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Kept at Croom's Hill, Greenwich, by Mr. W. Rogerson, of the Royal Observatory.
From the 21»i of April to the 20lh of May, 1841.
Many of our papers having run to considerable length, have obliged us to defer our notices of books and charts till our next, as well as the appearance of several communications.
The journal of the Florentia will appear in our next.; we request the address for its return. The letter of M. X. M. certainly ; that concerning the Baltic Navigation likewise; we bear in mind the injunction and shall expect to hear from the writer again.
This pressure on our space has also prevented our alluding to some dreRrlfal occurrences which have recently taken place in our mercantile shipping, but which shall be duly noticed.
Remarks And Sailing Directions For The Harbour Of Tinohae, Chosan.— By R. Collinson, Lieut. R-N.
Tides.—A tide register was kept during the day at the observatory by the signal-man, and upon full and change days equal levels were observed by either Mr. Symonds or myself, the result of which give for the time of high water on those days, one hour before the moon's transit : scarcely any change takes place in the depth of the water threequarters of an hour previous, and subsequent to the time of high water; but at low water the change occurred more rapidly; the extreme rise and fall observed was twelve feet three inches, ordinary tides five to seven feet. Strong westerly winds sometimes cause a difference of two feet in the rise and fall. In all the channels, generally speaking, the change in the direction of the stream does not take place until lh. 40m. after the change has taken place in the depth: at the anchorage between Elephant and Deer Islands, it is high water lh. 20m. subsequent to the observatory: in the inner harbour, and along the island of Chusan the flood comes from the eastward; at the outer anchorage off the Elephant from the south-east, and between Bell and Tea islands ships flood rode tend to the northward.
Geographical Position.—The latitude of the observatory was determined by circum-meridian altitudes of stars with a small azimuth and altitude instrument, the result of which gives 30° 0' 19" north; the longitude was determined by a series of moon culminations, sixty-eight in number, which worked with the moon's computed right ascension give 8h. 8m. 20s. easterly. A short run from Loo-choo in her Majesty's ship Cruizer, enabled me to connect Capt. Beechey's position of that place with the observatory, and it differs only 2-5s. to the east: the meridian distances by the different ships from Sincapore range from 121° 58' to 122° 20'. Few of the ships however had opportunities of obtaining rates for their chronometers.
Magnetic Variation.—The variation of the compass by the large theodolite is 2° 33' west, and by two prismatic compasses 2° 50' and 3° 10' westerly: the dip by both needles is 42° 16' north.
Sailing Directions.—The harbour of Tinghae is difficult of access in all its approaches owing to the strong tides and sunken rocks; but the best passage is that between Tower-hill and Bell island, in which there has been found no hidden danger: the tides, however, set at the rate of three and three and a half knots, and vessels in light winds must be careful that they are not set into the Archipelago between Tea and Elephant islands, where the ground is foul, and the narrow channels deep. Between Tower-hill and Bell island forty and fifty fathoms will be found; on the Tower-hill side there is less water than on the opposite shore: both islands are steep to.
Anchorage.—Between Bell and Tea islands eligible anchorage, in from nine to twelve fathoms, will be found by keeping mid-channel with steady tides.
On proceeding from thence to the inner harbour, care should be taken to avoid the strength of the ebb, which, unless there is a commanding breeze will set you through the southern passage : the anchoring ground
ENLARGED SERIES.—NO. 7 TOL. FOR 1841. 3 K
on the Chusan shore is steep to, and the tides irregular; but it is convenient for watering.
A sunken rock with three fathoms over it lies due south from a small hill, near the shore in the valley, two and a quarter cables offshore.
The middle ground in the inner harbour has but two feet in its shoalest part.
Middle Ground.—Tower-hill in one with the slope on the southern rise of Tea island will keep you in four fathoms : the three fathoms1 line extends within two and three-quarters cables of the island of Wae-wookweisan,* which must be steered for after passing Guard-house island. There is a deep channel between it and Guard-house island one cable in width; and also between the middle and the shore of Chusan there is fifteen and sixteen fathoms, the distance being one and a quarter cables: the channel between Guard-house island and Chusan is fit only for boats.
The strait or south channel is a precarious entrance for vessels, unless they have a commanding breeze, and are acquainted with the localities of the rocks, and set of the tides. The outside anchorage for this passage is abreast Elephant island in sixteen and seventeen fathoms: the holding ground however is not good, and vessels entering further will find deeper water, and stronger tides; and it is by no means so well sheltered as that between Bell and Tea islands.
Southern Rock.—The southern sunken rock lays S. 63° E., one and three-quarters cable from the Black rock, and N. 75° E., one and threequarters from the ledge; the marks for it are Joss-house hill just skirting the ridge of Trumble and Sarah Galley islands; Cap rock on with the Saddle of Kintang or Silver island; it has but nine feet over it, (low water springs), seven and eight fathoms extend east and west of it, but north and south it is steep to.
Hindostan Rock.—The north rock lies N. 3° W., one and threequarters cable from it, and has also nine feet on its shoalest part: in extent it i3 larger than the other, and steep to on all sides. The marks for it are the north extreme of Black rock touching the mound on Cap island; the Joss-house hill seen clear of Trumble island, and a bushy tree on the south-east slope of Sarah Galley island in line with the square beacon on the hill.
The navigation of the passage is rendered more difficult in this immediate neighbourhood by the tides which meet from four different channels forming eddies which render vessels in light winds totally unmanageable.
From the sunken rocks to Wae-woo-kweisan there is no danger, and by hauling close round the latter island the middle ground will be avoided.
Passage between Sarah Galley and Deer Island.—There is also another channel, (which is preferable to the latter,) between Deer and Sarah Galley Islands, which is one and three-quarters cable wide: The sunken rocks are avoided by keeping Deer Island on board. A mud spit extends three quarters of a cable from the north end of Deer Island, but it does not interfere with the passage. The north-east
* Called Macclesfield in Thornton's chart.
beacon may be approached on either side within a quarter of a cable, and the Chusan shore is steep to. Abreast Laou-chusan the passage narrows to one cable, but the danger is marked by a stone beacon, which shews at all times of tide. West of the beacon is a shoal patch, which by keeping the Chusan side until Sarah Galley shuts in with Trumble Island, will be avoided; it has nine feet water on the shoalest part.
Between Trumble and Sarah Galley Islands there is a convenient anchorage in nine and ten fathoms; the three fathoms' line extends three and a quarter cables south-easterly from Trumble, but by bringing the south extreme of Wae-woo-kweisan in line with highest part of Tea Island, its extreme limit will be marked. This passage offers the advantage of being the only one in which the same tide will carry you into the harbour.
Chusan towards Ningpo.—Ships bound from Chusan to Ningpo should pass between Bell and Tower-hill Islands, and not between Bell Island and Chusan; as in the latter passage there are some sunken rocks, besides those upon which the beacon stands, and the tides are very rapid.
Watering.—Water is not good, and sometimes scarce; the tanks in the rice fields near the sea being the only supply, excepting wells which afford only a limited quantity,—no running streams have been found. The place latterly adopted for this purpose by the men-of-war is in the bay, west of Guard-house Island.
Fresh beef is now plentiful, bullocks selling at from eight to fifteen dollars. Goats, ducks, pigs, and fowls, are also to be had in any quantity at a reasonable rate; vegetables of all kinds are plentiful and good, sweet potatoes forming the staple part of their food. The ridges of all the hills are cultivated in the most careful manner, the barren spots being devoted for their burial grounds. Extensive stone embankments prevent the encroachment of the sea on the rice fields, and a vast quantity of valuable land has been gained in this way from the sea. Canals form the principal means of transportation, the roads being merely footpaths; every large field has its canal for the purpose of carrying away the produce, some of which are four feet below highwater springs.
The city of Tinghae is one mile and eight cables in circumference, and is surrounded by a wall fourteen feet nine inches high and thirteen feet wide, surmounted by a parapet fourteen feet six inches high and two feet wide; the south face runs east and west, the west face north and south; the east face runs north 350 yards, and then north-west. The north face is irregular on the north-west side, the city is overlooked by a hill, part of which is enclosed by the wall.
A canal thirty-three feet wide and three feet deep, nearly encircles the city, and enters it near the south gate.
There are four gates, each of which have two-arched entrances, one being at right angles to the other; the arch of the outer one is seven feet six inches wide and nine feet high; the principal streets are seven feet wide and badly flagged; the houses are irregularly and badly built and generally of one story.
The south gate is five and a half cables from the sea,—a canal and paved footpath lead from the suburbs; the principal means, however, of communicating with the sea, is hy means of a canal further to the east.
Large quarries of hornstone porphyry are found in the north-west extreme of the island, from which large blocks are hewn. The stone beacon on one of the reefs is a circular pillar thirteen feet high, and five feet ten in circumference. Mill-stones and slabs of this appear to have been one article of exportation.
In the preparation of salt from the sea, great numbers during the summer appear to be occupied. A distillery of spirit from rice, and manufactory of mats form another means of employment.
During the month of September, the thermometer in the shade ranged from 71° to 102°, its average height during the day being 85°. The prevalent winds during the month were from the eastward and the weather fine.
The range of temperature in the month of October is from 51° to 92°: the prevalent winds during this month were from the north-westward. The barometer, generally speaking, stands high, and rises with strong north-westerly breezes sometimes to 30-34 inches; during this month much rain fell, and the sky was generally overcast.
In the foregoing remarks, the names of the islands have been taken from Thornton's chart.
Journal Of Proceedings On Board H.M.S. Nimrod, And Remarks On
THE PASSAGES BETWEEN Keeto PolNT AND THE ISLAND OF FoOTOSHAN.
—By R. Collinson, Lieut. R.N.
The Nimrod weighed at 11 A.m., and went out of Chusan harbour by the south or direct passage.
The ship anchored near the entrance of the ten fathoms Junk passage, (Thornton's chart,) that evening, and on the following morning I landed upon Keeto Peninsula, for the purpose of obtaining angles and measuring base by sound. While so occupied, the Chinese assembled to the number of between 2 and 300, but did not advance nearer than one third of a mile. When the round of angles were completed, I sent the theodolite down to the boat, and remained to make an eye-sketch— immediately it disappeared the Chinese advanced rapidly, and nearly succeeded in cutting us off from the boat, into which they threw stones, and upon our getting out of stone's throw opened a fire from matchlocks, which was returned from the boat; they fired with good precision, striking the boat in several places, and wounded one man, A. Phillips, in the shoulder.
Having a narrow passage to continue the survey through, I conceived it advisable to return on board for the boat's gun. Captain Barlow, however, determined to move the Nimrod further inshore, in the execution of which, the tide set her on the spit that runs off Roberts Island, and the remainder of the day was occupied in getting her afloat. On the 27th we left in three boats, and passed through the ten fathoms Junk passage without molestation; the natives, on the contrary, communicated freely with us. The passage is two cables wide, having