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cers not more distinguished for their solid attainments, gallantry, and devotion to the public service tbau for unobtrusive bearing and bigb moral tone. The Army, as organized, must be the nucleus around which in every time of need the strength of your military power, the sure bul. wark of your defense a national militia-may be readily forined into a well-disciplined and efficient organization. And the skill and self-de. votion of the Navy assure you that you may take the performance of the past as a pledge for the future, and may confidently expect that the tlag which has waved its uutarnished folds over every sea will still float in updiminished honor. But these, like many other subjects, will be appropriately brought, at a future time, to the attention of the co-ordi. nate branches of the Government, to which I shall always look with profound respect and with trustful confidence that they will accord to me the aid and support which I shall so inuch need, anil which their experience and wisdom will readily suggest.
slu the administration of doinestic affairs you expect a devoted iutegrity in the public service, and au observance of rigid economy in all Departments, so marked as nerer justly to be questioned. If this rea. sonable expectation be not realized, I frankly confess that one of your leading hopes is doomed to disappointment, and that my efforts in a very important particular must result in a humiliating failure. Offices can be properly regarded only in the light of aids for the accomplishment of these objects; and as occupancy can confer no prerogative, nor importunate desire for preferment any claim, the public interest imperatively demands that they be considered with sole reference to the duties to be performed. Good citizens may well claim the protection of good laws and the benign intuence of good government: but a claim for office is what the people of a Republic sbould never recognize. No reasonable man of any party will expect the adininistration to be so regardless of its responsibility, and of the obvious elements of success, as to retain persons known to be under the influence of political hostility and partisan prejudice, in positions which will require not only severe labor, but cordial co-operation, Having no implied engagements to ratify, no rewards to bestow, no resentments to remember, and no personal wishes to consult, in selections for official station, I shall fulfill this difficult and delicate trust, admitting no motive as worthy either of my character or position which does not contemplate an efficient discharge of duty and the best interests of my country. I acknowledge my obligations to the masses of my countrymen, and to them alone. Higher objects than personal aggrandizement gave direction and energy to their exertions in the late calivass, and they shall not be disappointed. They require at my hands diligence, integrity, and capacity, wherever there are duties to be performed. Without these qualities in their public servants, more stringent laws for the prevention or punishment of fraud, negligence, and peculation, will be vain. With them they will be unnecessary.
“ But these are not the only points to which you look for vigilant watchfulness. The dangers of a concentration of all power in the general government of a coufederacy so vast as ours, are too obvious to be disregarded. You have a right, therefore, to expect your arents in every Department to regard strictly the limits imposed upon them by the Constitution of the United States. The great scheme of our constitutional liberty rests upon a proper distribution of power between the State and Federal authorities; and experience bas shown that the harmony and happiness of our people must depend upon a just dis. crimination between the separate rights and responsibilities of the
States, and your common rights and obligations under the General Gov. ernment. And here, in my opinion, are the considerations which should form the true basis of future concord in regard to the questions which have most seriously distracted public trauquillity. If the Federal Government will contine itself to the exercise of powers clearly granted by the Constitution, it can hardly happen that its action upon any question should endanger the institutions of the States, or inter: fere with their right to manage matters strictly domestic according to the will of their own people.
"In expressing briefly my views upon an important subjert which bas recently agitated the pation to almost a fearful degree, I am moved by no other impulse than a most earnest desire for the perpetuation of tbat Union which has made us wbat we are, showering upon 118 blessings, and conferring a power and influence which our fathers could hardly bave anticipated, even with their most sanguine hopes directed to a far off future. The sentiments I now announce were not unkvown before the expression of the voice wbich called me here. My own posi. tion upon this subject was elear and unequivocal, upou the record of iny words and my acts, and it is only recurred to at this time because silence might perhaps be miscontrued. With the Union my best and dearest earthly liopes are entwined. Without it what are we individually or col. lectively? What becomes of the noblest field ever opened for the advancement of our race, in religion, in government, in the arts, and in all that dignifies and adorns maukind ? From that radiant constellation which both illumiues our own way and points out to struggling nations their course, let but a single star be lost, and if there be not utter dark. ness, the luster of the whole is dimmed. Do my countrymen need any assurance that such a catastrophe is not to overtake them while I pos. sess the power to stay it? It is with me an earnest and vital belief, that as the Union has been the source, under Providence, of our prosperity to this time, so it is the surest pledge of a continuance of the blessings we have enjoyed, and which we are sacredly bound to trans. mit uudiminished to our children. The field of calm and free discus. siou in our country is open, and will always be so, but never bas been and never call be traversed for good in a spirit of sectionalism and uncbaritableness. The fouuders of the Republic dealt with things as they were presented to them, in a spirit of self-sacrificing patriotisin, and as time has proverd, with a comprehensive wisilom, which it will always be safe for us to consult. Every measure tending to strengthen the fraternal feelings of all the members of our Union has had my heartfelt approbation. To every theory of society or governmeut, whether the offspring of feverish ambition or of morbid enthusiasm, calculated to dissolve the bouds of law and affection which unite us, I shall interpose a really and stern resistance. I believe that involuutary servitude, as it exists in different States of this Confederacy, is recognized by the Constitution. I believe that it stands like any other admitted right, and that the States where it exists are entitled to etfi cient remedies to enforce be constitutional provisions. I hold that the laws of 1830, commonly called the compromise measures,” are strictly constitutional, and to be uphesitatingly carried iuto effect. I believe that the constituted anthorities of this Republic are bound to regard the rights of the South in this respect, as they woulil view any other legal and constitutional right, and that the laws to enforce them should be respected and obeyed, not with a reluctance encouraged by abstract opinions as to their propriety in a different state of society, but cheerfully, and according to the decisions of the tribunal to which their expositions belongs. Such have been, and are, my convictions, and upon them I shall act. I fervently hope that the question is at rest, and that no sectional, or ambitious, or fanatical excitement may again tbreaten the durability of our institutions, or obscure the light of our prosperity.
“But let not the foundation of our hope rest upon man's wisdom. It will not be sufficient that sectional prejudices find no place in the pub. lic deliberations. It will not be sufficient that the rash counsels of human passion are rejected. It must be felt that there is no national security but in the nation's humble, acknowledged dependence upon God and his overruling Providence.
6 We have been carried in safety through a perilous crisis. Wise counsels, like those which gave us the Constitution, prevailed to uphold it. Let the period be remembered as an admonition, and not as an encouragement, in any section of the Union, to make experiments where experiments are fraught with such fearful hazard. Let it be impresseil upon all bearts, that beautiful as our fabric is, no earthly power or wisdom could ever reunite its broken fragments. Standing as I do, almost within view of the green slopes of Monticello, and as it were, within reach of the tomb of Washington, with all the cherished memories of the past gathering around me, like so many eloquent voices of exhortation from Heaven, I can express no better hope for my country than that the kind Providence which smiled upon our fathers may enable their children to preserve the blessings they have inherited.”
On motion by Mr. Rusk, Ordered, That the daily hour of the meeting of the Senate be twelve o'clock, meridian, until otherwise ordered.
On motion by Mr. Soulé,
Un motion by Mr. Pettit,
MONDAY, MARCH 7, 1853.
Mr.Walker submitted the following resolution; which was considered, by unanimous consent, and agreed to:
Resolved, That a committee consisting of two members be appointed to wait on the President of the United States, and inform bim that the Senate is assembled, and ready to receive any communications he may be pleased to make.
On motion by Mr. Walker, Ordered, That the committee be appointed by the President pro tempore; and
Mr. Walker and Mr. Phelps were appointed. .
Resolved, That the President be respectfully requested, if compatible, in his opinion with the public interest, to communicate to the Senate the propositions mentioned in the letter of the Secretary of State, accompanying the executive message to the Senate of the 18th of February last, as having been agreed upon by the Department of State, the British minister, and the state of Costa Rica on the 30th of April, 1852, having for their object the settlement of the territorial controversies between the states and Goveroments bordering on the river San Juan. Resolved, That the Secretary of State be directed to communicate to the Senate such information as it may be in the power of his Department to furnish, in regard to the conflicting claims of Great Britain and the state of Honduras, aud tueir respective titles to the Islands of Roaton, Bonaca, Utilla, Barbarat, Helene and Morat, in or near the Bay of Honduras. Mr. Morton submitted the following resolution; which was read:
Resolved, That there be paid out of the contingent fund of the Senate, to the bonorable David L. Yulee, a sum equal to the amount of mileage and per diem compensation of a Senator, from the commencement of the first session of the 32d Congress to the 27th of August, 1852, the day on which the Senate decided that the honorable Stepben R. Mal. lory, whose seat in the Senate was claimed by Mr. Yulee, was duly elected a member of the Senate from the State of Florida.
Mr. Jones, of Iowa, submitted the following resolution; which was read:
Resolved, That the Secretary of the Senate pay the amount which may be allowed by the Committee to Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate, for the expenses incurred during the last session, in repairing and fiting up for use two rooms in the basement of the Capitol.
Mr. Soulé presented a memorial of the members of the legislature of the State of Louisiana, in relation to the election of the honorable Ju. dah P. Benjamin to a seat in the Senate of the United States.
Ordered, That it lie on the table. Mr. Walker, from the committee appointed to wait on the President of the United States and inforın him that the Senate is assembled and ready to receive any communication he may be pleased to make, re. ported that they had performed the duty assigned them, and that the President replied, that he would forth with make a communication to the Senate.
On motion by Mr. Mason, Ordered, That the heir of William Lindsay have leave to withdraw his petition and papers.
The following messages from the President of the United States, received during the last session, were read : To the Senate of the United States :
I nominate First Lieutenant David R. Jones, of the Second Regiment of Infantry, to be assistant adjutant-general with the brevet rank of captain, to fill a vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Assistant Adjutant.General Joseph Hooker.
MILLARD FILLMORE. WASHINGTON, February 22, 1852. To the Senate of the United States :
I nominate Doctor T. Charlton Henry, of Pennsylvania, for the appointment of assistant surgeon in the Army of the United States, as proposed in the accompanying communication from the Secretary of
MILLARD FILLMORE. WASHINGTON, February 23, 1853.
WAR DEPARTMENT, February 23, 1853. SIR: I have the honor respectfully to propose for your approbation the name of Doctor T. Charlton Henry, of Pennsylvania, to be assistant surgeon in the Army of the United States, vice James W. Russell, resigned, to date from March 1, 1853. Doctor Henry is the first legally qualified candidate for appointment as assistant surgeon uuder the 1st section of the act “to increase and regulate the pay of the surgeons and assistant surgeons of the Army," approved June 30, 1834. I am, sir, with great respect, your obt. servant,
C. M. CONRAD,
Secretary of War. To the PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.
To the Senate of the United States :
I nominate Charles J. Du Pont, junior, of Delaware, to be a purser in the Navy, to fill a vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Purser James C. Douglass.
MILLARD FILLMORE. WASHINGTON, February 24, 1853.
To the Senate of the United States:
I nominate the officers ramed in the accompanying list for regular promotion in the Army of the United States, as proposed by the Secretary of War.
MILLARD FILLMORE. WASHINGTON, February 22, 1853.
WAR DEPARTMENT, February 22, 1853. SIR: I have the honor to lay before you the following list of officers for regular promotion in the Army of the United States :
Regiment of Mounted Riflemen.
Second Lieutenant Inuis N. Palmer, adjutant of his regiment, to be first lieutenant, January 27, 1853.
Second Regiment of Infantry. First Lieutenant Edward Murray to be captain, January 8, 1853, vice Westcott, deceased.
Second Lieutenant Nathaniel H. McLean to be first lieutenant, January 8, 1853, vice Murray, promoted.
Brevet Second Lieutenant Marshall T. Polk to be second lieutenant, January 8, 1853, vice McLean, promoted. I am, sir, with great respect, your obt. sevt.,
C. M. CONRAD,
Secretary of War. To the PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES.
To the Senate of the United States :
I nominate William Downsing for reappointment as the register of the land office at Columbus, Mississippi, whose term of service will ex. pire on the first of March, 1853 ; and
Rufus Hewitt for reappointment as receiver of public moneys at Winamac, Indiana, whose term of office will expire on the 28th instant.
MILLARD FILLMORE. EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Washington, February 25, 1853.
arch, 1853 ; sassippi, whose term of the register of