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at the service of mercantile vessels at a very low price. We expressed a hope then that we should be enabled to publish this officer's memoir of the survey he had made, so that his information might be immediately available with the above chart. Annexed is the memoir referred to, and considering as we do the mouth of this magnificent river, as the portal through which an extensive trade will hereafter flow into the very heart of China,—the information it contains may be looked on as njost important.
The limits of the embouchure of the Yang-tze-keang are not well defined, hut are included within the parallels of 31° 0' and 32° 10' north latitude. It is divided into various channels by low islands which doubtless have been formed occasionally by deposit from the river, and reclaimed by the industry of the people : both they and the banks of the river are very low, and are defended by dykes: however during the period of our visit (August and September) no traces of inundation were visible. The largest among the islands is Tsung-ming: it lies W.N.W. and E.S.E.; and is about thirty miles in length, six in breadth at the eastern extremity, and nine at the western. In the parallel of Tsungming, the shoal extends fifteen miles to seaward. Twenty miles east from Tsung-ming lies an island, Sha-wai-shan, (Jaunceys Island of the Amherst voyage,) 196 feet in height: latitude 31° 25' 2", longitude 122° 6'east. From the summit Tsung-ming is just visible. Saddle Island of Amherst is also visible, bearing S.E.b.S., distant forty-two miles, and the dangerous rocks bearing S.S.E. £ E. sixteen miles. To the northward of Tsung-ming there are several channels with deep water; some run up for eight or ten miles, and are then barred by an islet or bank; others may, perhaps, lead up, but the approaches are dangerous or shallow, so that they cannot be recommended for vessels. They have not, therefore, been examined so much in detail as that lying south of Tsung-ming, and running on the right bank of the river. This channel, the Amherst ascended when she visited Shang-hai, and it is the only one that can be recommended for vessels of any burthen. An extensive flat lies at the entrance, over which you carry from three to four fathoms: with the information I now possess, I would have no scruple to take twenty-one feet over, and I think I may venture to say, future examination will shew that a four fathom channel exists: when over the flat a deep water channel not intricate, leads up eighty miles from the entrance, the highest point reached by the Conway.
We only stopped here, by having attained as was thought, the point named in the instructions, as to all appearance the deep water still continued.
Up to this point the banks had presented one uniform flat, rarely broken by trees; but here the country assumes a new character, three hills about three or four hundred feet high appearing on the left bank, about four or five miles from the river; on the summit of one of which was a tower, and apparently a large establishment of priests, (Tongchow). On the right bank the country was also becoming hilly, same approaching near the river. No large towns were visible, but many villages. The banks are intersected by numerous creeks, in almost all ENLARGED SERIES.—NO. 8.—VOL. fOIl 1841. 3 U
of which there appeared to he junks, and many people; hut the greatest number of people were observed on the left bank for five or six miles, below the three hills mentioned above.
Tides, Winds, §•?•—These remarks depend upon observations made from the ship, which from her change of position, renders them to a certain extent uncertain, (period August and September.)
Generally off the mouth of the river, high water at full and change, about noon. Rise at springs fifteen feet,—neaps ten feet, once eighteen feet was noted, but I judged it was exaggerated. The stream of flood comes from the eastward, drawing to the southward, about the last quarter, and round to the ebb from the westward, and so round by north; the greatest velocity measured was 4'5 knots off the northern entrances, but the usual velocity at springs is about 3'5.
In the river, off Woo-sung, high water full and change, about lh. 30m.; rise uncertain, but from fifteen to eighteen feet; stream of flood comes from south-east round by east to north; ebb from north-west round by north.
At the furthest point reached, high water about 4h. 30m.: rise fourteen feet,—ebb runs eight hours. Flood at the neaps nearly obliterated.
July.—Bar. 29*74, ther. 78, prevailing winds south-easterly, freshening about the change of the moon.
August.—Bar. 29'78, ther. 81, prevailing winds south-easterly and northerly : a day or two blow at the change with a little rain.
September.—Bar. 29-90, ther. 77, winds more variable, but drawing round from south-easterly to northerly. Blows at full and change with rain,—morning much colder than average. Temperature having been taken on the main deck is not very correct; the periodical breezes at full and change appear to increase intensely. Barometer rises with northerly winds, falls with westerly and southerly winds. One hard blow with barometer at 30-10.
As far as we went, there are no means of preventing a free passage of the river. At the entrance of the Woo-sung are two forts, bearing north-west and south-east from each other, about three-quarters of a mile apart, but as they appeared to have been newly-faced with mats, I presume much confidence is not placed in them. In addition, on the left bank, is a quay three miles in length, connected with the fort, defended by a kind of wedge-shaped traverse about six feet high and long, and perhaps fifteen feet apart. We could not make out whether they were composed of earth, baskets, or earthen pots; from some beiug whitened, we at one time imagined they had been erected on the same principle as the mat-forts, to look like tents. There are two batteries along this line, one of about ten guns near the western corner of the quay, another of the same number commanding the entrance, some of the guns appear to be nine or twelve-pounders.
On our return off the place from the upper part of the river, thirty to forty junks were moored abreast across the entrance; we have seen at this place perhaps 300 soldiers. Three foolish guns were fired at the ship, from a point six miles below the forts.
Above the point there are no defences, until at a large village and building establishment for junks, where a show of about fifty soldiers was made behind a parapet. This was the highest point the Conway reached, and I judged from the Chinese charts, that it is considered the first defence on the river. As a gun-boat might be placed to enfilade this, it is hardly worth attending to. There is also a circular fort of small dimensions, apparently useless, both for offence and defence; near this, is a hill about two hundred feet high, with a building on the top, which apparently might be made defensible, describing a semi-circle from this point, with a radius of eight miles, several heights will be included, forming I conclude, a position of some value. It is unfortunate, that to the extent of half a mile from the shore the bank is very flat. Ten miles below this, on the same side, about twenty soldiers appeared in a round fort, with the usual allowance of flags.
Tents appeared in various places, when we remained any time, and a flotilla of boats followed our movements inshore, till the last moment, when a couple of shot and a shell showed them such attention, in future, might be attended with danger.
Supplies.—Cattle and small stock appeared plentiful, particularly on the north side of Tsung-ming. Caution must be observed in foraging, for the country presents singular advantages of defence, the communication being by narrow causeways through the cultivated ground, which again is intersected in all directions by creeks and ditches; this, however, may only be the case near the river.
The water of Woo-sung is perfectly good; we have used it twenty miles lower, but the time of the tide must be attended to, and even then it has a trace of salt.
All the islands without the river at this time (September) can afford supplies of sweet potatoes.
I should add, that cattle appear to be kept for agricultural purposes, and it is a question whether they be easily replaced.
I annex a short report from the surgeon, Mr. Francis Sharpe, on the climate, but in justice to him, must state, that the short notice given, would not admit of a more detaile 1 statement being prepared.
Climate-—During a period often weeks (July, August, and September,) seventy cases of dysentery have occurred, and from the alluvial nature of the land, they assumed a severe form. Several cases of fever made their appearance, two of which were remittent, and of a violent type. The climate was anything but favorable to some long standing cases of intermittent fever, two cases of cholera, one of the true Asiatic form, occurred during the month of August, which I consider to be the most sultry part of the season in China.
The mortality which has taken place amounts to five, but this cannot be ascribed to the climate, as two died of mortal wounds received in a skirmish with the Chinese, one from serious apoplexy in a man of very dilapidated constitution, and the remaining two from chronic and acute dysentery; but here it must be mentioned that these latter were constitutions totally undermined, one by two years sickness from that disease, and the other by repeated attacks of ague.
Upon an average, the weather has been fine, latterly the days have
been hot ami the nighls cold; very wet weather has been experienced, and the winds in general prevailed from an easterly direction.
Francis Siiaui'e, Actiny-Surgcon*
To accompany the Cliart nf the rircr Yatiy-lse-kcang.
So far as the islands have come under my oliservation, there is no hidden danger among them, and there is anchorage throughout, with good holding ground. I suspect the west side of the bay of Ningpo to be shoal, and passing between the islands lying N.N.E. from Kintang, we pissed over three and a half fathoms. As we were not aware of the state of the tide at the time, there may be less at low water.
To enter the river, keep Gutzlaff S.S.E. by compass twenty-four miles, when you will perceive breakers, or a ripple on the bank, according to the state of the weather; on this course you will not have less than four fathoms, or at the least three and a half fathoms. As it is difficult to run a given distance when tide enters into the account, you must be governed by the island Sha-wai-shen, which in fine weather is just visible from a height of sixteen feet twenty miles; just in sight from that height, bearing N.E.b.N., you may steer north-west, and from aloft will perceive the low land, and a single tree sufficiently remarkable, bearing about W.N.W. Steering north-west you will carry four fathoms over the flat, and must keep at least two miles from the shore on the larboard hand, as it runs off shoal. When the tree bears south, close the shore to one half or one mile, and steer about N.W.b.W. for the largest clump of trees you see on the shore. The water will deepen gradually to nine or ten fathoms. When abreast of the trees, the forts at Woo-siing will be seen, distant about eight or nine miles. Good anchorage with the eastern fort S.b.W.,—extremity of Wall northwest. Hush Island is remarkable, and must not lie approached nearer than two milesand a half; keeping half a mile from the Wall N.W.b.W. leads into the deepest water up the river. The soundings decrease gradually from eight to four and a half fathoms, in the centre of a large bight two miles from the shore, and then deepen gradually to fourteen fathoms, abreast a clump of trees seventeen or eighteen miles from Woo-sung.
The mark for hauling to the northward is, the trees on Mason Island, open to the westward of Tsung-ming, bearing N. £ W. As you haul across, open the island gradually, and you may keep close to (half a mile) Point Harvey, which is sleep to. From this steer N.W. £ W., when, if the weather be clear, a hill and pagoda will be seen ahead. Do not approach Mason Island nearer than two miles, and when past it, keep about mid-channel, steering west, taking care not to bring the trees on Mason Island to the southward of east, to avoid a shoal, lying nne-third the distance across from the north shore. You are abreast of the shoalest part of it, when the Pagoda bears north-west, and a great bush on the south shore S. \ W., about fourteen miles from the west of Tsung-ming; then steer S.W.b.W.^ W. for Round Tree Point, distant about four milts; deep water will be had before and after passing: and when abreast Round fori, in a creek, and one mile and a half off shore, you have suddenly two fathoms from twenty and then four feet. The Great Bush kept in sight, clears it to the northward, and from this W. b.N. leads up abreast a village and fortification, situated among hilly ground. Up to this point the banks are perfectly flat, and although the trees and bushes spoken of are sufficiently remarkable when once recognized, care must be taken not to confound others with them. Here the channel again crosses the river, and is about one mile and a half wide, then about N.N.W. \ W., deepening from seven to twelve fathoms.
(Signed) C. R. D. Bethune, Captain.
II.M.S. Conway, 18th October, 1840.
Religion In China.
The Chinese have no generic word for religion. The word leaou, which means to teach, or the things taught, doctrine or instruction, is indeed applied by them to the religious sects of Taou and Budha, as well as to the ethical sect of Confucius. And they apply this same word also to Mahommedans and Christians. But they do not apply it to the state religion, for that does not consist of doctrines which are to be taught, learned, and believed, but of rites and ceremonies. It is entirely a " bodily service," which however tacitly implies the belief of some opinions, though to have correct opinions, according to some prescribed rule or article of faith, forms no part of the system. The state religion as practised at the court of Peking, and by the provincial governments, is contained in the code of laws called Ta-tsing-hwuyteen, and'in the Ta-tsing-leuhle, under the head le, rules of propriety and decorum of rites and ceremonies, and in the subordinate division tse-sze, sacrifices and offerings. From these two works we shall briefly specify: —first, the persons or things to whom these sacrifices are presented, or the objects of governmental worship:—secondly, the ministers or priests, who offer these sacrifices, and the preparation required of them for the performance of this religious service :—thirdly, the sacrifices and offerings, the times of presenting them and the ceremonies accompanying them :—and fourthly, the penalties for informality, or defective performance of the state religion.
First, we are to speak concerning the objects of worship, or things to which sacrifices are offered. These are chiefly things, though persons are included. The state sacrifices are. divided into three classes:—first, the ta-sze or great sacrifices :—second, the chung-sze or medium sacrifices:—and third, the seaou-sze or little sacrifices. These last are also denominated keun-sze, the crowd or herd of sacrifices: the word keun "a flock of sheep," being used as a noun of multitude. In the following list, the first, second, third, and fourth, are the objects or classes of objects to which the great sacrifices are offered; from the fifth to the thirteenth are those to which the medium sacrifices are offered; those of the fourteenth and onward, have right only to the little sacrifices.
1. Teen, the heavens or sky. This object of worship is otherwise