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At lh. 15ra. Pm. the squalls were tremendously heavy, accompanied with a deluge of rain : I expected the windows would be forced in, so powerful were the gusts; the direction of the current of air was oblique, which, probably, saved the glass: the wind was S.S.W. These tremendous squalls lasted about half an hour, and showed that the storm's meridian had arrived; at the same time informing us of the line the meteor was pursuing.
By 2h. 30m. the wind had drawn round to S.W., the squalls still heavy, but the general force of the wind not so great as between one and two o'clock: the rain held up for about twenty minutes a little after two. Up to 3h. 30m. the squalls less severe, still showery, wind veering round to the westward.
At 6h. P.m. wind west, accompanied with rain and hail showers. At this time the centre of rotation bore north of our position, proving that the nucleus had passed to the left of our station, with an inclination to the eastward of north.
At 8h. the wind had greatly lessened; at intervals light. At lOh. the wind was W.N.W., still squally at times, but the intermediate breeze light: in half an hour after, the storm had entirely passed away.
It seems evident that the high wind which had blown all the early part of the morning from east to E.S.E. was the precursor gale; the first pertaining to the circle having been from about S.E.b.E., and the last W.N.W.,—fifteen points of change. Taking the crisis point as a guide to direct us to the path the meteor was pursuing at the time of its meridian over the locality, S.S.W., we find it to have been to the N.N.E., which is rather more northerly than those preceding it, the courses of which have been determined.
The following morning was very fine with a light air from the west.
It is stated, that at Liverpool, at 3h. P.m. (13th,) the barometer reached its lowest depression 28-39, which was 1*11 lower than at the same hour the day before.
It appears to me, that during the thirteen hours (9 A.m to 10 P.m.) this storm continued, with the exception of the half hour of the crisis, the general severity of the wind never exceeded eleven, and was often lulled to ten, and at times even to nine. Upon the whole, I should say that it was not so severe throughout as the storm of November, 1836, or that of October, 1838, although the gusts at the crisis were equal to twelve, and to any which pertained to those hurricanes. It is probable, however, that on sea coasts where the wind happened to blow directly upon the open lines, the effects would be found nothing short of those preceding storms.
The gale is spoken of at Southampton as having been the severest ever felt there, and " reached its climax" from the S.S.W. at 2h. P.m. at the lime of high water.
At Cowes, they speak of the storm as a "tremendous gale," and the tide as being the highest known for the last eighteen years; and no wonder, as the winds were principally from westward, and the flood coincident with their direction and period.
At Portsmouth, the statement commences thus: "an awfully grand expression of Divine might was manifested here yesterday, (13th Nov.) by a levere gale of wind, accompanied by a rise of tide higher than has been known for thirty-eight years, by at least one inch and a half, as recorded by an inhabitant of Point."
It is remarkable, that, (with the exception of Plymouth where Mr. Snow Harris exerts his useful abilities,) there is never any regular account given at the sea-ports, of the veering of the wind in these circular storms. Is there not one solitary officer of the navy on shipboard who takes an interest in the subject ?—Surely it concerns them all.
The Second Hurricane Of November, 1840.
Monday \&th.—Squally with heavy rain, wind W.S.W.,—foggy. In the afternoon the rain ceased: evening and night squally. Last quarter of the moon the morning of this day.
Tuesday Mth.—Calm, dense fog: forenoon, a light breeee sprung up from the east: afternoon showery, wind increasing. At 3h. P.m. it shifted to south in a squall of great force, accompanied with heavy rain, blowing a storm; the changes to south-west were in quick succession, and at 5h. the wind was S.W.b.W. increasing in violence. At '5h. 30m. very heavy gale; at 7h. 15m. tremendously heavy squalls "from the W.S.W., which lasted until near 8h., and proved the presence of the crisis. After 8h. P.m. the wind moderated a little, but at intervals the squalls were still powerful, wind veering to the northward of west. At 8h. 30m. the gale had lessened to a moderate breeze, with occasional squalls from W.N.W., northerly. Again, as in other instances, I found the air quite warm. At 9h. P.m. calm, the storm having entirely passed away to the eastward, after a short but brisk career. At 9h. 30m. a light air sprung up from the west.
On the following day, 18th, a light air east,—fog, rain, and sleet: night nearly calm.
The rotary character of this storm like that of the 13th, seems sufficiently apparent, the changes being from south to about N.W.b.W. ten or eleven points, and its duration only four and a half hours. The course indicated by the crisis appears to have been about E.N.K.
In London this storm came on as suddenly as it did with us, about two hours after »'. e. at 5h. P.m., and is stated to have exceeded in via
lence that of the 13th: at 7h. P.m. it was at iU height, and had ceased before midnight. The changes of wind are not given,—they were
probably from S.S.W. to W.N.W.
Loss Op The Fairy.
If there be any duty which falls to the lot of public journalists to perform, more painful, and yet no less necessary, than most others, it is that of recording the loss of officers who were an ornament to their profession, along with their unfortunate companions; but painful as that duty must always be, it is alleviated in no small degree by the reflection, that although cut off in the midst of their career, they have fallen at their post, while forwarding the public service. Such has been the fate of the captain, officers, and crew of II.M. late surveying vessel Fairy. It was not long ago that in endeavouring to place the services of our naval officers employed in the laborious and trying duty of surveying before our readers in their proper light, we had to allude to Capt. Hewett, and his proceedings in the Fairy, in his survey of the North Sea; and we repeat the assertion we then made, that such a survey as he was charged with was altogether unprecedented, and unequalled, not only in its vast detail, and its vast importance; but the great degree of perseverance and labour required for its performance.
Having enjoyed the benefits of an excellent education at Christchurch, Capt. Hewett first went to sea with the late Admiral Rodd, when he commanded the Indefatigable in Nov. 1805; and remained in the same ship under her successive Captains Baker and Broughton during her service on the coast of France, in the Bay of Biscay. With the latter officer he went in her to China in 1811; and on his return home on being appointed to the Cornwall, Mr. Hewett accompanied him as midshipman. In 1813 he joined the Inconstant under the command of Capt. Sir Edward Tucker, and was present in her on the coast of Brazil. It was in this ship that he made several surveys, which so much pleased his captain, that he was presented by him with an acting order as lieutenant, dated in June 1814; and confirmed in the Sept. following in preference to several other passed midshipmen on board, senior to himself. His care and attention to the scientific duties of his profession had procured him the charge of the chronometers on board the Indefatigable, but his survey of the harbour of Rio made at a time when the knowledge of it was rendered important by being kept from us by the Portuguese, obtained him considerable credit, and its accuracy, and the means by which he made it, (so closely were the ship's proceedings watched,) were a matter of astonishment to the jealous Portuguese government. The other surveys made on the coasts of Brazil were those of Pernambuco, now used by Her Majesty's ships; also St. Marcos Bay, Maranham, and the coast from Siara to Maran• ham.
These services recommended the subject of our memoir to the attention of the Admiralty, and he was named by Capt. Hurd for the command of Her Majesty surveying vessel Protector, to which he was appointed, on the 7th of March, 1818. He<hen commenced that series of valuable surveys which have left his name imperisliably enrolled among those who stand prominently forward as the scientific ornaments of their profession.
One of the first duties of the Protector was to accompany Captain Eater to the Orkneys, when he was sent by the Royal Society of London, in conjunction with M. Biot, who had been previously sent by the Royal Institute of Paris, to make observations and experiments to determine the figure of the earth. The opportunity thus afforded of making some small plans of harbours in the Orkneys, was not lost by Lieut. Hewett.
From this period until the year 1830, in which interval Lieut. Hewett was made a Commander, the Protector was constantly employed in surveying the coasts of Norfolk, Lincoln, and Yorkshire, with their numerous outlying dangers, including the Humber, and the extensive and dangerous tract, called the Lynn and Boston Deeps, besides various shoals, among which were the Gabbards, the Dudgeon, and the Leman and Ower, detached at a considerable distance from the shore, in addition to those lying contiguous to it, all of which have long since been published by the Admiralty. In addition to the responsible work of surveying, it will be seen by the following letter which we happen to have at hand, that another arising out of the experience which an ofnceT so employed would necessarily obtain, was required from Lieut. Hewett. The letter is addressed to the Secretary of the Admiralty, and will afford an idea of that zeal for the benefit of navigation which characterized the late Capt. Hewett.
H.M. Surveying Vettel, Protector,
Sis.—The Right Honorable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty having been pleased in their general orders for my guidance, while employed in tlin survey of the North Sea, to instruct me to the following effect, "and you will particularly direct your attention to the situation of the different lighthouses along the coast, with the view of ascertaining whether they are sufficiently distinct from each other, or could be placed in any more eligible situations." In obedience thereto, I beg leave respectfully to advert to the northern entrance iuto Yarmouth roads, commonly called the Cockle Gatway ; and which, whether regarded as a difficult navigation in the night time, and the consequent great annual loss both of lives and property in its vicinity, or as the principal entrance into the only practicable anchorage for His Majesty's fleet between the liiver Hnmber and the Downs, is peculiarly worthy of their lordships best attention.
It is well known amongst those accustomed to navigate the eastern coast of England, that the Cockle Gatway is a constant barrier to vessels desirous of passing through Yarmouth Roads, should night overtake them before it i» passed. Vessels from the southward have no difficulty in steering a course tor, and passing over the Bar of the Stamford into Yarmouth Roads, from the assistance afforded by the Lowestoft Ness lights, and the Stamford light vessel, but after running through the Roads as far as the master's personal acquaintance may dictate, they must anchor until daylight enables them to pass further northward through the Cockle Gatway. To vessels thus bound, no further inconvenience is experienced than delay in their voyage, as Yarmouth Roads when once ohtained, may (except in strong gales between east and south-east), be considered as affording a moderately safe anchorage.
Vessels from the northward are however differently circumstanced, they pass the Flamborough Head Light, «nd successively the Dudgeon Light Vessel, the Cromer Light, the Hasborough Lights, and thence to abreast of the Winterton Light, and somewhere in the neighbourhood of the latter they must either anchor or lie to, as occasion may require, until daylight enables them to pass through the Cockle into Yarmouth Roads! for this Gatway cannot be taken in the night time without imminent risk, for the reasons I shall presently submit in describing it more particularly. But should these vessels be desirous of avoiding Yarmouth Roads, when abreast of the Hasborough lights, they steer for the Newarp light vessel, situated at the northern extremity of the Newarp shoal, and so pass on the exterior of the Yarmouth dangers, or what is locally termed "at the back of the sands," and by which means they are enabled to prosecute their voyage without that loss of time inseparable from the beforementioned route through Yarmouth Roads.
Having thus described the usual tracks of vessels passing along this portion of the eastern coast, and under the supposition that they have favourable wind* and moderate weather, I must now bring them under those circumstances that so often prove fatal to them, in the disastrous space between Winterton Ness and Caistor Point; and this has particular reference to vessels coming from the northward, among which the accidents generally occur.
Such may find themselves in the exposed situation offthe Winterton light in the night time, generally from one of the following causes, viz. 1st. Anchoring or lying to, with the favorable wind and moderate weather mentioned above, waiting for daylight. 2nd. Having attempted to pass out in the exterior of the Yarmouth dangers, and finding it impracticable, are obliged to return. 3rd. Foul winds.
The first case needing no particular explanation, I pass on to the second. It happens that in running through the Would, (which is the space copiprehended between the Hasborough sand and the Norfolk shore, but which the sand itself affords no shelter whatever to,) and with the wind between north and north-east, in getting to the southward, the wind is found to draw more round to the eastward, or upon the land. Should night be advancing, most vessels try hard to weather the Yarmouth Sands, before it closes upon them; but should the wind so veer round to the eastward, and a flood tide be unfortunately making up at the same time, the attempt is often frustrated, when no other alternative presents itself, but to tack and stand back into the Would, and wait for the daylight to take the Cockle, abiding the event of, perhaps, a long winter's night, which with the wind from this quarter, particularly after a long duration of westerly winds, frequently produces a heavy gale.
With respect to the third case; viz. foul winds, preference is generally given by most vessels to beating through the Cockle Gatway, and passing out of the St. Nicholas Gatway, rather than encounter a heavy sea without the Newarp and Cross Sand, with the chances of being driven offthe land, or of anchoring in deep water when the tide turns leewardly; if night overtakes them, they