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the water from every stool, similar to internal scnppers, thns conveying the water from every stool by one hole only. The dead lights in the stern are made to slide behind the blank sash, so as to be always ready for closing in an instant, if required, saving the difficulty of hanging them over the stern, as usually done in square stern ships. Tube scuttles are designed to be fitted in the ship's sides on the lower deck for light and air, over the seamen's mess-tables, when the guns are housed and the ports closed in bad weather. Her sides are more substantial than usual, in consequence of there being no chocks under the beams; the inside stuff is thicker and more capable of resisting an enemy's shot than the old sides were, and the chocks being taken away, the danger of splinters is removed.
We have not lime to give a further description at present, but will state her dimensions, as follows:—
In conclusion we have to add, this noble and splendid man-of-war has been built wholly on the improved principle of Mr. Oliver Lang, the builder, whose experience during the late war, and since the time of peace, has given him the opportunity of performing for his country what has not been equalled in any kingdom.
Expedition To The Euphrates.
Some few of our readers may be aware that a vessel belonging to a leading firm of this town was sent to sea under sealed instructions, about 18 months ago, having on board two iron steam-boats, and other cargo of a similar unusual description. The destination of the vessel, as now appears, was the Persian Gulf, the steamers having been constructed by order of the East India Company to act as a flotilla for ascertaining the navigability of the river Euphrates. The expedition has been highly successful, having traversed the course of the stream 1,100 miles from its mouth, an achievement never before accomplished, and fully establishing the superiority of modem skill and science over the ruder resources of the ancients. We have been favoured with the following extracts from a private letter written by Mr. Floyd, the surgeon of the flotilla, to a professional friend, Mr. Samuel Potter, of this town, and brought by the last overland conveyance. They will, we think, be found well worthy of perusal by those who take an interest in scientific operations, and in the remarkable countries to which they relate. The letter is dated " Belis, June 6."
"I have travelled over the greater part of Mesopatamia, got licked and plundered. I have traced the expedition of the 10,000 Greeks under Cyrus the Younger, and identified many of the cities in their ronto. I am now near Aleppo with the flotilla, having completed the acriii of the river Euphrates, without doubt one of the noblest rivers of Asia; here, at a distance of 1,100 from its embouchure in the Persian Gulf, it is 400 yards broad and very deep. What a boast for England, upon whose flag the sun never sets, that the British ensign now floats in the breeze in the very centre of the land of the crusades and of the Courrenays, one of whose ensiles,' Jiaber,' said to be founded by Alexander the Great, towers majestically over our heads.
"The 31st of May, 1841, was the happy day which crowned onr efforts with success, and the distant Taurus soon re-echoed the royal salute which we fired in honor of the occasion.
"In the former letter 1 think 1 gave you a slight description of the Tigris river, and the surrounding country. The Euphrates differs little from the Tigris up to Hilla, a Turkish Arab town, built near the site of ancient Babylon, except that its banks are much better cultivated, and in some places the date tree (the palma dictiliferus) adds to the picturesque tneanderings of Hhe river; while in others a mosque, with its lacquered dome rising from a grove of willows, is a pleasing variety from the. monotony of the surrounding district. Winding its way through the ruins of fallen Babylon, the river passes Perisalom, then the field of Cunaxa, where Cyru3 fell, and ten thousand commenced their ever-memorable retreat. Then comes Umbar, once the seat of a Christian bishop, then Charmand, some rnins opposite the Pylor of Zenophon; and then Hit, the Is of Scripture, and famed for its fountains of bitumen and naptha, which are in such abundance that they spread themselves over the east. The river now is enclosed within a valley of high rocks, which extends from its source to below Hit, they are composed of gypsum, sandstone, and conglomerates with mica and felspar.
"The ancient AiUho, where Julian lost part of his fleet, is the next place of importance; then comes Enri, the river Chabour of Ezckiel, Al Deir, the Thapsac of Scripture, and the ancient port of Palmyra; and lastly, the ruined castles of Raccaba, Tenobia, Racca, and Jiaber, all situated upon isolated rocks, commanding the passes of the river. These fortresses, from their differing entirely from all others of a like nature in this country, and from the Roman arch prevailing, appear to me to have been the frontier posts of that empire against the Parlhians. The natives have a tradition that they were built by the English during the Crusades, and it is not improbable that they were occupied by the enthusiastic followers of Courtenay while he reigned at Orfa.
"Besides the towns which I have enumerated, there are several islands, many of which are well wooded; amongst them I may mention Julia, Haditha, and Aloose, strongly fortified, having each 500 inhabitants, and beautifully situated in the valley of the Euphrates, between Hit and Anna.
"This climate is delightful, and produces all the variety of Lnropean fruit, besides many of the tropical ones lower down the river. Here is the only obstacle to the navigation of this river. It consists in the remains of the water-wheels used for irrigation. In the short space of 130 miles we found nearly 300 of these wheels, about one-third of which are in operation at the present day. They consist of large parapet walls built into the stream, directing the current of the river to the wheels, which are the most clumsy pieces of mechanism, made of branches of trees, and having slung round them 150 clay vessels to raise the water in. The wheels are forty feet in diameter, placed at the end of an aqueduct raised upon well-built gothic arches. They are the nearest approach to perpetual motion that I have seen, and it is surprising the quantity of water which they raise to the surface. They cause a current of six or seven knots, with a fall of two or three feet where they are, so that this part of the river is difficult and somewhat dangerous; but as it is, we have surmounted all; I should rather say the genius and skill of Messrs. J. Laird and Macgregor, who furnished the boats and engines, have overcome obstacles which baffled the welldisciplined legions of Trajan and Julian, when they went to besiege Ctesiphon, and failed to drag their fleets against the stream on account of the current.
"The Tigris to Mosul, the site of the ancient Nineveh, and the Euphrates to Baulus,—I might say to the heart of the Taurus (for we may go higher,)—is now proved navigable. May British enterprise drive from this field the barbarians who now occupy it, and may civilization, flying on the wings of commerce, carry with it the blessings of the gospel salvation 1 Yea, here is a fine field for the missionary and the merchant. To the former it opens up the Christians of a thousand hills—the Armenians, the Chaldeans, the Nestorians, the Maronites, the disciples of St. John, the worshippers of the devil, (who inhabit the Tinjar hills,) and the Arabs; but the lime for the conversion of the latter, I fear, has not yet come. To the merchant it offers a market for the cottons of Manchester, the cutlery of Birmingham, and all sorts of trinketry; in return they might get the splendid wool of Arabia, far superior to anything I ever saw at home; the Cashmere wool which is brought to Bagdad, gall-nuts, the gum sandrac, myrTh, the balsams from the south, and pearls, diamonds, and turquoises from Persia; all which might be conveyed by steam up the Euphrates to Belis, and hence to the Mediterranean, a four days' journey.
"So much for the commercial advantages to be derived from the opening of the Euphrates; let us now look to the political. A communication is kept up with our Indian possessions independent of that of Egypt—a great advantage in our late broil with that power; India breached in a much shorter time than that by the Red Sea; the mission in Persia is brought much nearer, and the means exist of throwing an Indian army either into the heart of Persia or Syria in the space of a few weeks."—Liverpool Paper.
Notice To Mariners.
Trinity House, London, 22nd July, 1841.
Navigation In The East Swin.—Notice is hereby given, That this corporation has cnused a buoy, painted black and white in circular bands, to be laid about midway between the norlh-enst Gunfleet Buoy, and the Gunfleet Beacon, in five fathoms at low water spring tides, and with the following marks and compass bearings, viz.:—
The second house westward of Walton Terrace, apparently midway between two flumps of trees, on the back land, bearing N.N.W.
Great Clacton windmill, it's apparent width open westward of a small white
ENLARGED SEKlIlS.—NO. 9.—VOL. FOR 1841. 4N
The India Dihectory; —or Directions for sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, and the Interjacent Ports of Africa and South America, compiled c/ieijly from original journals of the J fun. E. I. Company and from observations anil other remarks, resulting from the experience of ftrenfy-on* years in the navigation of those seas, bi/ James Horsburgh, F.H.S., $c.—f'ol 1. W. H. Allen & Co.—LeadenhaU Street.
The rapid strides which have be«n made these last few years in tho various branches of knowledge, are topics of every day remark; the arenas of our public lecturers describe them, and modern publications record them; so that any one having nttiiincd a tolerable acquaintance with science some twenty years ago, and then thrown it aside, would now find on taking it up, a vast stock of arrears to be brought up, and that, in fact, his knowledge of it lay within very narrow limits :—that frequent discovery has opened new sources of information in many cases altering the whole features of it, and making it, if not a new science, one assuming altogether a new character. There is no subject in which this is more apparent than in Hydrography, of which we have ample evidence in nearly every page of the work before us. Discoveries in Hydrography arc no less important to navigation, than are th'ise of chemistry to general science, and no less alter the features of that important art. We are glad therefore to perceive that this fact has been seen in its proper light by the proprietors of the East India Directory, a work which we have long looked on as the parent of that valuable class of books which the seaman takes for his guide, in making his voyages from one part of the world to another; ns embodying all the knowledge, and all the experience of those who have gone before him.
We arc glad to perceive that this (leviathan we had almost said) has not been allowed to fall into desuetude, to lie neglected as out of date; and that it has risen from its sleep in its last edition, with fresh ticquisitions of information concerning the various coasts of which it treats, strong in its resources to go through another era of useful service, as a sea-bird rises from its bed on the ocean wave, refreshed for another flight.
In turning over a few of its pages, and comparing them with those of the last edition, judicious alterations ill the shape of omission of old, and introduction of new matter, force themselves on our attention. Among the first introductions, we find the concise and clear directions for finding the amount of local attraction acting on a ship's compass, from our own pages of 1837 :—this is as it should be, audit affbids us much satisfaction to perceive by the numerous extracts from our own, as well as other useful works, tliat we have contributed so much to the benefit of navigation. In fact there is no pert of the navigation between Kngland and Bombay, or Madras which has 'not received new additions of highly useful matter. Among many which we have not room to enumerate, we may particularize Capt. Owen's remarks on Mozambique, and the clear and excellent description of the islands in the northern part ot that channel by Captain Fairfax Moresby of H.M.S. Menai. A description of the lied Sea by the officers of the Kast India Service is also a most important change from the scanty and limited account we had in the old editions: in fact we congratulate our seamen on the great accession the volume contains to the hydrography of the high road from Kugland to India bv sea.
It is a happy feature of the present enlightened age, that those stores of knowledge possessed by our public oliices, which can in any way forward the progress of geography and hydrography, are unlocked freely to the world,—are accessible in the easiest possible way, and made available to the public good. It ia a gratifying task to notice this, and to hold up to admiration the generous principles from which such a course emanates. Hence all participate in on advantage the good effects of which are felt at the furthest point to which a ship sails, or a traveller has roamed under the auspices of Government; and the East India Directory, founded on the journals and experience of ships of the East India Service many years ago, now combines with them those of the officers of the Royal Navy. Such measures are founded on the principle of pure benevolence, and the determination of doing good, and are sure of carrying with them not only their own reward, but are the becoming acts of a liberal nation.
We shall close our remarks for the present on this volume, in expectation that the second will undergo a similar revision, and with an illustration of the thesis with which we set out respecting change. In page M we find that hi consequence of the supposed deficiency of fresh water at Saldanah Bay, the ship General Palmer unable to get to the Cape, having taken refuge there, after a stay of some days, had actually to bear up for St. Helena to obtain a supply of that article! by which she lost about two months on her voyage to India! It is recommended in the work before us, to send notice to the Cape for water, on any other occasion of a ship arriving under similar circumstances! The recent discovery of springs on Schaapen Island, which we published in our July number, will render any such steps quite unnecessary, and is one of those im]>oitant discoveries which require the close attention of those who compile these works, for the guidance and information of seamen.
Tom Bowlino.—A Novel by Cxpt. Chamier, R.N.—Thret Volumes.—H. Colburn.
When first we heard that Tom Bowline was really to maki his appearance among us at last, in the shape of a novel from a talented author, we certainly expected to find him invested with all the noble attributes of the British seaman, and that his failings would have been treated with a lenient hand: but wo did not anticipate, that he was to personate a band of the galjantest of the gallant seamen which the British Navy could ever boast. The incidents of "birth, parentage, and education," in such a field, are ample, and from the cockpit Mid to the Governor of Greenwich Hospital, rich are the stores of naval adventure. To choose such materials, the very essence of all that is exciting in "love and war," in absolute reality, was to ensure a passport to reading patronage, and accordingly Tom Bowline must become a favorite novel.
A small mis-quotation of Scripture will not prevent us from wishing him success; but we cannot part with him without expressing regret that the seaman's taste of the author, allowed him to deviate from the real vernacular pitch and tar, in naming his bintliug after the orthography of Dibdin, rather than the honest family of Ben Buntline, and the other " lines," to which surely Tom How-line belongs. In spite of all the fascination of Dibdjn's verses—
"Hero, a sheer hulk, lies poor Tom Bowling,
we cannot help associating with them an idea of some Bowling Green hero, instead of what he intended, namely, a veritable " Tom Bowline," in his brother the captain of an East Indiaman, the occasion of whose death gave rise to the lines. Had Dibdin been a seaman, we should uever have heard of such an outrage on our nautical phraseology, to preserve which in its purity, should be the first aim of a naval author. .
Masterman Ready, or the Wreck of the Pacific, written for young people °H
dipt. Mamjfit. 1 vol.—Longman.
Capt. Marryat appears to have taken the sterling qualifications of resources in •exigency, strict obedience, close observation, and withal practical information, "the why and the wherefore," with a determination to illustrate their full value, •and to instil them into the minds of youth through the very interesting channel of adventure. We cordially recommend this little book to parents, as containing such information which the minds of youth may be stored with, in preference to the many nursery talcs and atottea which abound in the present day. The Capt