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Rottenest, without any channel amongst them, which can yet be pronounced safe. In working up for the southern passage with a northerly wuul, the, Champion Rock and dangers in its vicinity may be avoided by keeping the bieh mmn of rock, called the Mewstonc, open to the south-west or the largest and highest of the Stragglers, until the south-west end of Rottenest shuts m round its south point, bearing about W. * N. This last mark will carry a ship clear between Champion Rock and Middle Bank; but should the Mowstone and Stragglers not be satisfactorily distinguished, the beacon on Hshennan s Rock should not be brought to bear more to the westward than north 30 west by compass, until the south-west point is shut in by the south point of Hottt'iit'st us before shewn.

Approaching Rotteneil and Southern Postage.—In steering for Rottenest Island and the southern passage from the westward, the shore should not be approached nearer than half a mile, and the bays on each side of the south point are foul and rocky. Porpoise Bav, on its north-east side, is also fronted by a low rocky mass, called Direction islet, which lies one mile and a quarter east 23° north from the south point, and has deep water to within a cable 5 length of its south-east side. The summit of Direction Islet in a line with s hill with some trees on its summit (Tree Hill), about half a mile to the north of the south point, leads directly over Middle Bank; therefore Tree Hill a little open to the north of Direction Islet leads clear to the north of Middle Bank,— and the same hill on with south point of Direction Met leads clear on its sooth side. The next grey rock (Wallace Islet), half a mile to the N.N.E., is very rugged, and lies close in to Bickley Point,—it has two and a half fathom*, rocky ground, nearly a quarter of a mile south-east of it, which may be avoided in hauling up for Beagles Anchorage by keeping the south point on with the southern extreme of Direction Islet until Fishermans Rock bears north. The Twin Rocks lie near each other, a quarter of a mile north-east from Wallace Islet, and are bold and steep. Round their north-cast side is Beagle's Anchorage, which is a secure retreat in winter.

Currents.—In beating up to Rottenest against a strong northerly or southerly breeze, much ground will be gained by working in the stream of the island, in order to avoid the strength of a lee current, which is found on such occasions to run at the rate of one to one and a half miles an hour. The Beagle found it high water at full and change in Thompson's Bay at 7h.50m. P.m.,—tide chbiug ten hours, and flowing fourteen hours, with a rise not exceeding thirty-two inches.

Winds.—Sea and land breezes prevail in summer. From March to October, north-west gales may be expected, rising from the northward, preceded by a fall in the barometer,—blowing longest at north-west,—strongest between W.N.W. and west,—and moderating after a hard squall from the south-west

Western Australia, Oct. 11M, 1840.

J. S. Roe, Surveyor-General.

The Approaches To Auckland.

While we are on the subject of Australian Navigation, we may also introduce here the following extract from the shipping news of a 1st* number of the Times Journal relating to an adjacent part of the world, namely the north-east part of New Zealand. We copy it as it stands in that-journal and have added various necessary corrections to make it intelligible to seamen, which perhaps the writer originally intended, put nis meaning appears to have been so much departed from, that in its present condition it is next to useless.

"The following has been received at Lloyd's, from the Board of Trade relating to New Zealand:—

"Sir,—I am directed by the Lords of the Committee of Privy Council of Trade to transmit to you the following observations on the approaches to the town of Auckland, which have been received by Her Majesty's Government, from the Governor of New Zealand, viz.

"The town of Auckland on the southern bank of the river Waitemata, is situated in lat 30° (a) 51' 36" S., long 174° 43' E., nearly. The entrance to Waitemata is on the western side of the Shouraka (or the Frith of Thames), and is screened from the N.E. by the islands of Range, Toto, Moton, Tasso, and a succession of precipitous islets lying off the N.W. end of the large island of Waihekeh. (6)


"* Vessels bound to Auckland from the northward, after making Point Rodney, should steer for the island of Tiri Tiri Mantangi (taking care to avoid a small rocky islet lying one league N. 53 W. (mag.) from point Takaloa Tenoa) and passing in on either side steer for Rangi Toto, keeping between that island and the main, and not approaching either in less than five fathoms water, When to the westward of Ratigi Toto, the bluff N. head of (he river Waitemata becomes visible. Vessels coming from the eastward should enter the Frith between the Cape Colville and the great Barrier, passing on either side of the small island of Moton Takupa, which is about a league distant N.N.W. from the Cape, whence a course may be shaped for the mid-channel between Tiri Tiri Mantangi, and Moto Tapon, which nearly joins Rangi Toto, are visible. Then proceed as if coming from the northward, (c)

Vessels drawing less than 18 feet may enter the Telemaki Channel (rf) on either side of Waihekeh, and pass to the southward of the group formed by Waihekeh, Moton, Tapon, and Rangi Toto (e) to the entrance of the Waitemata, but this channel is not recommended to strangers unaided by a pilot, in the event of stress of weather or other emergency, excellent shelter may be found inside any port of Waihekeh, or under the east end of Moton Tapon, the channels leading to it being perfectly free from danger. On approaching the entrance to the river care most be taken to avoid a ledge of rocks extending in a N.W. direction from the southern shore which may be avoided by keeping the northhead

(a) TmVmust be 36°, instead of 30° as no part of New Zealand is in 30° latitude. Assuming that 3C° is meant, the position of Auckland will be about a mile and a half inland from the south shore of the gulf, and immediately opposite to Second Point, (being in the same longitude,) by the survey of Lieut. Fisher and the officers of the Herald, lately published by the Admiralty.

(o) These must be Rangui Toto, Moton-tabou, by the Admiralty chart of the Shouraka Gulf.

(c) We have endeavoured to ascertain the meaning of this part of the directions, and believe that the rocky islet alluded to lies south 53° east, from the point Takatou-fenoa, instead of north 53° west. The meaning of that part, Blinding, to vessels from the eastward, (although there is some imperfection in the latter part,) is perhaps sufficiently clear with the above chart, reading Moton-tabou and Rangui-toto for the names.

(</) Called Tehmaki Strait in the chart.

{f) Moton-tabou and Rangui-tnto.

southward of West (mag.), until a remarkable rock on the south shore, resembling the Bastian of Fort (called the Bastian Rock), bears S. (mag.) (/) With a fair wind the N. head may be rounded at half a cable's length distance, and a mid-channel course will lead to the anchorage off the town. With a beating wind tack on the south shore, on coming into six fathom water, and on the north shore, which is much steeper at the first shoal cast. The only dangers within the heads are a spit of sand that projects half a cable's length from a low sandy point on the north shore about a quarter of a mile inside the north head (<f) and a mud flat which lines the southern shore to a distance of nearly one third of a mil* throughout the whole river, and all the bays on both sides are shoals. These dangers may be avoided by attention to the lead, and the directions given above.

"The navigation of the Gulf of Shouraka, with ordinary care, is perfectly safe, but attention is required in hazy weather, or at night, to avoid many small islets, which vary in height from 6 or 8 feet to 100 feet and which are generally surrounded with deep water. The only known exceptions to this rule are the Perogues, (ft) in 39° 7' S., and long, 175° 18' E., according to D'Urville, and a rock on which the sea breaks occasionally, called Simpsons Bock, lying about four or five miles N.N.E. from the N.W. end of the Great Barrier. There is a sunken rock reported to exist on the N side of Waihekeh, and is marked on the charts about N from the centre of that island'a long league off shore, the position, or even the existence of which, is not positively known. These rocks, as will be seen by reference to the chart, are out of the ordinary track of vessels, but contrary winds may oblige vessels to approach them, and therefore are worthy of notice. The rock off Point Tokata Tenoa, above alluded to, stands about eight feet above high water mark, and is bold to. Its position is accurately laid down by the Baron D'Urville. High water at Waitemata on full and change 6h. 45m. Rise and fall about 11 feet on the spring tides. The flood runs to the southward with the Frith of Thames, but to the northward on the coast.

As we have not met with the original document from which the above was printed, we insert the foregoing for the advantage of our own readers. It is quite evident however that the New Zealand orthography requires considerable attention to preserve it free from such inaccuracies as we have pointed out; but the general careless manner in which the

(/) A dangerous reef extends in a northerly (mag.) direction, above a mile from the south point of the entrance of the Waitemata, by Lieut. Fisher's chart. We shall be glad of the position of the Bastian rock alluded to.

(g) The Sandy Point is three-quarters of a mile within the north point of entrance, and the spit extends about a cable's length and a half east from it.

(A) Pirogues. The middle of the reef called the Pirogues lies in lat 36° 16' south, and the reef is about a mile in extent, in a north-west and south-east direction, about two miles and a half on a south-east course from the islands off Cape Kruzenstern of Otea, which we presume is the great barrier before alluded to; the longitude is identical, but the mariner will look in vain for Pirogues in 399 7' south. Simpson's Rock is not known to us, but that off the north shore of Wai-hekeh appears on the chart.

important particulars of geographical positions and directions for ships appear to be turned out of hand, on which particulars their very safety so much depend, certainly is not calculated to be of much service to them .-ed.

Notices To Mariners.

Piixau, April 20.—After special soundings of the channel have been taken, the buoys which mark the flats and shoals in the same, as well as those streaks running from the shore into the Haff have been laid ; and for the information of the inexperienced navigator the following remnrks will be found very useful:—On Geersler Point, being the most dangerous shoal in the HafF, a large buoy,

fainted half white and half black, is laid, which may be seen at a great distance, n the middle of the mouth of the channel there is a black buoy, with a cross broom, which according as the wind serves may be passed on either side. The other black buoys, in leaving the HafT, 'must be passed on the starboard, and the white buoys which mark the westerly flats on the larboard side. The Kohlholz Kock is marked with a black, and the flats of the Heerdes with a red buoy. For the greater security of the inland navigation, it is to be observed, that on the, so called, Katzhaken, at the entrance of the Passargc, there is a black buoy; and on the Leissuhns Stones a buoy fixed on a stake; both of which, in sailing from Pillau into the Passarges are to be passed on the left side.

Steam Passages To India By The Cape.

We have recorded the progress of steam round the Cape in its earliest stages, when it was matter of speculation what kind of voyages would be made; and we have heard of companies being formed, for the purpose of establishing a line of vessels to brave the dangers of the Cabo Tormcntoso, and force their way to our Indian colonies by sea, without encountering the plagues of Egypt; but we see nothing of the kind yet realised. However, it is useful to place in one view the following account of the various passages which have been made, with the discussion relating to them, as we find it in the Bombay Times:

The Berenice used to be a clever sailer, but she has been so improved by the Indian Navy people that while she has become vastly more "man-of-war-like," her motions have been the very reverse of accelerated. On her last voyage from Suez she reached Bombay on the 22nd November, having taken twenty-one days down, including a delay of sixty-two hours at Aden. February is a short month, and moreover we expect that she will be late in leaving Suez as the weather is still stormy off the south coast of France; and allowing her nineteen days to come down, and assuming that she starts on the 24th, she may, as above stated, be looked for on Sunday or Monday next.

The Enterprise steamer is, we observe, expected round here very shortly with treasure from Calcutta. This is not the vessel which originally bore that name and served with such distinction in the Burmese war, but a namesake of hers built at Calcutta, and launched in 1839. She measures 470 tons, and carries engines of 120-horse power. The Calcutta papers seem to expect that the Enterprise will be here before the departure of the Overland of the 1st April, and if this be so, we presume she will bring with her a host of passengers for the Red Sea steamer. The Cleopatra's new fittings-up are nearly completed, and are extremely convenient indeed, affording cabin accommodation for no fewer than twenty-eight first class passengers. We understand, however, that her berths are already mostly engaged, so that should an influx of Bengallees make their appearance with the Enterprise, those who defer bespeaking their places are very likely to experience disappointment.

The India steamer, which left England on the 4th October, arrived at Calcutta on the 19th February, having been thus 137 days on her passage. Of these she was 100 under steam or sail, and thirty-seven in port at the various coaling stations at which she required to slop. The India is 1200 tons burthen, and is thus a fourth larger than any steamer which ever came out to India by the Cape—the Sesostris being 860, and the Semiramis, the next to the Sesostris in magnitude, being only 733 tons. The engines of the India which are 325-horse power, do not exceed those of the other steamers in the same ratio as her burthen. The engines of the Semiramis, which came here in 1837, were 300, and those of the Zenobia (684 tons) 280-horse power. The India has made the most tedious steam passage of any on record except the Nemesis which lately went to China; having been eighteen days longer in her voyage, and ten days longer under weigh than any steamer from the time the Enterprise rounded the Cape in 1825. The Cleopatra sailed out all the way, and so we rather think did the Zenobia:—these appear as if exceptions in the table. The speed of the India seems to have been considerably under seven miles an hour; whereas few of the others given in the subjoined table have fallen behind eight and a.half. Her consumption of coals, as might have been under these circumstances expected, is extremely low; ranging not much over six pounds per horse power per hour, the average in general being ten pounds. This is a common occurrence and easily accounted for—the quantity of fuel required for propulsion decreasing in a much more rapid ratio than the 'rate of speed. If a steamer passing through the water at ten knots an hour consume ten pounds per horse power, should her speed be let down one-fourth under this, that is to seven and a half knots, her consumption of fuel will probably fall to near a half, or five pounds per hour. As the resistance of the water, and consequently the power required to overcome it, encreases as the square of the velocity of the vessel passing through it, so of course at the same rate must the wastage of the fuel required to generate the power which originates the motion be decreased. It is in cases of high rates of speed that an extravagant expenditure of coal is required. The following table has been somewhat carefully compiled to show the time occupied in the voyages to India of nine several steamers which have rounded the Cape since 1825. It is much less complete than we could have desired, as the documents are not so accessible as we expected to have found them, but we believe it may be pretty closely depended on so far as it extends:—

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