« 이전계속 »
directions far beyond and all around the ships of the fleet, tome of which, and among them the Wasp, being only about one hundred yards from the shore, announced the explosion of another powder magazine within the fortress of Acre! In five minutes after, the officers who landed from the shipping to the succour of the sufferers, among whom there might be shipmates and messmates, encountered on the road those who had fortunately escaped carrying to the boats for conveyance on board, for medical aid, the maimed and wounded, which together with the killed, are said to amount to 280, of whom at least 150 are native women and children. We have been unable to ascertain how many are the sufferers in the British fleet, but we understand that as many as fifteen marines are killed, and had it not been the hour of dinner, the number would have been considerably increased. Among the seamen there are several wounded, and of the officers, Brigadier-General Sir C. Felix Smith, R.m., very slightly; Captain Collier, R.n., of the Castor, leg broke, and other injuries and bruises, and Lieutenant Johnson and the Rev. M. Kitson, both of the Princess Charlotte, from which ship Mr. Warre, mate, and a working party were ordered to clear out a magazine full of powder and shells, which was on fire from the explosion. This perilous service was happily performed without any casualty, notwithstanding the doors had been shattered. By the applying of wet bales and blankets, by dusk the chances of further damage were considerably reduced, though the fire was not entirely extinguished until a late hour of the night. Nothing could exceed the intrepid conduct of the parties employed, who even mounted the burning roof, braving all danger, in order to introduce the hose of the engine, playing upon the fire. The Princess Charlotte had two of her marines killed and nine wounded, besides several seamen, and the officers belongto her above-named.
Acre, November 7th, 1840.
On Friday the 6th, an explosion of a powder magazine took place, and the loss of life on this sad occasion was indeed fearful. Captain Ford himself was on shore on the spot a few hours before, and reports that a number of poor Arab women were there, seeking among the ruins the dead bodies of their husbands and relations. These he supposes amounted to a hundred, and it is probable that all met a melancholy fate by the explosion.
Captain Ford himself escaped narrowly, for he had been sent to attend Sir C. Smith a few moments before the explosion, but excused himself, having felt too much fatigued from his previous exertions.
The effects of the explosion were very remarkable. Among the columns of dust which filled the air were perceived immense stones, (many of which fell near the Tahiri Bairi, without however striking her,) shells exploded with horrible din, and bodies of men and women were hurled into eternity! Men in boats going off to different ships were wet through by the splash caused by the fall of stones and other heavy bodies in the water. The Stromboli was struck, but providentially no one was wounded. At 3 o'clock signals were made from the Princess Charlotte, (flag ship,) for all the boats to go on shore and render assistance. At 4 it was painfully known that many were killed
and wounded. Among the sufferers were Capt, Collier, of the Castor, who had his leg broken and a contusion on iiis bead. He is, however, doing well.
General Sir C. Smith, who was examining hit horse, had a slight wound, and his horse killed.
The chaplain of the flag-ship and twelve marines badly wounded. Twelve marines wounded and several missing,
Forty Turks killed and wounded, and about one hundred Arabs, men and women.
In the town, oxen, asses, sheep, mules, horses, cnmels, &c, lie indiscriminately with mutilated human bodies. Although Arabs are em* ployed to remove the dead, the work is one of much labour, on account of the heavy stones with which the bodies are covered. There is no supporting the dreadful odours that arise from the putrefying masses.
Water is scarce and bad. At the time the Tahiri Bairi left, men were dying in the streets for want of surgical aid; the surgeons of the fleet were too few in number to do what they desired, though their in» dividual exertions were highly commendable.
Mahmoud Bey, with 2,000,000 of piasters, made his escape, with about 20,000 people, during the night; many of them were next daj seized by the mountaineers, or voluntarily surrendered.
Col. Schultz, a Polish engineer, after being badly wounded, surrendered to Sir R. Stopford, by whom he was sent on board the Edinburgh, with orders to be well treated. He was afterwards embarked on board the Tahiri Bairi for Constantinople, but 'ere he reached Beyrout he was suffering so severely that Capt. Ford landed him at the English hospital there, where he will receive the very best attention and care. The ships in general, exeept the rigging, are little touched. Admiral Walker behaved nobly, bringing his ship close in to the forts, with only two feet water under her keel, and in a very exposed place. He was raked by a battery on his quarter, and exposed to the fire of batteries on his beamHe only lost four men killed and eight wounded. His ship wan much injured, and sailed yesterday, (5th) for Constantinople for repairs, and carrying 1,200 prisoners.
The assistance rendered by the Austrian frigates was considerable, and called forth the thanks of Sir R. Stopford,
Copt of the convention between Commodore Napier, commanding the naval forces of Her Britannic Majesty before Alexandria, on the one side, and His Excellency Boghos Youssouf Bey, Minister for Foreign Affairs of His Highness the Viceroy of Egypt, authorised specially by His Highness, on the other; done and signed at Alexandria, dated Nov. 27, 1840. Art. 1.—Commodore Napier, in his abovefnamed quality, having communicated to His Highness Mehemet Ali, that the allied powers had recommended the Sublime Porte to reinstate him in the hereditary government of Egypt, and his highness seeing in this communication a favourable circumstance to put an end to the calamities of war, his highness engages himself to order his son, Ibrahim Pacha to proceed to the im« mediate evacuation of Syria; his highness engages himself besides to,
ENLARGED 8ERIE8,—NO, 1,— VOL, FOR 18^1, U
restore the Ottoman fleet as soon as he shall have received the official notification that the Sublime Porte grants to him the hereditary government of Egypt, which concession is and remains guaranteed by the powers.
Art. 2.—Commodore Napier will place at the disposition of the Egyptian government a steamer to conduct to Syria the officer designated by his highness to bear to the commander-in-chief of the Egyptian army the order to evacuate Syria. The commander-in-chief of the Hritnntlic force, Sir Robert Stopford, will, on his side, name an officer to watch the execution of this measure.
Art. 3.—In consideration of what precedes, Commodore Napier engages himself to suspend on the part of the Britannic forces hostilities against Alexandria, or any other port of the Egyptian country. He will authorise, at the same time, the free navigation of the vessels destined for the transport of the wounded, of the sick, or from every other portion of the Egyptian army which the government of Egypt might desire to have to return to this country by sea.
Art. 4.—It is well understood that the Egyptian army shall have the facility to retire from Syria with its artillery, anrs, horses, munitions, baggage, and especially with all that constitutes the materiel of the army.
It is stated that the weight of shot thrown at a broadside by Sir Robert Slopford's squadron, amounted to 12,434 lb: by Lord Ex» mouth's 10,658 lb., being a difference of 2,376 lb., or two line-of-lattle ships. With the exception of the Talbot's three quarter-deck guns, none of the shot fired at St. Jean d'Acre were less than 32-pounders, while at Algiers more than two-fifths were under that weight,—a most essential consideration in firing at stone walls,
[We perceive that in publishing the accounts of these brilliant achievements of our gallant countrymen, the daily 'journals have very justly attributed the great precision which has distinguished the fire of our ships beyond all precedent, to the effects of Captain Sir Thomas Hastings' tuition on board the Excellent, at Portsmouth. This is perfectly correct, and the highest credit is due to Sir Thomas, for the proficiency which has been attained by our officers and men, in this most important branch of their duty. But, we consider it no less our duty in conducting this journal, while we distinctly attribute to Sir Thomas Hastings, the honor due to him, to state that, we believe the credit of rearing so valuable a school of gunnery, as ihe Excellent has proved to be, belongs to Captain Sir John Pcchell. Bart., one of the Lords of the Admiralty; whose experience as an officer, convinced him of the transcendant importance of such an establishment, and whose position at the Board of Admiralty enabled him to watch over its growth, till it had attained its present maturity.—En. N.M.]
General Remarks On The Gulf or Lepanto.
On entering the Gulf with a fair wind steer mid-way between Roumelia and the Morea Castles, and then gradually to the northward, until you bring the two paps of Cape Papas in the centre of the Castle Roumelia, and by steering with those marks on until you pass the mountain torrent on the southern shore (which bears S.b.E. by compass, from the Castle of Lepanto,) it will carry you clear to the northward of the shoal extending north-west from the mountain torrent. On passing ths
torrent haul to tht southwarJ to bring the two paps on with the More* Castle, and by steering with those marks on, you will go perfectly clear of the low point extending south-east from the Castle of Lepanto, and where abreast of the point Aluki you are clear of all danger.
On entering the Gulf with a foul wind which is very often the case, and it blows heavily, you should keep on the Patras shore, until you are able to pass well to windward of Roumelia Castle which has a small reef extending off it, and continues on to the town of Lepanto. Standing on you may fetch nearly abreast the town of Lepanto. The reef will give you warning where to tack by a man at the masthead, as it is deep water close to the reef; stand over to the southern shore until the two paps on Cape Papas touch the south extreme of Roumelia castle until you have passed the mountain torrent S.b.E. from Lepanto castle, after which to the eastward you may go close in shore.
When in the bay of Lepanto working to the eastward you should avoid opening the peak of Zacoli, (which bears S.E. £ E., compass, from Poiut Aluki,) of Point Aluki, to keep you clear of the reef on the east point of the bay, and when off the southern part of the low point to the south-east of Lepanto castle, you may bring the peak of Zacoli on with the low land trending out to the eastward of point Aluki, the two paps on Cape Papas touching the south extreme of Roumelia castle clears you of the point, but rather close, there being a reef extending some distance out with deep water close to. After you have passed the low point both the shores continue bold and safe all the way up the Gulf.
Matter H.M.S. Talbot, 1839.
Anchorage Of Vostizza.
Thb low land to the eastward of point Aluki, with trees on it, continues on, and forms the western part of the bay of Vostizza, which bay is very deep. The anchorage for a large ship would be in nineteen fathoms, muddy bottom, with the flag-staff S.b.VV., and the extreme of the bay N.N.W. i W. to E.b.N. J N.. compass. But vessels bound up the Gulf, blowing hard from the eastward, would do well to anchor on the eastern part of the bay in fifteen fathoms, mud and stones, with a large tree near the flag-staff on with the eastern part of the Bell topped mountain S.W. ^ W., compass, and abour two cables off shore from which anchorage they would be able to go to sea with a westerly wind. If bound out of the Gulf, and blowing hard from the westward, you may anchor in fifteen fathoms, mud, with the eastern part of a walled garden, to the westward of the town, on with the west end of a brown house under the cliff above it, S.b.W. £ W., compass, and in a line with the peak of the highest mountain, at the back of the town; two cables offshore from which anchorage you would be enabled to go to sea with an easterly wind, as the bay trends from the anchorage north-west. There is deep water all round the bay close in shore, except off the east and west points which have small reefs of stones running out about thirty fathoms, with two and a half fathoms on the extremity, and falling immediately into ten fathoms, mud, and at a short distance no bottom twenty fathoms. The anchorage is perfectly sheltered from the winds generally blowing, which are up and down the Gulf, and exceedingly strong, especially in the
winter months from the eastward. Water may be obtained with the greatest ease, as springs exist close to the beach all about the bay; at one of these springs to the westward of the town it was running at the rate of a ton in ten minutes, and very good. The town is small with a few well built houses situated on the top of a low hill, but, I believe, little is done in the way of trade, except in exporting currents, which are said to be very good.
Master H.M.S. Talbot, 1839. .*.
Report Of Professor Daniell On The Waters Of African Biters.
[We are indebted to the enlightened mind of Sir John Barrow, Bart., for being enabled to communicate to our readers, the following very important reports of Professor Daniell, of King's College, London, on the destructive effects of the waters of certain African rivers on the copper sheathing of ships bottoms, and their connexion with the notorious unhealthiness of those parts in particular seasons. They will be read with peculiar interest by those officers who are, or have been stationed on the coast, and we have no doubt will prove a useful warning to the former, to be careful in not remaining longer than actually necessary in the rivers, and that they will stimulate them to assist the Professor in further experiments, by preserving bottles of water in various localities, according to his suggestions as to time of tide, &c. The test which the Professor proposes, we understand, has been sent out for distribution in the African squadron.—Ed.]
King's College, London, 13th April, 1840.
Sir.—In compliance with the directions contained in your letter to me of the 21st ultimo, I have now the honour to transmit to you, for for the information of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, the results of my analysis of eight bottles of water taken up in the rivers, and on parts of the coast of Africa, together with some observations which have occurred to me, upon the extraordinary quantity of sulphuretted hydrogen which some of them contain, and its probable effect upon the copper upon the bottom of her Majesty's vessels on that coast.
Upon unpacking the case, one of the nine bottles which it contained was found broken, and the contents lost, It was labelled, " Water from the river Bonny, taken at seven miles from the mouth, by her Majesty's schooner, Fair Rosamond, on October, 1839, about the conclusion of the rainy season."
The rest were found uninjured, and properly corked and sealed. Each bottle contained about three imperial pints, and the water in all was perfectly bright, and had deposited very little sediment.
The first water which I examined, was labelled, "Water from the river at Sierra Leone, taken at three miles from the mouth, by her Majesty's brigantine, Dolphin, at low water, spring tides on the 24th day of September, 1839, during the rainy season.
(Signed) Edward Holland, Lieut.-Com."
Upon drawing the cork of this bottle, it was found to smell very