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the very common occurrences, £70 or £ 120 for transport of an extra anchor and cable, and £80 or £100 for the materials.

Mr. Liddell is charged with misleading your readers. Proper circumspection consists in the rejection of expensive Boards of Surveys from a rival ship, headed by Mr. Bance and travelling in coaches and six " en prince." Proper circumspection consists personally in advertising for tenders for repairs, affording sufficient time to the candidate to inspect the defects, and then to close with the lowest. Lastly.— Proper circumspection consists in resisting imposition by attention to current prices. A firm execution of these obvious duties would benefit the many, and is most desirable for the prosperity of the Cape generally. Butchers' advertisements requesting captains to reject middlemen and to deal directly with them at named prices, demonstrates that there is something rotten in the system,

Truth is in a minority at first, and connection will supersede minor consideration. But if Captains were owners and the ships uninsured, without doubt Simon's Bay would be more frequented for supplies and repairs.

I am &c,

T. P. Barrow.

Experiments With Rennib's Paddles.

In our last number we stated that a preliminary trial had been made with the trapezium paddle wheels fitted to H.M. steamer African, and that the results had been very satisfactory.

We now present our readers with the results of the subsequent experiments, all of which have been attended with the same success.

The African is one of that class of ten-gun brigs which was built during the late war, she was afterwards lengthened about ten feet and converted into a steam vessel. Her build is full both fore and aft, and her midship section immersed is a semi-ellipse, of which the transverse axis is 24ft. 10in., and the conjugate axis about 10ft., her length is about 109ft. lOin. or little better than four to one of the midship breadth, which, as compared to the proportions of our modern steamers is ill calculated for speed. Accordingly with a power of 90 horses, or onethird of the tonnage, her velocity at an immersion 9ft. 4in. has rarely exceeded nine miles per hour.

In the year 18#7 a series of experiments were made by Mr. Kingston, by order of the Lords of the Admiralty, under the following circumstances :—

Mean draughts of the vessel 9ft. 4^in., diameter of the paddle wheel 14ft. 7in., twelve rectangular boards in three slips, each placed in a cycloidal curve, 7ft. in length and 1ft. 9in. in width, thus presenting a total area immersed, of 65 square feet, but an effective area of 57 to 60 square feet for both wheels, while the area of the midship section of the vessel varied according to the depth of immersion, from 140 square feet to 160 square feet, or nearly in the ratio of one foot of paddle board to three feet of midship section.

The average of six experiments with and against the tide opposite the measured mile at Long Reach, gave a velocity of 9-174 miles per hour through still water. The engines made from 29 to 30 revolutions per minute, and the barometer guage indicated a vacuum in the condenser of 26f inches.

Experiments Made With The Trapezium Paddle Wheels.

The first trial was made on the 14th of April last. The greatest number of revolutions made by the wheel was 23|, and the speed of the vessel was 9-1 miles an hour. The extreme diameter of the wheels from point to point was 19ft. and the total immersed area of the floats was about 34 square feet, or better than one half of the surface of the rectangular floats; and a second trial was made on the 21st following, but the number of revolutions of the engines did not exceed 23, and the velocity 8| miles. The third trial was made on the 1st instant, with a slight reduction of a square foot in the area of the floats, and by reefing them up 4 inches. The greatest number of revolutions made by the engines was 25^, and the greatest velocity of the vessel was 9-022 miles. A fourth experiment was made on the 8th instant, with 25 revolutions of the engine, and 8-8 miles per hour obtained; and lastly by reducing the floats to an immersed surface of 22 square feet and by reefing the floats 1 lin. or 22in. in all, so as to reduce the diameter of the wheels to 17 feet, the result was 27£ revolutions, and a velocity of 9-124 miles per hour. The vacuum guage varied from 25 to 26, which is equal to the vessel's performance in the year 1837, and with from 2£ to 3 revolutions less of the engines,—(scarcely yet arrived to their full state of perfection and having only just undergone a repair), and with all the disadvantages of wide canvass, paddle boxes, and a foul bottom. Making due allowance therefore for the above contingencies, it is now fairly proved that the trapezium paddle of half the width of half the area, and half the weight, and half the cost of the common paddle wheel, will produce the same, if not a greater mechanical effect in propelling vessels through the water, but that it will in the opinion of nautical men supersede the common paddle wheel, on account of its greater simplicity and snugness in all sea-going vessels.

The Mercantile Marine.Uniform and Shipbuilding.

Sir—Will you favour me with the insertion in the pages of your widely extended Magazine, of two suggestions, addressed to that highly important class of persons, viz. the British shipowners, whose interests Hear are sadly neglected by the press, but for what reason I am unable to conjecture. How much more momentous are the concerns of our splendid Commercial Navy than those of methodist parsons, lawyers, doctors, &c., although I consider that an unthinking public very foolishly takes more notice of, and generally appears to take further interest in matters pertaining to these aforesaid lawyers, &c, than it does in those relating to the interests of the highly respectable body of shipowners. My first suggestion is this; namely, that the proprietor of every ship above 200 tons register, should require the master to wear a smart uniform; and also to have the mates and apprentices in plainer ones. In my opinion, the uniforms, even if not of greater cost than those worn by Serjeants of marines, would set the wearers off better than the finest suit of plain clothes ever made. I should consider that the adoption of uniforms for the officers of a ship would tend to keep the crew further aloof, by the envy which this handsome dress would excite amongst the men, and from the sense of superiority which the wearers of it must feel over their meaner dressed dependents. By thus preserving the discipline of the ship, a very material advantage would be gained; without taking into consideration the enlivening appearance which the streets of our principal ports would present, if the uniform plan was generally adopted in the mercantile marine; and the increased respect which would inevitably be felt for that branch of service, and the temptation which a red coat would hold out for many aspiring youths, who at present are obliged to enter the public service before they can have the privilege of wearing one, and by thus drawing thoroughly educated youths into the merchant service, a superior class of shipmasters would arise. This would be a second advantage by adopting my suggestion. I would have the coat made like those worn by officers when not in full dress, and should give red the preference over bine, considering the former colour the handsomest, and that the using of it would make a distinction between the officers of the royal navy, and the servants of the shipowners. Should I ever possess a ship of the size before mentioned, (very possibly I shall before many years are past,) and not alter my mind in the mean time, which I think I shall-not, for the idea first presented itself in a very striking manner to my youthful mind about two years since. When in the city of Litchfield, I happened to be reading in Lord Londonderry's Tour to the Northern Courts of Europe, an account of the vast number of persons who are to be seen in the streets at Petersburgh in uniform, and since that time the impression has never for a moment been effaced from my mind: I certainly will practice the doctrine which I preach, whether anybody else does so or not. But should it happen that any person makes use of the hint here given, I hope he will award to me the honour of having first publicly proposed the adoption of uniforms for the commercial marine.

The second suggestion is not to employ a master who is not thoroughly competent to superintend the repairs of a ship, without trusting or relying upon any one else. If all masters understood this as they should do, the repairs would very often be done in a manner which would give the owner greater satisfaction, and save his pocket more than is frequently the case: a knowledge on the part of the master of what were really requisite to be done, would be a great check on any dishonest shipbuilder. If all the British shipmasters were as clever as Mr. James Duncan, of the Triton, of Dundee, a friend of mine, I im sure they would give their owners greater satisfaction than they now do. Mr. Duncan was bronght up a shipbuilder, and at an early age entered the Isis man-of-war, in the carpentering department, I believe, in which frigate he remained nine years; after that, along with his brother, he proceeded to Canada, and with the assistance of a few more hands they actually built the Triton, a schooner of 127 tons, new measure, (which they own) themselves. This is nothing very extraordinary compared with the fact, that Mr. J. Duncan has ever since been master of this ship, and three most successful years spent in the intricate and dangerous navigation of the Baltic, have fully proved his entire competence for this responsible post. This instance shows what industry and perseverence can accomplish, and presents the rare instance of a case in which one individual thoroughly understands two distinct callings: from this example we are at once led to conclude, that if a person who has been brought up a shipbuilder, can, with much energy of mind, make himself competent for the command of a ship, why cannot a person who has been educated and brought up for a shipmaster, qualify himself to thoroughly understand at least the art of repairing a ship. No doubt he might, by paying a certain sum, obtain admission into a builder's yard, till he had a general knowledge of the science of shipbuilding. Trusting that you will excuse the imperfections of this letter, and publish it as soon as convenient,

I am, &c. Hull, 14th March, 1841. Thomas Hodgson.

[The suggestions of our Correspondent are well worthy of attention. We have some doubts about salt water and red coats agreeing well together; but fully approve of the principle, and the good effects of such a plan generally. With regard to the master of a ship being a shipbuilder, no one can doubt for a moment the importance of such a measure. The Prussian government already adopt the plan, as will be seen in our volume for 1838. The advantages our Correspondent has already touched on. But how much more besides this does notour own mercantile marine, that of the first maritime country in the whole world, and the most numerous commercial fleet, how much more, we say, does not this require in the way of sound wholesome regulation ?—Ed.]

Memorial Of Mrs. Hewett.

To the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Commons, of the Cityt of London, in common council assembled.

The Humble Petition of Alexander Watt Robe, Major of Royal Engineers and of the several other persons whose names are hereunto subscribed, in behalf of the widow and children of the late Captain Hewett, of her Majesty's ship Fairy, foundered at sea in November last.

And also, the humble petition of Phipps Hornby, captain in the Royal Navy, and of the several other persons whose names are hereunto subscribed, m behalf of the widows and families of the Purser, Petty Officers, Seamen, and Marines, forming the crew of the said vessel, who all perished by the same melancholy catastrophe.

Sheweth,—That her Majesty's ship Fairy, (of which the late Captain Hewett was commander,) was engaged in the service of this country, more particularly in surveying the coasts of these Kingdoms, and the north and other seas surrounding the same, and in accurately laying down in charts and plans, the shoals and quicksands, and sunken rocks, which endangered the safety of ships and vessels of all descriptions.

That a great portion of Captain Hewett's valuable life, (namely, for about twenty-five years,) had been engaged in endeavouring, both on these and

ENLARGED SERIES NO. 6.—VOL. FOR 1841. 3 I

foreign shores, to bring to perfection the said important surveys; and he was, moreover, of strictly unimpeachable character in life and conduct.

That in the prosecution of such honorable and laborious, but perilous calling her Majesty's ship, Fairy, was encountered by a dreadful storm off Lowestoffe, or Southwold, on the coast of Suffolk, on the 13th day of November last, when the said vessel, with its gallant and most meritorious commander and the purser, and the whole of the petty officers, seamen, and marines forming its crew, foundered, and every individual on board perished.

That the bereaved widow of the late Captain Hewett, has not only to lament the loss by that afflicting event of her most estimable and affectionate husband, but also of that of her eldest son who was a midshipman, and her brother who was master; and, at the same time, second in command on board the said ship Fairy, thus sustaining a triple loss—which can never be repaired this side tbe grave, but may under Providence be ameliorated by the generous sympathies of her countrymen—the British public.

That by the afore-mentioned fatal event, the widow of Captain Hewett has been left with eight children, six boys and two girls, with the limited provision hereafter referred to, and such further provision as may be derived from the sources of the naval department of the government of this country, and the spontaneous feelings of other public bodies, and of individuals comprising merchant traders and others.

That the spirit of British Philanthropy, and also that of gratitude for past services has already been manifested in behalf of the bereaved Widow and children of Captain Hewett—the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty having been pleased to grant a pension to the widow of Captain Hewett of £100 per annum, (being £10 more per annum than the regulated provision for an officer of his rank,) and £16 pounds per annum for the benefit of each of the children until they are severally provided for; and the elder Brethren of the Trinity House, have contributed in the name of their Corporation, the sum of £100 for their benefit; and also the further sum of £100 for the like purpose, from the private fund of the Elder Brethren, [tbe copy extract of letter accompanying those contributions from the secretary of that Corporation is included in the printed statement appended hereto, as conveying most honorable testimony of the merits and services of the late Captain Hewett] and the Committee of Lloyd's sensible of the valuable services of the late Captain Hewett, to the maritime interests of the country, have also most liberally contributed to the like purpose.

That, by the before-mentioned calamitous event, seventeen widows, two mothers entirely dependent on their sons, and upwards of thirty children of the purser, petty officers, seamen, and marines of the said ship Fairy, have not only been bereaved of their respective husbands and fathers and sons, but have been left entirely destitute of support, except what may be derived from her Majesty's government, and the generous contributions of public bodies and of philanthropic individuals, but your petitioners, Captain Hornby and others, acting on behalf of the families of the said crew, have the pleasure to state that the appeal made on their behalf has hitherto been nobly responded to by her moat gracious Majesty the Queen, who has subscribed £100', and also by her Majesty Queen Adelaide, the like munificent amount; and likewise by several public bodies and other generous contributors; and such last mentioned petitioners confidently trust, that the force of such appeal will meet with the benevolent aid of your Honorable Corporation, to ameliorate in some degree the poignancy of grief of the families of the deceased.

That the exertions and labors of the late Capt. Hewett were in the course of his most useful life, not only devoted to the surveying of the most dangerous parts of the coasts of Great Britain, but to those of various other parts of the world, for a more particular and just allusion to which a copy of Capt. Basil Hall's most powerful appeal is included in the said printed statement appended to this Petition, and to which the particular attention of Your Honorable Court, is earnestly and respectfully entreated, as in the opinion of your Petitioners, it

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