what has no need of interpretation, and when the words have a definite and precise meaning, to go elsewhere in search of conjecture in order to restrict or extend the meaning.
51 페이지 - Further, one country is fitter for some kind of products than another; as, for instance, fitter for the vine than for tillage, If trade and barter take place, every nation, on the certainty of procuring what it wants, will employ its land and its industry in the most advantageous manner; and mankind in general prove gainers by it.
69 페이지 - ... liberty of living in the country without respecting the laws. If he violates them he is punishable as a disturber of the public peace, and guilty of a crime against the society in which he lives; but he is not obliged to submit, like the subjects, to all the commands of the sovereign ; and if such things are required of him as he is unwilling to perform he may quit the country."— Vattel.
68 페이지 - Even in the countries where every stranger freely enters, the sovereign is supposed to allow him access only upon this tacit condition, that he be subject to the laws ; I mean the general laws made to maintain good order, and which have no relation to the title of citizen, or of subject of the state.

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