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not marked on the chart, perhaps from not having been accurately surveyed. On the north-west point of Cabul there is a reef which extends out half a mile, but by keeping near the south point of Luzon you cannot come near it. We did not see it till after we were west of the island.
On entering the Strait between Bernardine and Baliquartro, there are several small detached rocks, shewing their heads above water, close to Baliquartro Island. At 5 P.m., from our position, the north point ofTicaobore W.N.W.; the east point W.S.W.; Cabul and the Naranjos E.b.S.; south point of Luzon, N.W.b.W.
During the night the wind very light and baffling, steering northward between the Luzon shore and Ticao: several fires seen on the island during the night, a very large one at, or near Port Jacintho. All the islands in the strait have a very pleasing appearance, and are covered with trees and verdure from their summits to the waters' edge. The east side of the island Burias is rather barren and rocky, but covered with bush. Every island appears inhabited, and all have the same bold and lofty character. Off the north-west end of Ticao are several isles, but they are quite bold, and no apparent hidden danger. Keeping the Camarines Volcano N.N.E. will take you clear of the south point of Burias. The island of Sibuyan is a very high mountain with a lofty peak, which readily distinguishes it from any other, and can be seen a very great distance, it is the highest land among the islands of the straits. Romblon is a small island, not very high, west of Sibuyan. Tablas, a large long island, the summit mostly table land from one end to the other; there is a small peak at the east end, but not high. Maranduque is a large island with a very lofty peak on its southern extremity, which is barren, rugged, and rocky, to the waters' edge,— a detached rock south of it. Banton is a tolerably high and bold island, with a small peak; the channel between Banton and Maranduque is not more than seven or eight miles at the most. Bantoncilla, south of Banton, is a smaller island, more level at the top; there is a detached rock to the westward of these two islands, nearly on a line with Bantoncilla, (west of it.) The Hermanos are two small flat islands, and very much alike. Campo is a tolerably large island and appears rugged, it is westward of the Hermanos. The Vinegesare three small islands westward of Port Mahanguin, they stand much further from the land than as marked on the chart.
May 1st.—Passing the Silonay Islands, I saw a reef fronting the two southern ones on the east side, on which the water breaks. When abreast Isle Verte, on the south side, we experienced a most extraordinary rush of current or tide ; though it blew a very fresh breeze, it was with great difficulty the ship could be steered in it, but it only lasted while passing the island. The surface of the water was in complete foam, particularly inshore, and much resembled a large reef. At the back of Batangas Bay, is a mountain of which, from its singular shape. I took a sketch. This part of the straits is most interesting for its scenery and splendid views;—the numerous and gigantic mountains, the low land and islands, covered to the waters' edge with trees of tropical foliage, the volcanic appearance of the mountains, the beautiful small coves and sandy places we passed sailing along, (particularly near Point Galera,) often as near as a mile; numerous feluccas, schooners, and boats, sailing about with smooth water, and a lovely day, made most imposing picture.
On Point Galera is a hut with a flag-staff and signal-yard, and some houses on the beach, in a small cove below it. On the morning of the 2nd of May, found we had been set to the northward with a strong current,—all hands at their stations during the whole of the night working into Manilla Bay.
(To be continned.J
Tbinidad In 1803—By the late Capt. G. II. Columbine,* R.N.
(Continued from p. 400J
No grants of land have yet been made by the British Government.* It would have been useless to attempt any improvements in a colony, of whose possession we were by no means certain. The only improvements, therefore, which have taken place since the capture of the island, have been made principally by Englishmen, buying and settling grants of land of which Spaniards had got possession, but who were too indolent or too poor to cultivate.
There are several small rivers on the west side between Naparina and Point Icaque, big enough to admit canoes for some distance.
• Erroneously stated " E. Columbine " in our last
t The state of Trinidad, nearly forty years ago, as described by Captain Columbine, forms an interesting contrast to the activity which is prevailing in some parts of that fine island, at the present time. On the subject of emigration to it, we find the following in a recent number of the Naval and Military Gazette.
"Emigration from the smaller colonies to Trinidad and British Guiana continues to a great extent, and vast numbers are pouring into these fancied el-dorados, which, like the 'Irish cows, have long horns at a distance.' Agents are now established at Barbados, Nevis, St. Kitts, and Anguita, for the purpose of procuring labourers, nominally by fair and open means. That the negroes should travel when and where they please, that they should be free to go and come as the Patlanders in harvest time, now a day, nobody will deny; but we deprecate false hopes and falser promises being held out to these poor ignorant people by mercenary crimps. We deprecate kidnapping, or that the youthful, healthy, and labouring branch of a population should be surreptitiously drawn off from their native colony, while the old, infirm, and destitute, remain burthens upon the community. We deprecate smuggling debtors away to the detriment of their honest creditors. We deprecate bursting through and rending asunder the ties of kindred, by cajoling away fathers from their young and helpless families, brothers from sisters, children from parents. Vie deprecate inducing a peasantry to abandon the homes of their forefathers, or transporting a population from wholesome, dry, and salubrious islands, to work and perish in swamps and fens, in mud and miasma. We deprecate the inquisitorial system, which suppresses, cuts off all correspondence between the emigrants and those they have left behind; above all we deprecate that un-English-like principle of one British colony elevating itself upon the downfall of its elder neighbours.
A party of emigrants engaged a vessel to take them from Demerara to Montserrat *nd St. Kitts, for the purpose of passing the Christmas with their relatives. The master of the vessel was a Frenchman, and the mate (an Englishman) observed that during the day, instead of steering for their destination, the vessel's course was shaped for Porto Rico. At night the mate altered the course, which greatly enraged the captain, who threatened to shoot him; suspecting foul play, the mate and a few
Near Point de Brea is the wonderful pitch lake, of which a copious description is given by Dr. Anderson, in the 79th volume of the Philosophical Transactions.
Point Icaque is low, and its soil sandy. It has a very fine natural savannah, nearly three miles long, and upwards of a quarter of a mile in breadth, which might be made use of to contain a supply of cattle for the army and navy. Near Point Icaque* are two remarkable ebullitions of the earth. In the midst of woods, thick and almost impassable, are two circular spots about 120 or 160 feet in diameter, perfectly clear of any vegetable production, and exhibiting a boiling up of mud cooled down into the form of the top of a loaf, the highest central part being several feet above the edges, and above the soil of the surrounding woods. We walked over them, but from the shaking of every step, we seemed only to be treading on a thin dry crust; indeed there have been instances of people breaking through this crust, and instantly sinking so deep into the softer wet mud beneath, as not to be extricated without great difficulty. Everything about them is salt,— the trees and shrubs which surround them are all marine plants. It seems probable, that they are occasioned by the action of salt water, heated by subterraneous fire, of which there are many marks on the coast of Trinidad.
The north-east coast of Trinidad is bounded by rocky shores, and steep mountains thickly covered by wood close down to the sea, which breaks in a heavy surf along the whole extent, and renders landing impossible except at a very few places. Between the Bocas and Point Chupara there are some large bays, but so much swell sets into them, and the wind is so uncertain and light close inshore, that it is dangerous to anchor a ship in them, except in Escouvas and Marracas. There are two small batteries at Macaripe; a cove at the north end of the fertile valley of Cueca.
Chut-deau is a very small sandy cove, deriving its name from some little streams of water, which as they descend from the hills, are projected over the rocks in various directions. We found a party of fishermen here, catching King-fish, and salting them in barrels for the market of Port Spain. A path, scarcely practicable, leads from hence across the mountains to San Juan.
of the passengers seized upon a boat, and ran for Montserrat. The captain brought his vessel to St. Thomas, and attempted to sell the cook as a slave, but upon the Danish authorities discovering it, the vessel was seized, and the captain lodged in the fort, where he now remains for trial.
The American labourers who have come voluntarily to Trinidad and located themselves there, are a very superior race of negroes. They frequently perform by 10 o'clock A.m. a task equal to an entire day's labour in the slavery time, and then undertake a second or third task, thus earning 6s. 6d. for one day's labour; their example is stimulating to the other negroes, who still having the dregs of slavery in them only work from dire necessity, or as the "maggot bites." Trinidad is rapidly rising in the scale of our West India colonies, it possesses vast internal resources peculiar to itself, but its greatness will not be increased by needy adventurers speculating in properties without the means of meeting their engagements, or by agents trepanning into the island under false promises a promiscuous peasantry from the other colonies.
* The pitch lake; the ebullitions at Mayero through the sea; the tar at GuayaBuyare.
L'Escouvas is a sandy bay, on one of whose points Sir R. Abercrombie placed a few guns to protect coasting vessels from French privateers. The sandy shore on the east side of it is thickly wooded almost close to the sea, in a very picturesque manner, with several breaks, projections, and retirements in the woods, filled by long winding slips of land, and varied by high rocks, and small rivulets mingling amongst them. But scenery which in Europe would be highly admired, is in Trinidad regarded with indifference, even by the very few who can approach it. The eye is satiated with woods, and the intense heat of the climate, the stings of musquitoes, and the bites of sand flies, divert the mind from the pleasures of the eye to the suffering of the body. The valley of L'Escouvas is extensive, with a good stream of water in it, a considerable part of it cleared, and some laid out in sugar. It is the property of the late Spanish governor Don Chacone, whose merit and friendly disposition towards the English, make it a subject of regret, that the persecution which he has suffered from French influence for the unavoidable capture of the island, has rendered his funds quite inadequate to the expenses of so large a plantation in its infancy. It is consequently in a very indifferent state. There is a sort of road which males can pass from hence to St. Joseph, but is very bad, passing over an opening in the ridge of the mountains 2,000 feet high; the summit of it has been aptly named La Fenetre; from thence the traveller may view to a considerable distance, both courses of his laborious journey, and will doubtless wish for the conclusion of its difficulties. A mile to leeward of L'Escouvas is the deep bay of Maraccas, open to the north, but affording more shelter than any on the coast; the land is level and cultivatable for a considerable space, and is the property of a captain in the Spanish navy. Some progress had been made in planting it, but it is now nearly gone to ruin. These two settlements are the only ones which the north coast seems capable to afford, as far as the quarter to Toco.
From Escouvas to Toco there are no inhabitants; the coast is chiefly rocky and high, with a few small bays, which generally have a small river in them, but the surf is so heavy, that these bays are scarcely more accessible than the rocks. The only landing places we could find were at Rio Grande, Petit Matelot, Troubouillris, and Paria Bay. The perseverance and good swimming of Mr. Coulson, the gunner, enabled him also to land at Macapou and Chupara roads, but not without having the boat repeatedly upset, and himself and people almost drowned. I found also a very small circular cove about half a mile to the north-east of Madamus, where a drogher or two might lay in smooth water with the greatest security, being within the breakers. It is closed round with steep rocky cliffs, and did not appear to have any communication with the country; it has a small stream of fresh water in it.
The rivers in this place are Rio Grande, Tiburones, Madamus, Paria, Macapou, and the Chupara, but except the latter, they are not worth the name of rivers; their depth for a small boat seldom extending three-quarters of a mile, and their mouths being totally barred up. The vallies through which they run are contracted to a very small space by the neighbouring mountains, and there can be little hope of forming any settlement hereabouts, from the mountainous nature of the land, and the vast difficulty of landing at any of the few spots which are cultivatable. Was it not for this last objection, the valley through which the Chupara runs navigable for boats upwards of two miles, would afford some fine situations.*
It is very difficult to land at Rio Grande Bay: the early part of the morning is the best time, before the sea breeze sets in, and the boat must be hauled up. The only part of the river which seems navigable, extends about 2,000 feet to the eastward; and so far it has water enough for a canoe, and is fifty feet wide. At this distance it turns to the south, and becomes a mere mountain stream, running over rocks, flat shallows, and through small deep pools; but a French mulatto whom we found fishing here told me that in the rainy season an immense flood poured down, and when its first violence was over he could go up the river more than a league. It seems to me very doubtful whether it could ever be used to bring bulky produce down it, in case the banks should hereafter be cultivated; its bed is full of rocks. The mulatto had with him six or seven Indians catching turtles, but by no means fatiguing themselves in that pursuit. Their indolence is extreme, we found them sitting on their haunches, and after being on shore nearly three hours we left them in the same posture.
The land to the south-west of the river is not mountainous for some distance; it is moderately hilly, and a considerable part is level; apparently it is a situation which would prove a valuable estate. We saw several trees covered with large purple flowers, twining round the liens or long fibres, which grow downwards from the branches, and hanging about them in clusters quite down to the ground. I left the ship at Rio Grande, and went with the boats and tents to Toco, to survey Point Galera. The first part of our course lay round a high point, which the current renders at all times difficult, and sometimes impossible even for canoes to pass. The inhabitants of Toco quarter call it Sans Souci, thereby meaning, that when they have passed this point, they are at ease about the rest of the passage.
The whole coast is hilly, thickly wooded, and bearing great abundance of mountain cabbage :+ these trees appear much like a cocoa-nut tree, and often run eighty or one hundred feet high. The whole tee must be cut down to get at the cabbage, which is in the centre of the foliage at the top, and is an excellent vegetable. A heavy surf breaks on the whole of this, the few landing places being only small openings among the breakers, and these are not practicable at all times. From Toco to Point Galera the land is of a moderate height, tolerably well inhabited, and producing some cotton. In April, when we were there, every bush swarmed at night with large fire-flies: they had two lights at their heads, and one under their tail, and furnished light enough clearly to illuminate the wires of the telescope when held to its end for that purpose. This is the state of the north coast, and of course its produce must be very trifling, It serves, however, as a good barrier against
♦ Perhaps a road might be made to it, without any ffceat difficulty, from a small sandy bay under the lee of Point Chupara.
f Called by the French Chou Palmiste. ,