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a mile to the eastward of Point Chupara; and off the western part of this point a rock lies S.E.b.S. 700 feet from the land,—the sea breaks on it. The soundings on this side lie several miles off, and are almost regular. Four miles N.b. W. from Point Galere, there are twenty-two fathoms, half a mile further forty, sand and mud. Three miles and a half north from Point San Souci. . 23 fathoms
N.b. W. from Point Rio Grande 20
N.N.W. from Point Matelot. 17
These depths decrease gradually towards the shore, very close to which are six, seven, and eight fathoms: the bottom being everywhere good, sand and mud, you may choose your anchorage on any part of this coast; taking the precaution not to go into the bays to leeward of Maraccas, as the high mountains prevent the wind there from blowing home, and the swell in such a case renders it difficult to manage a ship.
To anchor at Toco Bay bring Reefs Point E.L.S., and Harris house S.S.E. 4 E., you will be in twelve fathoms muddy bottom, nearly three quarters of a mile from the land. But it is not a good place to lie at, as a great swell sets in. Harris's house is on a little hill at the north side of the bay, and is distinguishable, being the largest in that neighbourhood.
The Ulysses anchored at the following places :-Rio Grande Bay, in ñine fathoms; the east end of the sandy bay S.b.E. | E., and the north rocky point E.b.. two-fifths of a mile. In nine fathoms and a half off Point Matelot, which bore E.SE., three-fifths of a mile. In fourteen fathoms off the river Paria. The island on the east side of it bearing S.b.E. A E., half a mile. In Escouvas Bay in nine fathoms; Point Chupara N.E.b. E., Fort Abecrombie E.N.E., and the large house to the north of the bay S.b. W.
This is by far the best place for anchoring on the north coast. Maraccas bay is much larger, but is more subject to calms and sudden shiftings of the breeze.
Off I. Saut d'eau, in twenty-three fathoms, the body of the island, S.b. E., three-quarters of a inile, and the north point of Chaca-chacare open about 3' to the northward of Macaripe Point.
The land immediately about Point Galere is not above fifty feet bgh; it increases in height towards the west, and about Boca begins to connect itself with the chain of mountains which run along the whole north coast, from Rio Grande to the Bocas. At Rio Grande it is high water at 4h. 30m., full and change, and between this and Point Chupara the last two hours of the ebb, and sometimes the whole of it sets to the eastward along the shore.
Nautical remarks on the Bocas.
The great depth of water in the largest of the Bocas prevents auchor
ing in any part of them, except very close to the shore. A ship may anchor any where in Boca Mono, but in deep water thirty or forty fathoms in the mid-channel. The beds of these channels are much deeper than the bottom, either within or without them, as if they had been thus worn away by the constant operation of the northern current which runs through them. In autumn, its rapidity at times is so great, that ships are frequently driven out again, after having entered one of the passages with a good breeze; during the rest of the year, its rate may commonly be estimated about two or three knots, but close to the south-west point of Chaca-chacare, I have always found it much stronger;* except in autumn, the tide of flood which sets through them into the Gulf of Paria, has a considerable power towards the top of high water in checking this current, and at spring tides I have seen the water perfectly slack in Boca Mono for an hour, and very nearly so in Boca Huevo. Boca Mono (the east mouth,) is only a-third of a mile over, and should not be attempted by a ship, except in a case of necessity, as the wind seldom blows in any certain direction through it.
In May, 1803, on our return from surveying the north coast, when we came off Boca Mono, the wind appearing to blow fairly through, I delermined to attempt to pass it;t we effected it, but barely did it, being two hours before we got round Tailrons Point. It was noon when we entered the passage, and I think it impossible for a ship to get through early in the day, before the sea breeze is strongly made.
There are two good bays on the east shore of this passage, Taitrona and the Carenage. At the head of the latter a line-of-battle ship might lay secured to the shore, land-locked. Off the sandy shore which forms the east side of this bay, there is a bauk which shoals suddenly ; it will be necessary therefore to keep on the north shore if you should have occasion to work up so far. You may anchor any where at the south of this passage, and all along the south side of Mono. Deherts Bay affords excellent anchorage, and there is deep water far into it; we anchored off the mouth of it in fifteen fathoms, the south point bearing S.E.b.S., and found the bottom there so clayey and tough, that we were an hour heaving with every exertion after the cable was up and down, before the anchor would start.
Boca Huevo, Egg Passage, (or as it is now more commonly called Parasol or Umbrella Passage,) is safe to attempt to run in at, if the wind hangs to the north-east, as it will then probably blow quite through the passage; at any rate, if you cannot stem the current, you have ample room to back and fill your ship out again. Her Majesty's ship Dromedary was cast away in this passage, but as it was in a dark night, and they were strangers, it affords no material objection to it. Keep on the lee side to avoid being becalmed by the high land of Mono. We seldom used any other passage to enter the gulf; the shore is bold, but care must be taken to avoid a rock at the south-west point of Mono. Although it is not above a ship's length from the point, the eddy of the flood tide at the springs sels directly over it, and in a calm we narrowly escaped it. Boca Navios (the third,) may be safely entered, if when
. I have seen it run there more than five knots in April.
In the Ulysses.
you haul round the west end of Huevo, (at a quarter or one-third of a mile distance,) you can lay up bigh enough to bring the south point of Huevo on your starboard bow, so as to have the current under your lee, otherwise it will be improper to attempt it, as the current does not run quite fairly out, but rather inclines down on Chaca-chacare. This remark must be attended to also in going out, and it will then be found a very good outlet, far better than the Parasol Passage, though I should prefer coming in from sea by the latter.
June the 5th, 1804, at 7 P.M., weighed from Chaguaramus, but falling calm, it was ten o'clock next morning before we got to the south point of Huevo, intending to go out through Boca Navios. Here we found such a strong current setting to the E.S.E. round that point, that being unable to stem it, we let her drive out through the Parasol Passage, which took up two hours to perform, owing to a number of eddies and opposite currents formed by the tide of flood setting in, and contending with the usual stream setting outwards. It was high water in the Bocas this day at about half-past noon, being three days before the new moon.
Boca Grande is of great extent and free from danger, except a small rock on which are three fathoms water, one-third of a mile west from the south point of Chaca-chacare. It is small and difficult to hit;you will be clear of it when the whole of the high land of the peninsula at Chaguaramus is open to the southward of the rock, at the south point of Chaca-chacare. The altitude of the south-west mountain at that point is 7° 50', taken from its top to the sea at its foot, in a boat anchored on the rock. It flows 2h. 30m. full and change.
The bay at Chaca-chacare is very spacious, but the wind in it is so baffling that we were obliged to warp in and out, and I apprebend the same thing would happen nine times out of ten to a ship going in there, At the head of this bay is a low sandy neck, which nearly divides the island into two parts; over this, we frequently launched our small boats into Boca Grande to fish. To the southward of this low neck, there are some rocks scattered along the shore, about a cable's lengih distant from it.
We anchored at the head of the great bay in thirteen fathoms, the low sandy neck bearing W.b.N. four hundred yards. The ground here is as tough as at Mono Island, and the mud which the cable and hawsers brought up was extremely foul and offensive.
Chaguaramus Bay is very spacious, and affords good anchorage, the shores are bold except off the large plantation of Mono. Dert, which is situated in the principal valley on the north side, where a shoal extends six hundred yards from the shore ;-ils outer edge trends to the W.N.W. It is very'steep. You may anchor in this bay anywhere, but the most convenient spot for a ship wanting to water is in twelve fathoms; when the past end of Gaspar Grande bears S.L.E., and the point to the north of Gasparillo is on with Taitrona Point. We lost an anchor in this bay it having hooked the wreck of one of the Spanish
W hich were burnt here at the taking of the island,
"Farhoms. The western Diego Island, open 1° 10 of Escondida Point and the north extreme of Gaspar Grande W.b.S,
or very well here. The tide flows here at full
line-of-battle ships, which
A ship or two may water ve
and change three hours by the shore, but 3h. 30mn. at the anchoring place; the flood sets to the eastward and the ebb to the westward. It rises about five feet. The flood runs only five hours and a quarter.
The Carenage would be an excellent barbour for merchantmen, but it is too shoal for men-of-war.
A mile and a half from Port Spain, the round white tower on a hill over it, bearing N.E.b. E. there are three and a half fathoms very soft mud but you may anchor anywhere. Your ship will turn the soft mud up long before she gets into a good place to anchor, which should be in about three feet more water than she draws. The water is always perfectly smooth. The tide flows here at full and change 5h. 30m, The flood comes from the west and the ebb from the south-east. The water is slack one hour and a half at high and low water.
The gulf of Paria is of great extent: the water is not very deep in any part of it, and the bottom very good sand and mud,-ships may anchor all over it. The soundings are not quite regular, though nearly so, there being some small banks with six or seven fathoms on them, five or six leagues from the shore. Running down the coast to the southward of Port Spain, observe that off a point of mangroves eight miles distant there are only two and a half fathoms one mile and three-quarters from the land. Naparima hill is easily known, it stands single on the shore, and is about 600 feet high. Seven miles to the north-west of it, there are two and a half fathoms two miles off the land, and this bank is steep with ten fathoms not far without it. Io not stand into less than four and a half fathoms between Point de Brea and Point Cedro. A rock called the Barrel of Beef, lays two-thirds of a mile W.b.N. from the latter, Between Point Cedro and the Gallos the shore is flat,-you may be guided by your lead.
Nautical Remarks on the East Coast. A ship coming from the eastward, and making the body of the island, will see the mountain of L’Ebranche ahead of her, and a flat low shore extending from thence to the northward, bounded by a considerable range of high mountains.* To the south of L'Ebranche she will see another and more extensive low shore at the extremity of which are the hills of Guaya-guayare. The soundings lie a long distance from the land, particularly at the south point and shoal gradually. The body of the island bearing W.b.N. fourteen leagues, fifty-six fathoms, and west eight leagues, forty fathoms.
Care must be taken to avoid a sunken rock which lies six or seven leagues from the land. I was not able to bestow time enough to hit on it; but having found a bank with only sixteen fathoms on it, whilst there was much deeper water round it, not far from the place where I was told to look for the rock, I conjecture it is somewhere on this bank; which lies S.E.E. seven leagues from point Galere, and E.L.N. from the mountain of L'Ebranche; Manzanilla point distant six leagues and a half. There is no doubt of its existence; vessels have been wrecked
• The north mountains hereabouts may be estimated at 2,000 feet. Mountain of L'Ebranche 1,000 feet (by conjecture) as I have not measured it. Hills of Guayguayare measured 760 feet. This inay serve as a guide to know them.
on it. And I know people who have seen it at very low spring tides. It is very small, and the water is deep close to it. There is a rock about three-quarters of a mile east of point Galere, and probably some sunken ones further out.
A reef stretches off from point Manzanilla half a mile; and two miles to the S.E. of this point are three rocks on which the sea always breaks. Half a mile W.b.$. from them, is a rock so small, that it scarcely makes the sea break, and is not to be seen till you are close to it. There is also some foul ground nearly the same distance E.b.N. from the three rocks; the sea breaks on it in bad weather, you shoal in one cast from nine fathoms to four and three-quarters. The N.E. part of Mayero point should not be approached within a mile, whilst it bears about west, there are several rocks off it, and much broken ground. We found in one spot three fathoms nearly three-quarter of a mile off.
A heavy swell often sets in upon this coast, which makes it unsafe for strangers to approach it too close ; unless they are in ships that can work off the shore, or have good anchors and cables. There are no points which can afford the least shelter to ships, notwithstanding which they may lie in safety at the following places. Off. Salibia in six fathoms the island bearing N.b.W. 500 yards. The bay is shoal. At Manzanilla, in five fathoms, the leeward most of the small rocky islands at the entrance of the bay bearing north-west 600 yards, and Manzanilla point N.N.E. This is by far the best anchorage on the coast, as a ship from hence will always have plenty of room to make sail, in case of necessity. A ship may lie in five fathoms good ground, off the mouth of the Ortoire; the outer rocky point bearing S.E.I.S. and the last rocky bluff to the westward bearing S.37° W. The mouth of the Ortoire south-west, off shore nearly one statute mile. A ship proposing to lie here any time should have good anchors and cables, as a prodigious swell sets in at times. Off the north part of Mayero Bay a ship may anchor in any depth of water, as it shoals very gradually.
The South Coast and the Serpents Mouth. The only bay on this coast is Guaya-guayare; very spacious, but unfortunately so shoal that nothing can be sheltered in it, but small droghers. A mile from the land there are only three fathoms. Several rocks lie off point Galgota but all above water. After passing this bay you will have five fathoms a mile and a half from the land; in which depth you may run along the coast, taking care not to go within it. Three or four leagues to the eastward of point Icaque, a reef of rocks lies upwards of a mile from the land. Some red cliffs on the shore will nearly point out its situation. None of the south coast can properly be called mountainous, although it is very hilly, but these gradually diminish towards point Icaque, which is quite low and flat; the water deepens as you approach it, and you must keep close to the point, rounding it at a cable's length off, to pass between it and a small shoal to leeward of it. The tide sets with great velocity to the north-west. Close to the south-west part of this point there are eleven and twelve fathoms; it gradually decreases as you haul round to the northward. This passage into the gulf is called the Serpents Mouth, and