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ously and successfully cultivated in Germany, form a science which exbibits to us order, organic connexion, depth of meaning, and progressive developement, where before, disorder, disjointedness, caprice, or a barbarous want of perception seemed to exist, in so great and vast a sphere, embracing many tribes and generations, that the scholar, who enters deeper and deeper into this comprehensive system, extending over Asia and Europe, ancient and modern, feels, as we may imagine one to feel, who beholds the firmament for the first time, after being informed, that all its glittering hosts move in order, and according to the wisest principles. Neither the present cultivation of this branch of philologic knowledge, nor that of any other, appertaining to the study of antiquity, has been without its due influence on the composition of the above-mentioned work, which makes it, in my opinion, a production of singular merit. My friends agreed with me, that an abridgment, adapted to our schools and colleges, would supply a want, which has long been felt by those who instruct in Latin. So soon, therefore, as I became acquainted with the fact, that Dr. Ramshorn himself had prepared a 'school edition of his work, I resolved to translate it into English. I have done so, and feel convinced, provided I have performed my task with any degree of success, that few works can be offered, to all who study or promote the study of antiquity, more welcome than this.” – Preface of the Translator, p. iii.
In this commendation of the work, and its great value to the faithful and zealous student, we most cordially concur, as we have no doubt every one will, who shall have occasion to examine it as minutely as we have done. We have not room for many extracts ; but to enable the reader to judge, in some degree, of the plan and execution of the work, we here subjoin a few specimens; regretting, at the same time, that our limits do not permit us to exhibit a larger portion of it.
“AMARE, Diligere ; Amicus, FAMILIARIS, NECESSARIUS ; AMOR, Caritas, Pietas. Amare, to love, from inclination, and because the subject pleases our heart; Diligere, from esteem, as a subject dear to us : Scias Egnatium a me non diligi solum, verum etiam amari. Cic. Amicus, friend in general, and the sincere, true friend; Familiaris, a friend of the house, with whom we have become familiar by daily intercourse; Necessarius, a friend allied to us by duty, as by relations of public office, the duties and relations of hospitality, mutual acts of kindness: Cum Dejotaro mihi amicitiam res publica conciliavit, familiaritatem consuetudo attulit, summam vero necessitudinem magna ejus officia in me et in exercitum meum effecerunt. Cic. — Amor, love, as affection and sensual, also with animals; Caritas, the intense love to a highly valued object, result of reflection, and only of a pure kind; Pietas, dutiful love, from natural as well as religious impulse, toward those to whom we owe our life and the happiness of it: Aut caritate moventur homines, ut deorum, patria, parentum; aut amore, ut fratrum, liberorum, familiarium. Cic. Pietas erga patriam aut parentes aut alios sanguine conjunctos officium conservare monet. Id.” – pp. 66, 67.
"ANIMA, Spiritus, ANIMUS, Mens. Anima, the breath, inasmuch as it is air; the soul, as the vivifying substance, according to the ancients, of every living being : Clodium animan efflantem reliquit. Cic. Spiritus, the breathing, breath, which inhales and exhales the air in draughts : Aspera arteria excipit animan eam, quæ ducta est spirilu. Cic. Extremum spiritum ore excipere. Id. Animus, the human soul as the principium of feeling, desire, and thinking : Immortalitas animi. Constamus ex animo et corpore. Cic. Mens, understanding, as faculty of reflection; disposition : Menti regnum totius animi a natura tributum est. Cic.” — pp. 71, 72.
“CognoscERE, AGNOSCERE, DIGNOSCERE. Cognoscere, to become acquainted with, to know something by certain marks of distinction (in German, erkennen). Cesar Illyricas nationes adire et regiones cognoscere volebat. Cæs. Slatilius cognovit et signum et manum suam. Cic. Agnoscere, recognising something already known, acknowledging: Deum agnoscis ex operibus ejus. Cic. Dignoscere, to distinguish something by known marks from other things: Ut possem curto dignoscere rectum. Hor.” — p. 122.
Epucere, EDUCARE, TOLLERE. Educere, rearing, has reference to care and preservation; Educare, bringing up, educating, education and formation of body and mind ; Tol lere, according to Roman custom, the taking up, as father, the infant from the ground, and thus undertaking its care and education ; Parentis est, quem procreavit et eduxerit, eum vestire. Cic. Educat nutrix, instituit pædagogus. Varr. Quod erit natum, tollito. Plaut." - p. 183.
“INQUIT, Air, Dicit. Inquit (in, — Gothic quilhan, speaking, saying; inquit, therefore, he speaks into, the conversation ; inquam, is conjunctive form), he says, says he, and quite general as a formula of introducing words of another : Hoc libro quasi ipsos induxi loquentes, ne inquam et inquit sæpius interponerelur. Cic. Ait, he assures, asserts, maintains, as a formula of citing the assertion of another, which we cite by way of narration, and as contradistinction to negat;
he affirms. But if not only mere negation and affirmation are opposed to each other, but whole affirming or negativing sentences, the words Dicit- negat are used; besides this use, dicit is simply an indicating and prefatory formula of citing the words of others : Ne faciam, in quis, omnino versus? Aio. Hor. Sthenium educunt : aiunt ab eo lileras publicas esse corruptas. Cic. Considius ad Cæsarem accurrit; dicit, montem, quem a Labieno occupari voluerit, ab hostibus teneri. Cæs." — p. 259.
"Negotium, Res. Negotium, occupation, opp. otium : In otio esse potius, quam in negotio. Ter., the occupation or affair as the task for a free activity to obtain an object, especially used of an official, professional, and in general of a dutiful business : Negotium magistratibus est datum, ut currarent, ut sine vi mihi ædificare liceret. Cic. Res, 190, every subject of which we can rei, that is, every thing which can be supposed to exist (reor is connected with the German reden, to speak, for speaking and thinking or judging coincide originally); the thing, as generic term for something, the more definite determination of which is to be known from its accompaniments, e. g. divina, militaris : Non r e ductus es, sed opinione. Cic. Rem agere, transacting, attending to an affair, which touches the interest of some one ; Negotium agere, attending to an affair, business, which claims our attention on account of soine duty or obligation. Res est mihi tecum, I have to do with you, to fight it out with you ; Negotium, I have something to settle with you. (The deficiency in the English language, that we have but one word, thing, for the German Ding and Sache, renders it always difficult for one who has not entered entirely into the spirit of Latin to comprehend the whole and full meaning of res; because, though the Latin has, like the English, but one word, res signifies infinitely more than the English term thing.)” — pp. 319, 320..
“Pluma, Penna, Pinna. Plūma the down-feather: Pluince versicolores columbis datæ sunt. Cic. Penna, the larger wing-feather, also the wing itself; Pulvirem pennis delergere. Plin. Gallince pullos pennis fovent. Cic. * Pinna, a thick, stiff, and longer feather: Galli caudis magnis, frequentibus pinnis. Varr. Pinnæ datæ piscibus. Plin., fins.” — pp. 349, 350.
Such is the body of this useful volume. But we must not omit to notice the introductory remarks about forty pages), under the head of “ Latin Terminations " ; of which Mr. Lieber observes, that “they will be considered by many as containing, now and then, views too bold or sanciful.” He has, for good reasons, however, decided to retain the whole of this Introduction ; observing, that he did not feel authorized to omit it, partly on account of its own merit, which will be more available, however, for the teacher than the pupil, partly because the author refers to it in the main body of the work. The doctrine laid down in it is, that a word receives a specific ineaning by its termination, and becomes, through it, a part of speech; that the root of a word consists, generally, of a short syllable ending with a consonant ; but that, of many Latin words, it is lost, if it has not been preserved in other ancient languages; that the oldest nominal forms contain the personal pronouns; the others, the declensions. Under this last head, the author has the following remarks, which will serve as a specimen of his views.
"The third declension is the oldest on account of the generality of its forms ; for, through them, it designates only existence and its modifications, and contains most original words ; the monosyllabic almost exclusively.
" The first and second distinguish clearly subject and quality, person and thing, and the genera.
"The fourth declension designates permanent conditions, as such, and in some, inanimate objects ; e. g. acus, arcus, cornu,
" The fifth contains only denominations of essential properties, hence only feminine nouns. This is also the reason why it had, at an early period, many words in common with the third and first declensions, as quies, quiei, quie ; plebes, plebei, and the long ablative terminations, famē, molē, tabē ; farther, materies and materia, &c.
“ In the third declension there are, besides, the monosyllabic radical words without form, as lac, sol, ren, lar, cor, fur.” — pp. 1, 2.
The author, accordingly, then proceeds to a consideration of the Substantive, Adjective, Verbal, and Pronominal Forms. Under the first, for example, he remarks, that
The termination s is the general form designating existence ; first, when attached to the last radical sound or fused with it, as sus, urbs, mas, laus, mors, pax, grex, nir ; secondly, with a vowel, in nubes, quies, navis, lapis, honos, custos, lepus, palus. The termination tas, gen. tatis, designates quality ; tus, gen. tutis, property ; thus juventas is youth distinguishable by early years, delicacy, and blooming beauty; juventus, youth in its vigor and strength, opp. senectus ; juventa, the whole age, period of youth ; senectus, old age as condition of decreasing powers, but also venerable on account of greater experience ; senecta, old age, as the last period of man's life ; senium, old age, with its complaints and burdens, oppressive age. Veritas, truth, as quality ; verum, as the True itself.” — p. 2.
In this manner he proceeds through the different divisions of his subject; and though, as Mr. Lieber observes, in his Preface, the author's views may be, now and then, too bold or fanciful, yet the reader, particularly instructers, will find abundant materials for consideration, which will be important to the thorough study of the Latin language.
We cannot but congratulate the students of the Latin language in this country upon the publication of a work, which is superior to any one of the kind, that we are acquainted with, in the English language ; and it cannot fail to be considered a necessary part of the apparatus of every student's library, as well as of every school where the Latin language is taught.
We must not conclude our remarks upon this volume, without adverting to the extraordinary care with which it has been carried through the press ; a consummation, not so easy as most readers would imagine, in works where the variety of types and languages is apt to mislead the most lynx-eyed corrector, and in school-books, above all others, of the highest importance. The type and paper, we may add, are excellent; and we notice these particulars, because we entirely agree with that celebrated English instructer, Knox, whose experience taught him, that “the type and paper (of school-books) cannot be too beautiful. These allure and please the eye” ;* and we may, in the present instance, without much departure from the meaning of the Roman poet, apply to this neat volume the commendatory remark, — “Chartæ regiæ, ..... et pumice oinnia æquata.”
* Knox's “ Liberal Education," Vol. I. p. 47.
VOL. XLIX. — No. 105.