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per hour faster, then her rate, as shewn by the log board, taking 24 from 104 would still leave eighty miles westerly set to be accounted for. A barque, boarded yesterday, (Miranda of London,) mentioned having experienced an unusually strong set to the westward, but unfortunately, the master was not asked how much it was. On crossing the equator, between 250 and 27° west, I have on three occasions, found the current stronger in May, June, and July, than in any other part of the year. Once it set the ship to the westward 70'in twenty-four hours.

I had sights for the chronometers at Porto Prayo, nine days previous to making St. Pauls Rocks, and the greatest difference between any two of them, (five in number,) was but three miles and a half. I worked over, and carefully examined the sights for several days preceding the 31st of May, but I could not detect any error. Although the result of five chronometers, (taken separately,) were so near each other, I must have doubted the possibility of the “ Pearl's " being set so many miles to the westward. But the sight of St. Pauls Rocks proved our position, and the correctness of the chronometers; and when it was found with what difficulty the boats pulled against the current, and that the ship could not work to windward against it, there could be no longer any doubt as to our having been set to the westward, at the rate of four knots per hour,-supposing the remainder to be set off, as errors in log line, heaving the log, &c.

They are such mere rocks, that I much doubt if they would be seen further than 8', unless a strict look-out was kept for them. They are covered with birds, and surrounded by garupas and sharks,the latter are exceedingly voracious.

June 2nd, noon.-Fernando Noronha bore south 59° west, distant fifty-eight miles. At 2 observed the Pyramid from the mast head. 4. The Pyramid W., N. five leagues ; chronometers between three and four miles too far to the eastward. From here to Rio de Janeiro we found little or no current. But if it be proved that the current in the latitude of St. Pauls Rocks, sometimes runs with unusual velocity, (as in the case of the Pearl,) it will be necessary to keep a vigilant lookout, particularly at night, as they are so near the water's edge they would hardly be seen, till too late to clear them.

[It is to such unusual currents as this that we owe the origin of the Bonetta rock, among the Cape Verde Islands, supposed to exist in no less than six different places, all of which disappeared on the investigation of Capt. Vidal, as we demonstrated in our volume for 1839, shewing that the Bonetta rock was no other than the outlying rocks of Bonavista. The St. Paul rocks are well calculated with this current setting on them, to bring up some of our mercantile shipping at night, unless a better look out be kept than appears to have been, by the numerous collisions which have lately taken place.- Ep.)

VOYAGE of the Ship FLORENTIA.—W. Goodwyn, Commander. Thursday, 12th March.-Having all the crew on board, and received sailing orders, we weighed our anchor and proceeded to sea. At midday, being abreast of Sydney Head, the pilot left us, a smart breeze blowing from N.E., the Hope, whaler, in company, standing to eastward. 4 p.m. breeze increasing, reduced sail. At dusk the Hope about eight miles astern; lost sight of her during the night.

Sunday, 15th.--At 9 A.M., saw Lord Howes Island and Balls Pyramid about N.E. On the 16th, at 5 P.M., sighted Howes Island. 17th, Winds still variable and easterly. Noon; lat. 30° 45' S., long. 159° 49' E. Lord Howes Island in sight S.W. 60 miles. From the 17th to the 23rd we experienced very fine weather, with light variable easterly winds, which prevented us sighting Norfolk Island. Passed about 100 miles to westward.-24th, while taking the noon observation my attention was attracted by a singular white cloud. On looking more attentirely I saw the Island of St. Matthew, just above the horizon. Mr. Levitt reported two islands close together: trimined all sail and hauled up to pass to wind ward of them. As we approached the island, what I had taken for a white cloud proved to be smoke issuing from the centre of it. On nearer approach, it appeared to proceed from a very large fire, and there was a smaller body of smoke as if from a smaller fire, half way down from the summit. We stood in within four miles of the east end of the island, imagining some parties might either have been left there, or perhaps wrecked; seeing no other signal I thought it might proceed from natives of islands contiguous; but on opening the northern point there was, at times, a body of fire running from the summit to the base, in a cleft or chasm, to the waters' edge; I therefore concluded the island to be of volcanic origin, and its subterranean fires still in a state of combustion. We watched it till a very late hour, and occasionally saw distinctly the fire descend from the summit, and about half way down separate into two bodies to the base. I have not the slightest hesitation in saying it was in volcanic action. Horsburgh lays down the island in lat. 22° 24' S., long. 172° 15' E., and in a note says, « This is called Hunters Island by Captain Fearn, who places it in long. 171° 50' E., and he discovered a high rock to the westward in lat. 22° 21' S., distant fourteen leagues from the former.” This he considers to be Matthews Rock, which has near it, to the northward, a flat rock that may be seen five leagues. I made the island to be in lat. 22° 22' S., long. 171° 35' E., by an excellent chronometer, (No. 729, Barraud). Mention is made by Captain Fearn, and in the charts is also laid down a rock to the northward, which may be seen five leagues. No such rock is in existence. At sunset we saw from the tops the Hunters Island of Captain Fearn, bearing E.b.N. IN. Centre of St. Matthews at the same time W. S. At a distance, say twenty miles the island certainly appears as two, one a peaked rock, and the other part flat. Seen at a distance, this may have caused St. Matthews to be represented with a flat rock near it to the north ward. If this is not the case, the flat rock has disappeared either by volcanic or other means. There appeared a reef round the south and east ends of the island, at about half a mile from the shore, the sea breaking very heavily on it.

The 25th, 26th, and 27th. Experienced a strong S.E. trade wind, and during the three days ran under single reefed topsails 550 miles, steering for Mitre Island. On the 27th we were in lat. by Mer. Obs. 13° 59' S., long. by Chro. 170° 41' E., and on the 29th, at noon, lat. 12° 24' S., long. 170° 56' E., Chro. We had a current from about N.b.W., setting us eighteen miles to the southward.

Mitre Island appears like two separate haycocks when seen from the eastward, both of the same apparent height; but the one to the southENLARGED SERIES.--NO. 7. --VOL. FOR 1841


ward' is more rugged than the other. It is laid down on the charts thirty-six miles east of its position, according to my observation, and also to Norie. Norie's chart makes Cherry Island twenty miles of longitude east of Mitre Island, whereas by Horsburgh it is twenty miles west, which latter is correct. In the charts, Cherry Island is laid down west of Mitre Island, and yesterday evening we saw Cherry Island from aloft, bearing about north-west of Mitre Island. On the 2nd April passed a piece of cocoa-nut, drifted probably from some island eastward of us, as we have been set to the westward about twelve miles per diem some days past.---4th and 5th. Very warm weather. Moderate east winds. Sea smooth. Ship under every stitch of canvas that can be set. Yachtsailing. At noon this day our lat. is 4° 26' S., long. 165° 13' E. We are 2650 miles from Sydney.-6th. Much lightning last night; squalls and rain. Thermometer at noon 85' in shade, 98'in sun. Current to-day and yesterday from the east, nearly one knot per hour.–7th and 8th, the last day tremendous squalls, with very heavy rain and lightning. Lat. 8th, observation, 1° 16' S., long. 162° 22' E. Shanks Island sixty-four miles N. 37 E. At 1 P.M. light east breeze; made all sail; still a current.-9th, calm ; thermometer 86° in shade, 112° in the sun; at noon, lat. 1° 7' S., long. 162° 22', having made nine miles these last twenty-four hours. No current this day.-10th. At noon, observed lat. 0° 9' S., long. 162° 15' E. Shanks Island E. by S. S. forty miles. I endeavoured to sight the island, it being a prominent one in the charts, but the winds, calms, and currents prevented me: to this day we have ran 2,966 miles from Sydney.-11th. Noon, lat. observed 2° 0' N., long 161° 28' E., Ravens Island N.W., 320 miles.12th and 13th. During the day fine steady breezes from N.E. to E.N.E., but very squally at night. This morning, at one o'clock, had a very severe squall with shifts of wind, very heavy rain, vivid lightning, and sharp loud thunder; it did not clear up till nearly four o'clock : the ship under bare topsails only. The wind first at N.E., then east, then flew round to south, and gradually back to N.E.- 14th. Passed several cocoa-nuts, and a piece of drift wood. At noon, anxiously looking out for the islands, as we are nearly on the spot in which they are laid down. Latitude observed 5° 38' 30" N., longitude 137° 39' 45" E. At ten minutes past noon saw them from the foreyard right ahead bearing north-west, distant ten or twelve miles ; at six they bore from N.W. b.W. to E.N.E.: at eight saw a light on the Western Island; no doubt they are inhabited. They are very low islands, and all covered with trees, which we took for cocoa-nut trees. Sailed past them at about three miles distance. They are marked in the chart as being seen in 1794, and their real position is about ten miles north-west of that marked in the charts.

15th.Set in towards night with very dark gloomy weather, squalls and torrents of rain, sail reduced to topsails and foresail; continued till noon the 16th when it cleared up, and we saw the sun. Observed lat. go 22 N., long. 155° 39' E. This afternoon the north-east trade set in; strong breeze. 17th, the sun vertical. 18th, ran 205 miles the last twenty-four hours : Guaham (the Ladrone Islands) distant 395 miles. 20th, saw the island of Guahan or Guam: at noon latitude observed 13° N., longitude 145° 13' E. In the charts this island is

placed thirty miles west of its true position. Norie gives the longitude 144° 56', which is about correct. Guam is the largest of the Ladrone islands, which name was given them when Sir Francis Drake touched there in 1579, on account of the thievish practices of the natives. Philip 2nd., king of Spain, took possession of them in 1565, and in the reign of Philip 4th, they were called the Marianne Isles, in honor of his Queen Marie Anne of Austria.

These islands were once populous, but Guam is the only one now in. habited. An epidemical sickness having carried off a great number of the natives in several of the isles, the Spaniards very cruelly removed the survivors to Guam to supply the numbers that had died there. At the time of Commodore Byron's voyage, the ruins of their habitations were visible on Tinian, though overrun with trees and bushes. Guam has a very pleasing appearance, and the islands of Tinian and Taypan are described as very beautiful, and abounding in limes, lemons, cocoanuts, and bread fruit; also with wild cattle and hogs. The breakers extend out a long distance from the point, and break very high.

22nd.-Passed over the spot where Ansons Islands are laid on the charts: the horizon very clear, nothing in sight. These islands cannot be in existance. This establishes in one point, the remark of one of our first navigators, “ If an island, or any shoal rock, or reef, be laid down as doubtful, steer for it direct; by doing so, if the position is correct, you establish the fact, if not you evade it;" and experience has shewn that, in ninety-nine cases out a hundred the latter is generally the fact. Cape Espiritu Santo, distant 775 miles on the island Samar, (one of the Phillippines.)

25th.-Sun again vertical at noon. 26th.- Dead reckoning latitude 12° 50' north, longitude 129° 7' east.

27th.-Saw Cape Espiritu Santa ; altered course, steering for Embocadero, or Straits of St. Bernardino.

28th.-All night running for the land near the Strait, but was much deceived by the charts, there being a discrepancy of about twenty-five miles with my observations and chronometer. At noon St. Bernardines Island west, distant four miles; and the Baliquartro Islands, S.W.b.S.

Noon; latitude observed 12° 47' north, longitude 124° 40' east, having a fine leading breeze I determined on entering the Embocadero, hoping to clear the south end of Luzonia, and get a good sight of Ticao before dark. The coast of Samar is bold of approach, as well as Luzonia; but the latter as you near St. Bernardines Isle is much higher. The centre of three high hills is peaked, and very high. There is a small islet detached, and to the northward of St. Bernardine. We passed the eastern side of the island, and found the passage very open and safe ; stood on for the south-east point of Luzon : off this point are several small isles, which appear to be connected with reefs, the end of the southernmost one is bold, bluff, and woody: we passed at half-amile distant. After you are to the southward of it, you will see to the westward a very remarkable low flat rock, quite white, and but very little elevated above the waters' edge, (it appears black if the sun is shining on it,) and another pyramidal rock of a singular shape, close to the point. The islands to the south-east, Dalupere Cabul, &c. do not appear to be laid down correctly. I imagine there are one or two not marked on the chart, perhaps from not having been accurately surveyed. On the north-west point of Cabul there is a reef which extends out half a mile, but by keeping near the south point of Luzon you cannot come near it. We did not see it till after we were west of the island.

On entering the Strait between Bernardine and Baliquartro, there are several small detached rocks, shewing their heads above water, close to Baliquartro Island. At 5 P.M., from our position, the north point of Ticao bore W.N.W.; the east point W.S.W.; Cabul and the Naranjos E.b.S.; south point of Luzon, N.W.b.W.

During the night the wind very light and baffling, steering northward between the Luzon shore and Ticao : several fires seen on the island during the night, a very large one at, or near Port Jacintho. All the islands in the strait have a very pleasing appearance, and are covered with trees and verdure from their summits to the waters' edge. The east side of the island Burias is rather barren and rocky, but covered with bush. Every island appears inbabited, and all have the same bold and lofty character. Off the north-west end of Ticao are several isles, but they are quite bold, and no apparent hidden danger. Keeping the Camarines Volcano N.N.E. will take you clear of the south point of Burias. The island of Sibuyan is a very high mountain with a lofty peak, which readily distinguishes it from any other, and can be seen a very great distance, it is the highest land among the islands of the straits. Romblon is a small island, not very high, west of Sibuyan. Tablas, a large long island, the summit mostly table land from one end to the other; there is a small peak at the east end, but not high. Maranduque is a large island with a very lofty peak on its southern extremity, which is barren, rugged, and rocky, to the waters' edge,-a detached rock south of it. Banton is a tolerably high and bold island, with a small peak; the channel between Banton and Maranduque is not more than seven or eight miles at the most. Bantoncilla, south of Banton, is a smaller island, more level at the top; there is a detached rock to the westward of these two islands, nearly on a line with Bantoncilla, (west of it.) The Hermanos are two small flat islands, and very much alike. Campo is a tolerably large island and appears rugged, it is westward of the Hermanos. The Vineges are three small islands westward of Port Mahanguin, they stand inuch further from the land than as marked on the chart.

May 1st. Passing the Silonay Islands, I saw a reef fronting the two southern ones on the east side, on which the water breaks. When abreast Isle Verte, on the south side, we experienced a most extraordinary rush of current or tide ; though it blew a very fresh breeze, it was with great difficulty the ship could be steered in it, but it only lasted while passing the island. The surface of the water was in complete foam, particularly inshore, and much resembled a large reef. At the back of Batangas Bay, is a mountain of which, from its singular shape, I took a sketch. This part of the straits is most interesting for its scenery and splendid views; the numerous and gigantic mountains, the low land and islands, covered to the waters' edge with trees of tropical foliage, the volcanic appearance of the mountains, the beautiful small coves and sandy places we passed sailing along, (particularly near

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