« 이전계속 »
determining with the same degree of accuracy, the actual longitude of two places. Now, a vessel touching at St Thomas, with merely sufficient time to get an observation with the artificial horizon, and then to do the same at Trinidad, would obtain a difference of longitude between these two islands, ■which being compared with the true one, the rates of the chronometers would be ascertained, although the actual longitude of neither places were accurately known. The rates here found would be far preferable to what could be obtained while lying at anchor, for the going of the watches when actually at sea has been already ascertained, and this it is well known in general differs from the rate when in harbour. Under these circumstances, we would recommend, that in future editions of this treatise, the author should insert a table of meridional differences of longitude, between those places that have much direct communition with each other, and where it has been ascertained within two seconds of time. Such a table as we have already shown, would be of considerable utility to seamen, and would also excite those who are supplied with the requisite instruments to furnish data, to increase our knowledge of the relative positions of maritime places.
While we are urging Lieut. Raper, to devote still more of his time to these discussions and tedious compilatii ns, we do think that every seaman will join with us, in thanking him for what he has already done in this important matter. Whether it is exactly fair in a great commercial country like this, whose ships may be said almost to cover the seas, to throw the construction of a table that can only be derived from actual observations, (and those often taken by the officers employed by government,) upon a private individual, who may conscientiously desire to render his work as perfect as possible, is a point which does not fall within our province to discuss.
We have now given some general account of Lieut. Raper's work, and although want of room, (for the subject is really almost interminable,) has prevented us from explaining many parts and from doing full justice to its peculiar merits, yet we hope that enough has been said to enable every one interested in the subject, to form some idea of the important boon which has been presented to the public.
It is we think due to ourselves to state, that we should consider it our business to point ont any errors or faults in a treatise, which professes to teach a science on which the lives of thousands depend; and we should have done so in regard to Lieut. Raper's work, if we could have detected any which called for our particular notice. No doubt there are some minor point* in which we differ from the author,—for instance, he gives the table of the sun's declination which is hardly necessary, as the Nautical Almanac is now so generally used, and there are a few other arrangements where perhaps improvements might be introduced. Of absolute mistakes we have detected none, otherwise we should hare pointed them out;—and further than this, had we found any want of simplicity or clearness, any practical question not fully answered, or any attempt to evade a direct solution of a difficulty, we would assuredly have been most anxious to call attention to any such defects. Those who are in the habit •f reviewing, if they act candidly and fairly, will have much difficulty in proving statements to be erroneous in treatises, which like the one now before as is composed by an author, not merely competent by previous study, but having every advantage that the happiest combination of circumstances can possibly give. Whatever fair and honourable pride we may and do feel, because the author of this work is a sailor, yet we must distinctly state that so far from having any improper bias on that account, it only rendered -us the more inclined to be critical and severe, from the consideration that, all treatises which relate to nautical affairs, if undertaken by seamen, ought from their auperior opportunities, to be more correct and perfect than those which have keen generally given to the world:—on this subject a few further observations will not be out of place.
Those who have only witnessed our seamen when emancipated for a short time, from the regular routine of their lives on board of a ship, and plentifully ENLARGED Still*8.—NO. 3.—VOL. FOR 1841. 2e
supplied with money, are apt to form unfavourable ideas of their utter recklessness and want of reflection. But nothing can be more erroneous than to suppose that " They that go down to the sea in ships, and occupy their business in great waters," can ever be really and permanently thoughtless. So far in general from those who have passed their youth at sea having such a turn, observation and experience prove the very reverse to be the case. When the general peace arrived, and great numbers of our naval officers were thrown out of their proper occupation, and deprived of that employment which they had teen accustomed to from their boyhood, there were few who were content to live in thoughtless idleness, victims of discontent and ennui; the greater part turned their minds and talents into some new channel.
One portion of our naval officers have taken a high walk, having sedulously given themselves to study, and to the scientific avocations connected with professional knowledge. Some of these officers are now reaping their reward, by holding important situations, highly to their own honour and with great advantage to their country; whilst others, again, are receiving that credit which their useful labours have gained for them. Of this class Lieut. Raper is one of the brightest ornaments, and he has clearly shown in this work that the mere science of the mathematician, however profound, cannot accomplish what has now been achieved by the scientific and practical sailor. In the preface to the work that we have been examining, we are promised by the author another volume, in which the mathematical theory from which the present treatise is derived will be entered upon, and laid down, in order that the whole subject may be fully studied by those who have sufficient elementary knowledge. This is proceeding upon the right principle, and such a volume will be a most valuable acquisition to all those, who not content with working by what is vulgarly called "the rule of thumb," wish to be enabled to understand the processes by which they do work. Thus we shall have the important departments, of the theory and practice of navigation and nautical astronomy systematically treated, and in all their bearings fully and clearly explained. There is, however, a large field as yet unoccupied. The nautical steam engine still wants an author; a thorough investigation into the new system of naval warfare by the aid of steam is a desideratum.—Marine surveying, and many other subjects are in the same predicament, none of which can receive full justice, except from a professional author, and if he brings some of Lieut. Raper's deep study and acquirements, adopting the same systematic principles for his guide, he will most assuredly succeed, and will send forth to the world something very different, from the superficial works which have as yet been produced on these subjects. "Of this kind of half knowledge we have had too much, the present state of science which affords such ample means, seems to demand, that whatever is now done, should be well done."
Before concluding, we would again call attention to the general state and condition of practical navigation; notwithstanding its great importance, and notwithstanding the thousands of British vessels that constantly navigate the ocean, the knowledge of many who are actually engaged in the business, is we fear at a low ebb. There have been various speculations and calculations made to ascertain the number of merchant vessels which are yearly lost, by the ignorance of the art of navigating in those to whose charge they have been entrusted, and in the pages of the Nautical Magazine that subject has been often treated. We believe that the lowest computation assigns one-third of the shipwrecks to this cause; even in the navy, wnere the officers have in general the advantages of a better education, and more leisure than the great body of mariners, many instances of gross ignorance have fallen under our own cognizance ; and we could mention some that should scarcely be credited, of islands being sought for and missed.
Now, we would ask, to what cause are we to refer these deficiencies; hydrography is rapidly progressing under able superintendence,—our surveying
* Instructions of Cspt. Flttror, from the Hydiographical office.
Teasels are employed in every direction, determining longitudes, and fixing tin relative positions of points on coasts hitherto almost unknown, and with a precision not before even attempted; above all, the government plans and charts, (bus almost daily arriving, arc published as soon as possible, and may be obtained at the price of the paper, and the expense incurred by printing them. Nauiical instruments are not only better but cheaper than formerly; a chronometer that used to cost one hundred guineas, may be now purchased for forty;five pounds; and the Admiralty are aware of the necessity of improving the scientific education of our young officers. This is all right, and there can be jo doubt it will ultimately produce due and proper effects; but, unfortunately in the mean time, except to the well educated, good charts themselves are of little avail, and the chronometer itself, however excellent, is yet to him who cinnot fully avail himself of its advantages, frequently calculated to mislead. In ibort, it appears to us, that this ignorance must be ascribed to that which we have already alluded to at the commencement of this article, namely, the defects of our treatises on navigation. It is no argument against our statement to refer to the number of excellent navigators to be found both in the navy and commercial marine. Those who have had good teachers, and those who have joined tn habits of industry some preliminary knowledge of mathematics, must always, if they do themselves common justice, acquire a competent proficiency. But the great mass of our seamen are either totally or partially without these advantages;—their excuse for professional deficiency may often be the want of Proper books. That excuse no longer exists, for by the aid of the work which has been the subject of this notice, all are to a certain extent put upon an equality; all may now not only acquire a sufficiency of that knowledge, which is requisite in order to conduct with safety their ships from port to port, but they may acquire as great a precision in their navigation, as those who have had the opportunities of studying the theory from which this science is derived. But there must be no mistake on this point, Lieut. Raper'sbook is not intended to supersede, but to call forth personal diligence. No royal road to proficiency in navigation, either has or will be discovered,—industry and application are as necessary as ever. What is to be had without labour, the mariner may be assured is not worth having when obtained. This difference certainly exists— formerly all the diligence of the seaman, if unassisted, might turn out unavailing ; now, it is his own neglect if he fails in acquiring that knowledge of navigation of which he is in search, and of which he stands in need.
One word of parting advice to those who intend to take advantage of Lieut Baper's work, and then we have done. To all such we would say, do not merely look out for some problem that you find here solved with fewer logarithms than you have been in the habit of employing; recollect it is a systematic treatise that is now before you, adopt it therefore as a whole, adopt it as a system, pay the same attention to its slightest injunctions as to its most elaborate rules; and if a lone experience has given us any right to judge, we can with safety say, that with you at least the opprobrium of ignorance need no longer remain, and that being thus enabled fully to master the subject, you may be comident in taking charge of the lives and properties of others, that there will be no deficiency on your parts, in a perfect knowledge of the science of practical navigation.
(Published by the Admiralty.)
Pmiso or Prince of Wales Island.—Surveyed by Lieut. Woore, R.N. 1832.
A chart of this island on a scale sufficient for navigating the channel inside of it, is an important addition to our eastern hydrography. The scale of the present chart an inch to a mile, is sufficient for this purpose, and our men-of*tr need no longer be apprehensive for their safety with it on board.
Tub A - Ambai Isdanos.—China Sea.—By M. Paris, Eiuignt d* Faitteau, in tkt
Acre.—Syria.—Surveyed by Mr. O. Biddlecombe, Matter of H.M.S. Talbot,
A neat little plan, shewing the approaches to Acre for about two miles round, and highly creditable to its author.
East Coast Op South America,—Sheet 6,—From Rio de la Plata to the Bio Negro.
East Coast Of South America,—Sheet 7, Patagonia.—Rio Negro to Capt Tliree PoinU.
East Coast Of South America,—Sheet 8, Patagonia.—Cape Three PoinU to the Strait Magellan.
Eastern Entrance To Magellan Strait.
The above four very neat charts are-the first we shall record of the results of Capt. FitzRoys long and valuable labours assisted by the officers of the Beagle. With such charts we may pretend to know something of a coast which has been a terra incognita to us since the early voyages of the Spaniards, and our own navigators, the fame of whose deeds there was all they had left us. They are invaluable little charts, enriched with all the details of information required even in these days of steam navigation.
Admiralty, Jul. 1,1841. Candidates for Acting-Masters' Assistant, are Is to
The Lord* Commissioners of the Admiralty having had strictly and carefully examined la tike presence of the
under their consideration the Regulations for the an- Captain or Commander, by eMeaterandNnval Instructor,
poiotment of Acting Masters' Asiiitanti, both as regards and when there shall not be an officer of the Inner crass,
the required period of their aervitudc in the Royal Nary, br two Masters, touching their abilities in Seamanship,
or Merchant Sendee, and their general attainments in Navigation, the. The Certificates of Qualifications are
foreman,hip and Navigation, arc pleased to direct, with to be algncd by the Captain or Commander, as well as by
reference to the S7th Art. Cap. 3, of the Regulations for the examining officers; and all Candidates who shall be
Her Majesty's Service at Sea, that the qualifications for found qualified, agreeably to the before-mentioned tro
the appointment* of Acting Matter*' Assistants in the visions, will be considered eligible to be appointed by
Jloval Navy, shall in future be at follows i—• their Lordships as Acting Masters' Assistant* la Hear
He aha!! have been at Sea either in Her Majesty's Navy Majesty's Navy according!)-, three complete years, or in the Merchent Service four
years, (one of which as Mate or Inferior Mate) j or for By cominand of their Lordships,
combined periods of two years in the Royal Navy, and R. MORE O ri-HRALL
two In the Merchant Service; or one year in the Royal To all Captains, Ac.
He will be required to have a thorough Knowledge of i
the Longitude by Chronometer, and to keep a Ship's Admiralty, Jan. SI, U41.
Reckoning by the common Rules, usually denominated a The title of" Physician-General of the Navy," has been
day's-work. He will also be rcqulrid to produce Certl- abolished, and replaced by that of "Inspectar-tieaaral
Icatci of Servitude, and Regularity of Conduct. of Naval Hospital and Fleets. ■'
Promotions And Appointments.
PROMOTIONS. Mates—L. G. Heath (of the Excellent) has obtained the half-yearly Lieutenant's Lieutenants—A. L. Kuper, late Pelo- commission, as being senior in proficiency ru», to the rank of commander. Com- of mathematics, &c, prior to the Christmission to be dated from the 27th of July, mas vacation at the Royal Naval College J839. E.W. Matthews, to death vacancy J. H. Woolward, to the rank of" •f J. Conway, of Hudesle. tenant.
Cum-C. Dealv. of the Seaflowtr, ud H. H. Chimmo, of the Cleopatra, to tht rank of Parser.
Captains—C. Wyvill to Cleopatra. G Elliott (acting) to Volage.
Cohmandbrs—T. J. Clarke (acting) & Cohunbme. T. R. Eden to Persian, i. Quin deceased. E. S. L. Cannon, to Calcutta. A. S Pearson to the Royal Soumgn yacht, for service of packets at Port Patrick.
Libctesants—W. G. Mange of the fndw to the Phanix. J. P. Dennis of tfce Phoenix to the Indus. J. Sanderson tOjEjrcetfent. L. G. Heath to Impregaoifc. R. Tucker to Ocean. G. Vincent to Indus. J. B. West to Powerful from JffffrlH.
Mates—H. de Lisle to Phcenix. H. Chads to Endymion. A. C. Key to Excellent. D. M. L. Mackenzie to Iris. Mr. E. Hill to Indus. L. P. Pigott to Inprtgnable. W. A. Bridge (of the Excellent,) and G. H. H. Greathead to Indus. C J. F. Ewart of the Excellent to Motion A. L. C. H. Tonge to Vernon, 0. Borland and J Borlase to Excellent, —the latter to take charge of the artillery duties on board that ship. W. Moor•om to Excellent. C. S. Dunbar to
Lizard. J. Borlase, (b) E. Hardy, E. Lacy, and W. A. R. Lee to Excellent, from Naval College as Gunnery Mates. H. B. 'Mottley to Impregnable. J. F. B. Wainwright, E. B. Hawke, T. H. Forster, and P. W. May to Royal Naval College for instruction.
Second-master—J. Scarlett, (acting) to Queen, for her tender.
Vols. 1st Class—H. Parker to Lizard. H. Rundle to San Josef. G. Stratton to Indus. F. M'Kenzie Fraser to Inconstant.
Master's Assistant—J. Matthews (acting) to Victory.
Assistant-surgeons—R. Haywardto Edinburgh v. Plimsoll. D. H. Gambia to Revenge, v. Baker. T. K. Beattie to Stromboti, v. Houghton. D. O'Callaghsn to Phoenix. T. C. Miller to Queen. C. Daniell (of the PAcentx) to Apollo. A. L. Emslie to Queen. J.Jackson (acting) to Caledonia.
Mr. Doyle, clerk of the Apollo, and Mr. Parminter, clerk of the Phoenix, have passed their examination for Pursers.
Naval Instructors—J. Moncur to Endymion. W. Johnson to Monarch.
Chaplain—M. Beebeeto the living of Simonbum.
Coast-guard— Commander—J. Cammilleri to be Inspecting Commander.
Lieutenant—H. A. Finucane to be chief officer.
Movements And Stations Of Her Majesty's Navy.
Apollo, (troop ship) Mr. A. Karley, 19th January left Portsmouth for Cork, 24th arrived.
Athol, 28, (troop ship) Master-Com. C. P. Bellamy, 12th of January left Cork for Corfu and Barbados.
Comet, (st. v.) Lieut. F. C. Syer, 19th January left Falmouth for Bristol.
Ekdtmion, 38, Capt. Hon. F. W. Grey, 2nd February sailed for Cape and Em Indies.
Fexrit, 10, Lieut, W. S. Thomas, ISth January left Falmouth for Africa.
Inconstant, 36, Capt. D. Pring, 2nd February left Plymouth for Mediterranean.
l«s, 28, Capt. H. Nurse, 18th Jan. "rived at Deal from Chatham, 20th arriTed at Portsmouth, 28th sailed for Plymouth, 30th arrived on way to River Gambia.
Liqhtkixo. (st.v.) Lieut.-Com. R. A. Williams, 19th January left Harwich for northward, returned to Woolwich.
Lizard, (st. v.) Lieut. W. G. Estcourt, 30th January at Portsmouth, on way to Mediterranean.
Nautilus, 10, Lieut.-Com. G. Beaufoy, 19th January left Shields.
Nightingale, Mr. G. Hicks, 17th January at Leith, lost two men by the capsizing of a boat.
Pelican, 16, Cora. C. G. E. Napier, 18th January at Deal, 20th arrived at Portsmouth.
Phoenix, (st. v.) Com. R. Stopford, 20th January left Portsmouth for Devonport.
Pluto, (st. v.) Lieut-Corn J. Lunn, 16th January arrived at Portsmouth, going to Plymouth, intended to accompany African expedition to the Niger.
Satellite, 18, Com. J. Robb, 14th February arrived at Spithead from Bermuda, having sailed 8th January.
Ships In Port 10th February.—At Spithead—Pelican, Satellite.
In Harbour—Queen, Victory, Indus, Excellent, Royal George yacht, Tweed, Rapid, Alban steamer.