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29 How too che shin, the queen goddess of the ground. 30 Pih keih, the north pole, &c.
From this specimen it is apparent that in the Chinese state religion, the material universe, as a whole, and in detail, is worshipped ; and that subordinate thereto, they have gods celestial and terrestrial, and ghosts infernal; that they worship the work of their own hands, not only as images of persons or things divine, but human workmanship for earthly purposes, as in flags and banners, and destructive cannon. That the material universe is the object of worship appears not only from the names of those several parts which have been given above, but also from other circumstances. Thus the imperial bigh-priest, when he worships heaven, wears robes of azure colour, in allusion to the sky. When he worships the earth, his robes are yellow, to represent the clay of this earthy sod. When the sun is the object, his dress is red, and for moon, he wears a pale white. The kings, nobles, and centenary of official hierophants wear their court dresses. The altar on which to sacrifice to heaven is round to represent heaven; this is expressly said. The altar on which the sacrifices to the earth are laid is square, whether for the same wise reason is not affirmed. The “ prayer boards,” chuh pan, are of various colours for the same reason as the emperor's robes. In the worship of the heavens, a yellow ground with vermilion letters is used; in the worship of the earth, a yellow ground is used with black characters; for the worship of ancestors, a white ground is required with black characters; for the sun, a carnation with vermilion characters; and for the moon, a white ground with black characters.
We proceed now to the second part of our subject, and notice the sacred persons who perform the rites of sacrifice. The priests of the Chinese state religion are the emperor himself, who is the high-priest, the “ pontifex maximus;" and subordinate to him, the kings, nobles, statesmen, and pih kwan (as they phrase it,) the centenary or crowd of civil and military officers. The joo keaou, or sect of philosophers, monopolize both civil and sacred functions. At the grand state of worship of nature, neither priests nor women are admitted ; and it is only when the sacrifice to the patron of silk manufactures takes place by itself, that the empress and the several grades of imperial concubines, princesses, &c., may take a part.
It is required of the Chinese hierophants that they be free from any recent legal crime, and not in mourning for the dead. For the first order of sacrifices they are required to prepare themselves by ablutions, a change of garments, a vow, and a fast of three days. During this space of time they must occupy a clean chamber, and abstain--]st. From judging criminals. 2nd. From being present at a feast. 3rd. From listening to music. 4th. From cohabitation with wives or concubines. 5th. From enquiries about the sick. 6th. From mourning for the dead. 7th. From wine. 8th. From eating onions, leeks, or garlic. “ For," says the annotator,“ sickness and death defile, while banqueting and feasting dissipitate the mind, and unfit it for holding communion with the gods."
The victimis sacrificed, and the things offered, form our third topic. The animal or bloody sacrifices for heaven and earth are divided into the four following classes :-- 1st. A heifer, or new tsze, "a cow's child." 2nd. A bullock, or new foo, a “a cow's father." 3rd. Oxen generally. 4th. Sheep or pigs. The things offered are chiefly silks, on which we do not dwell. “The Greeks sacrificed the ox, hog, sheep, kid, cock, and goose. The victims were to be sana et integra.' The different deities had the proper victims; Jupiter, an ox five years old ; Neptune, a black bull, a hog, and a ram; Minerva, a heifer and an ewe; Esculapius, a she goat and a cock.” The Chinese also require that the victims should be whole and sound, and they prefer an azure-black colour. For the grand sacrifices the victims are to be purified nine decades, or or cleansed ninety days; for the medium classes three decades ; and for the herd or flock of sacrifices, one decade or ten days. We do not perceive any ceremonies connected with killing the victims. There are no wreaths or garlands as there were among the Greeks, nor as among the Jews any sprinkling of blood particularly mentioned. The victims seem to be simply butchered the day before they are to be offered, and dressed, we rather think, ready to be distributed, after being laid on the altar,) among the hungry participators of the tse fuh jow, “ the sacrificial blessed flesh,” which the civil and military priesthood will no doubt relish after a three days fast. The times of sacrifice are specified as follows: those to heaven are offered on the day of the winter solstice; those to earth on the day of the summer solstice ; and the others at regularly appointed times, which it is not important to detail in this sketch.
The ceremonies of this grand worship of nature, this natural religion' consist in kneeling, bowing, knocking the head against the ground, or in Chinese, pae kwei kow. In those sacrifices in which the emperor officiates, in propria persona, he never knocks his head against the ground. What he requires of the greatest monarch on earth, he will not give to the greatest, “supremest" thing that he worships. The three kneelings and nine knockings of the head against the ground, he turns into three kneelings and nine bows. The kow or pae, i. e. the knocking or the bowing, seems to make a material, or rather a feeling difference in the estimation of his majesty.
The last topic on which we proposed to remark, is the penalty of informality. The punishment annexed to the neglect of the preparation, imperfect victims, &c., is either forfeiture of salary for a month or longer, or a specified number of blows with the bamboo, which can be avoided by the payment of a very small sum of money. There is nothing to be feared but man's wrath; nothing but a forfeiture or a fine. The fines in these cases are rated according to the number of blows adjudged to the delinquent. But while such is the easy penalty of these philosophical legislators and hierophants, in cases where they themseves offend ; the case is far different if any of the common people presume to arrogate the right of worshipping heaven, and announcing their affairs thereto, or of lighting lamps to the seven stars of ursa major, &c.; they shall be punished bona fide with eighty blows or strangulation. For the state religion and the objects of worship proper for monarchs and philosophers are not to be desecrated and dishonoured by vulgar adoration. Ye vulgar plebeians go and worship things suited to your station; arrogate not the right of worshipping the supreme powers !—Chinese Repository.
Eastern NavigATION.- Dangers at the entrance of Gaspar Strait, and
the Carimata Passage.
(From the Shipping Gazette.) Sir.—The dangers mentioned below, not being laid down in my charts, I beg to communicate their situation for your valuable paper, if not already known.
Lat. 1° 31' S., long. chron. 107° 1' E., Sept. 40, at I p.m. anchored in eighteen fathoms, breakers on a shoal by N.N.E. E., distant half a mile, and extending in an E.b.s, direction, in one continuous line for about three miles. Remained at anchor till 4 P M., when a light breeze springing up, weighed and stood to the south. Oct. 5th, 7 A.M., steering north-east with a fresh breeze, centre of Toekoekemou S.E. S., the beach visible halfway up the rigging; observed a coral reef about two ships' lengths a-head, lacked instantly to the westward ; observed from the topsail yard that the reef appeared connected with the island, and, having, apparently, not more than five or six feet water on it. I regret exceedingly that I was not able to examine these dangers, both quarter-boats being under repairs, having been stove a few days previously. Supposing the shoal not to be a new discovery, I have not given it any name.
I am, &c.
S. P. Hall, Port Louis, Nov. 3, 1840.
Master of the barque Catherine. [Neither of these dangers have yet made their appearance on the charts, and they are both most important to mariners.]
Lieut. Becuier's HORIZON FOR ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS AT
SEA, OR ON SHORE.- Made by Cary, Optician, Strand. Among the various desiderata which nautical science has looked for since the grand era in navigation formed by the invention of reflecting instruments, that of supplying an horizon by artificial means when the horizon of the sea is obscured by fog or concealed by adjacent lands, is one of the principal. Accordingly many attempts have been made to supply the mariner with so important an instruinent, and it is rather remarkable that Hadley, the inventor of the quadrant was among the first to attempt such an appendage to his own quadrant. As we do not find hrwever that ever since his time any of the inventions for this purpose have been so successful as to fall into use ainong any moderate portion of our seamen, it is fair to infer that they have been insufficient for the required purpose. Assuredly when it is considered that the object is to know at the instant of observation the actual place of the zenith,when it is also considered how small a space is an arc of a few minutes, and the ever-varying and incessant movement of a ship in constant motion; the question is surrounded by difficulties which would appear almost insuperable, and sufficient certainly to deter any one, at first sight, from approaching it, however exciting and simple, as well as desirable such an instrument may be. The common Artificial Horizon of mercury or oil, it is true never fails to supply the place of the Natural Horizon on shore, except when the ENLARGED SERIES.-- NO. 8.--VOL. FOR 1841.
object to be observed is so high as to be beyond the limits of the instrument to measure by reflection, or so low as to be not within the limits of observing. Within those limits the horizon of mercury never fails; but there are no such limits to the marine artificial horizon which it is proposed here to describe. On shore it may be used at all times as a substitute for the mercurial horizon, when this is not available; while at sea, provided the observer has sufficient experience in its use, and the motion of the ship be not too violent, it may also be used as a substitute for the natural horizon.
There are degrees of motion in a ship, so excessive in violence as to forbid all attempts at observation with an instrument which such motion must necessarily affect. A perfect marine artificial horizon to be independent of the observer may therefore be long, and perhaps in vain sought for; but it does not follow that one to be formed with the assistance of the observer while he is making his observation should be so inaccessible. A ship is not always in violent motion, and there are circumstances of weather and sea in which such an instrument has its value ; in which an experienced observer will have no hesitation in using it with confidence. It is unnecessary to particularize such situations—the mouth of the English Channel in a southerly wind it is well known to every seaman, affords ample opportunity for the use of such an instrument, besides other parts of the world, where to obtain an observation for latitude especially, is of so much importance, and when that observation cannot be obtained from the sea horizon being obscured by fog. It is in circumstances such as these that the present invention becomes of great importance.
But useful as it may be by day, the marine artificial horizon is even more so at night, when the more moderate character of the weather allows of advantage being taken of the more numerous opportunities of obtaining the latitude by the moon and stars, obviating at once the difficulty arising from the frequently uncertain nature of the sea horizon on these occasions. Many meridianal observations of stars have been lost from this cause when they have been wanted, and observations have been too frequently obtained on which dependance could not be placed. With the judicious use of the lamp of this instrument, the marine artificial horizon is just as available by night as by day, affording even a more satisfactory observation.
But an observer must not indulge the idea that he has here an instrument that will do all its work by itself: he must constantly bear in mind that he has to employ all his skill in counteracting the motion of the vessel he is in, in order to form an essential preliminary part of his observation, viz. the horizon itself. If tact and experience are essential to make him expert in using the common mercurial horizon on shore, which is very well known to be the case, how much more so must they be for an horizon which he has to make and preserve while he is observing an altitude upon it. The careful observer will at once readily perceive that he has a lesson to learn, that he has to make himself master of a new, but most simple instrument, which when he can manage, will enable him to obtain observations at a most important part of his voyage for latitude and his chronometer, which he could not obtain without it. He must not be dissatisfied because he may not be com
pletely successful in his first essays with the instrument, nor because he cannot at once make a good observation should he lay it aside in despair, and consider such a thing unattainable. He may depend on it, that with a moderate share of perseverance, he will gain sufficient practice to overcome difficulties which may at first appear insuperable; he will gradually become accustomed to the use of the instrument, and will use it with the same confidence under certain circumstances, as he would use his own sextant without it.
The marine artificial horizon when required is to be attached to the sextant for observation, and does not in any way interfere with its glasses or adjustments, and when not required is kept in its own case apart from it.
The following is a representation of the sextant with the horizon attached to it for observation.
Directions for atlaching the Horizon to the Sextant. 1. Unscrew the cover of the small conical cistern b, without removing it from its case, and see that the surface of the oil* in it is rather higher than the aperture communicating with the inverted cistern into which the oil is to flow when holding up the arch of the sextant to read off.—Leave the cistern in its place.
2. Take the sextant from its case, and screw the telescope into its place.
3. Fix the tube a, containing the horizon in its place on the sextant at the back of the horizon glass, the feet at the back of the plate being inserted in their sockets, and secure it there by means of the screw c. Raise the sliding screen at the end of the tube a to a proper height, so as to admit a sufficient degree of light up the tube.
4. Hook the cistern b in its place at the side of the tube a, previ. ously immersing the pendulum in the oil which it contains. Be careful that the pendulum is previously allowed to shake about as little as
* Oil of Almonds.