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East India NAVIGATION.—Position of the Juggernaut Pagoda. We have received the following notices from the Master-attendant at Madras. In our August number for 1836, there appeared an interesting account of the Juggernaut Pagoda, accompanied by a spirited lithographic view of this remarkable building, so emphatically termed " the Lord of the Universe,” and “the Mecca of Hindoostan.” We take this opportunity of making these remarks, as we have received the following letter from the harbour-master of Madras, respecting the longitude of that most useful landmark. It will be seen that Mr. Davy, the present master of her Majesty's ship Thunderer, who was the author of the above paper, agrees with the captain of the Lord Lowther within a few seconds. We are not aware what Mr. Davy's prime meridian was, but such a coincidence seems to throw considerable doubt on the authority of Horsburgh.
Madras, Feb. 18th, 1840. Sir.—When working down the coast this month, I became fully confirmed of a considerable error in the longitude of the Juggernaut Pagoda, which is laid down too far to the westward by Horsburgh's Directory, viz. in 85° 45' east. The Directory states, that the Black Pagoda bears north 75° east, distant fourteen miles from Juggernaut, which
gives a difference of longitude by computation of 14' 19", which places - them east, northerly, and west southerly of each other that distance, but the longitudes are laid down at 23' from each other.
By observations taken off both places by excellent sights and chronometers, I found the Black Pagoda in 86° 7' 58'' east, and the Juggernaut Pagoda in 85° 53' 12". I beg to observe, when going up the bay in May last, I first observed a difference of nine miles, but it being very hazy, I could not depend on those sights, but these taken about twelve days ago, I feel every confidence in, and I shall be obliged by your giving this publicity for the guidance of commanders of vessels, should you deem it expedient to do so.
I am, &c.,
Reefs off Points GORDEWARE AND CORINGA. The following notice will serve as a caution to coasting vessels when approaching the reefs and shoals off Point Gordeware and Coringa.
The commanders of the barque Charles Dumergue, and the brig Union, have reported that the shoals off Point Gordeware and Coringa extended to the eastward and north-east, beyond their known limit previous to the disastrous hurricane and inundation at Coringa, in November last. The brig Union on her last voyage to the northern ports, ran aground on one of the shoals off Point Gordeware, and Capt. Wilkins is confident that he was deceived by the extension of the shoal.
As it is extremely probable that the shoals and banks of soundings are affected by the storms and inundations which have occasionally happened on the coast of Coromandel, and are liable to change, therefore a cautious approach, a strict attention to the lead, and a vigilant
look out, are always necessary, but now more especially in the vicinity of Coringa and Point Gordeware.
CARIS. BIDEN, Master-Attendant.
Among the notices which we have received from Madras is one from Commander Chilcott, of the barque Prince George, reporting shoal water off Eunore. But as it appears, by his bearings, that it is already laid down in a chart long since published, we do not consider it necessary to insert it here.
The Forfarshire Shoal-off Tripaloar–Bengal.
Madras Roads, 25th Nov. 1840. SIR,-I beg to inform you for general information, that we sounded on a bank as follows: 20, 17, 11, 10, 20 fathoms, at a cast, Tripaloar Hill bearing W.N.W. thirty miles distance; and deepened to fifty fathoms, then again shoaled gradually when standing towards the shore.
I remain, Sir, &c.
Jas. RAPSON, Com. Forfarshire.
ÆOLIAN RESEARCHES. No. X. (In continuing our papers on this subject, from observations made about two centuries ago, the following extract from the journal of the Geographical Society, so amply confirms the author's views in many respects, that besides being interesting in itself, we are tempted to introduce it here.] III.-Extract of a Letter from Mr. Alexander Loudon to W. T.
Money, Esq. Dated 24th May, 1831, on his passage to Europe, from Java. Communicated by Mr. Barrow, and read 28th Novem
ber, 1831. • In July last, when returning from a visit to my brother-in law, Mr. Valek, in the interior of Java, I examined, in company with several others, the Guevo Upas, or Valley of Poison, perhaps the most extraordinary place in the world ; and as a description of it may not be uninteresting, I enclose the following copy of a letter which I have this day written to Dr. Horsfield, the botanist, who was many years in Java.
". In the publications of the Batavia Society of Arts and Sciences, I have often read with pleasure your travels and experiments, and particularly that on the Pohu Upas, at Barjowargée, (where I was resident in 1811,) as well as your Tour, published by the same Society, in the eighth volume of their Transactions. Whilst at Batur, you state (p. 24,) The Guevo Upas is dreaded by the natives, and, according to their account, resembles the Grott del Cane, near Naples, but they could not be prevailed on to conduct me to this opening.'
“The object of this letter is to acquaint you that, on the 4th July last, I visited the valley in question, on my return from a tour through the districts of Bagalun, Barjownas, and Ledok. I should be happy to have an opinion upon such a phenomena of nature. As you have examined the mineralogical constitution of the range of mountains, I know no person so capable of giving an opinion on the Valley of Death as yourself. The following is an extract from my journal on the subject.
"Batur, 3rd July, 1830.–This morning, while walking about the village with the Patty, (native chief,) he told me that there is a valley only three miles from Batur, which no person could approach without forfeiting his life, and that the skeletons of human beings, and all sorts of birds and beasts, covered the bottom of the valley. I mentioned this to the commandant and Mr. Spracomberg, and proposed our going to see it; and the assistant resident, Mr. Daendels, agreed to go with us early next morning. At this time I did not credit all that the Javanese chief told me I knew that there was a lake on the top of one of the hills, which it was dangerous to approach too near, but I had never heard of this valley of death.-Very cold this morning; the thermometer 52o.
" • Batur, 4th July-Early this morning we made an excursion to the extraordinary valley, called by the natives Guevo Upas, or Valley of Poison ; it is three miles from Batur on the road to the Djung. Mr. Daendels had ordered a footpath to be made from the main road to the valley. We took with us two dogs and some fowls, to make some experiments. On arriving at the foot of the mountain we left our horses, and scrambled up the side of a hill, full a quarter of a mile, holding on by the extended roots and branches of trees, and we were a good deal fatigued before we got up, the path being very steep and slippery from the heavy rains during the night. When within a few yards of the valley, we experienced a strong nauseous, sickening, and suffocating smell; but, on coming close to the edge, this smell ceased. We were now lost in astonishment at the awful scene below us;-the valley was about half a mile in circumferene, oval, the depth from thirty to thirty-five feet, the bottom quite flat, no vegetation, a few large (in appearance) river stones, and the whole covered with the skeletons of human beings, tigers, pigs, deer, peacocks, and a variety of birds and beasts ;-we could not perceive any vapour or opening in the ground, which appeared to be a hard sandy substance. The sides of the valley, from the top to the bottom, were covered with vegetation, trees, shrubs, &c. It was now proposed by one of the party to enter the valley; but, at the spot where we were, this was difficult, at least for me, as a false step would have been fatal, and no assistance could be given. We lighted our cigars, and, with the assistance of a bamboo, we descended to within eighteen feet of the bottom; here we did not experience any difficulty in breathing, but a sickening nauseous smell. A dog was now fastened to the end of a bamboo eighteen feet long, and sent in ;we had our watches in our hands, and in fourteen seconds he fell on his back; he did not move his limbs or look round, but continued to breathe eighteen minutes. We then sent in another, or rather he got loose from the bamboo, and walked into where the other dog was lying ; he then stood quite still, and in ten seconds fell on his face and never moved his limbs afterwards, though he continued to breathe for seven minutes. We then tried a fowl, which died in a minute and a half;... we threw in another, which died before touching the ground. During these experiments we experienced a heavy shower of rain, but were too much interested by the awful scene before us to regard it. On the opposite side of the valley is a large stone, near which is a skeleton of a human being, who must have perished on his back with his right arm under his head ;-from being exposed to the weather, the bones were bleached as white as ivory. I was anxious to get this skeleton; but I soon found that any attempt to get at it would have been madness. After remaining two hours in this valley of death we began to retrace our steps, but found some difficulty in getting up; from the late heavy shower the sides of the valley had become slippery; and had it not been for two Japanese behind me, I certainly must have fallen some distance below ;-being rather heavy, I held on by the branch of a tree, when my foot slipped and the branch gave way. On reaching our rendezvous we had some brandy and water, and left this most extraordinary valley,came down the slippery footpath sometimes on our hams and hands, to the main road, mounted our horses, and retorned to Batur.
" The human skeletons are supposed to have been rebels who had been pursued from the main road and had taken refuge in the difficult valleys. And a wanderer cannot know his danger till he is in the valley, and, when once there, he has not the power or presence of mind to return.
“ You will perceive from the above extract that there is a great difference between this and the Grotta del Cane, near Naples, where the air is confined to a small aperture, while here the circumference is fully half a mile.
« On my arrival in London I shall be happy to hear your opinion of the mineral constitution of the hills near this extraordinary valley, where there is not the least smell of sulphur, nor any appearance of an eruption ever having taken place near it, although I am aware that the whole range is volcanic, there being two craters at no great distance from the side of the road at the foot of the Djung, which constantly emit smoke."
[The above communication was at the same time illustrated by the following extract from a letter, written in 1825, by Mr. Hamilton, then British Envoy at the court of Naples, describing the Lago di Amsancto,