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especially amongst the troops on snore, several hundreds having died within the space of a few months, the average deaths being three and four daily, and I have since been informed increased to seven and eight. The sickness was also very prevalent on board the squadron, but I am happy to say it was not attended with the same fatality as that on shore; nevertheless, we lost a few men, and among them two out of our three doctors fell victims. The sickness was attributed to the bad quality of the water, but I think it was chiefly owing to the putrid atmosphere arising from one of the most filthy towns in existence, assisted by the circumstance of the very inefficient method the Chinese have of disposing of their dead, which merely consists of placing the coffin on the ground and building over it a light description of tomb, constructed with bamboos and matting; the end of the coffin frequently protruding through the end of the tomb, displaying in gilt letters on a red ground the name and particulars of the deceased. The wealthier of the Chinese build a more substantial kind of tomb, constructed with bricks and tiles, and others of still greater consequence are built (probably for mandarins,) with stone, not in the common burial ground, but on some favourite spot, where they are surrounded with trees and evergreens, forming very pretty and in some cases beautiful arbours, frequently resorted to by the friends of the deceased. There was also another circumstance which greatly contributed to the general cnuse of sickness; on the right of the town is situated a hill used by the Chinese as a burial-place, and it was considered necessary to fortify it to command the town. In order to accomplish this, it was necessary to remove a great number of the dead, which were chiefly disposed of by bunting them; this, added to the foregoing, caused such an insufferable stench, that to any but a Chinese was death. The fortification, however, was never finished, owing to the sickness then prevalent"—Shipping Gazette.

Comparative Naval Force Of England, France, And America.

Thb following table of the comparative force of England, France, and America, not very accurate with regard to France, but may be relied on for the strength of America.

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Hence the mercantile interests of the United States have far less protection in proportion to their extent, than those of any other maritime country. Not only is the American navy diflicient in numerous and well-appointed vessels but the very materials of a navy are wanting. The arsenals are most inadequately stored; the modern improvements in naval architecture have not been introduced into the dockyards, for no ships-of-the-line have been constructed since the war. Only three steamers have been built for the navy. Of the 68 vessels mentioned in the foregoing table, 36 only (including, as it would seem, the revenue-cutters,) are in commission. Of 11 ships-of-the-line, only one is in commission, and that is not in the American seas. The navy-list contains 17 frigates, of which five are in commission; and 21 sloops, of whi ch 14 are in commission. Such is the total deficiency of a home squadron, that the only vessel-of-war above the size of a revenue-cutter, which has beeu seen


for many years in any of tlie great harbours is the schooner Experiment,—a wretched craft which could only cruise along the coast in summer weather; and some time ago, a report having reached .Philadelphia, that the packet-ship Susquehannah had been captured by pirates off the Capes of Delaware, the only ship which could be sent out to Iter relief was a revenue-cutter carrying four guns.—Tint*.

St. Vincent And Qdeer.

A Short time since a question arose as to the comparative merits of the St. Vincent and Queen, both first rate ships-of-the-hne, the one being nearly similar to the Caledonia, the last on the improved construction of Sir Williams Symonds.

In order to enable our readers to judge of this matter, we place the most important items in juxta-position ; at the same time remarking that St. Vincent has already performed a tour of service, and her sailing qualities have been ascertained to be tolerable, that is about equal to those of Britannia, Howe, 8cc, leaving room for the superiority we may calculate on the Queen's possessing-, in this and other essential points, if she proves equal to the rest of her family, being on increased lines of Vanguard, &c.

St. flneent. Queen.

Length . 205 ft. 0 in. 204 ft. 0 in.

Breadth . 64 7 60 0

Wean draught of water 25 3 23 8

Height of midship port 5 9 6 6

Displacement (load) . 4609 tons 4475 tons

Ballast 250 100

Water stowed . 418 541

Provisions . 439 497

Tonnage(new) . 25C4 2733

Ditto builder's rule . 2fi04 3099

Cost of hull & fitting fur sea £99,220 £81,784

It will be seen that the Queen is superior in the essential points of capacity, stowing more provisions, while at the same time she draws less water, and carries her guns nine inches higher, a very important advantage, coupled with the greater stability obtained by increased breadth, enabling her to fight her lower battery when that of the other ship would be unavailable. It is remarkable, also, that a lniich finer ship is obtained at 17,0001. less cost, owing to the great saving of materials by the improvements in shipbuilding, particularly the introduction of iron knees and straps by Sir William Symonds. Since the above was in type we have received the following letter :—

"Sir.—It is suggested to you that when you show the comparative qualities of the St. Vincent and Queen you should show the breadth of beam of each, and the displacement when loaded, of the hull of each. If, as I suppose, the displacement of the Queen is either not more than that of the St. Vincent, or still more if it is less, it is demonstrable that she is the better ship; for, her breadth of beam being much greater, she unites greater stability with equal or greater facility of being driven through the water. To a man-of-war greater stability, and, consequently, greater power of fighting her guns when it blows hard, is of itself a superiority inestimable.—Naval and Military Gazette.

West India Mails.—The first and second reports of the select committee on West India mails have just been published. By the first it appears that they bare resolved that, notwithstanding the port of Dartmouth hasbeen recommended by the Admiralty committee for the arrival and departure of the West India mail packets, they are not prepared to recommend the selection of that port. Tliey state their opinion that no disadvantage is likely to arise to the public from the continued use of Falmouth, whether by the present packets or the larger class that are to be employed, until the merits of the other ports shall have been ascertained. Hence, considering it doubtful whether the public would derive any material advantage by the removal of the West India marl packets from Falmouth, they consider it would not be proper to incur the expense of providing accommodation for the establishment necessary for the performance of the service in any other port.

Tort Phillip.—First Steam-vessel in Port Phillip. All Hail 1 " Clonmell.'"— The inhabitants of Australia Felix have at last another source whereon to congratulate themselves, namely, the establishment of a steam-vessel to trade between Port Phillip, Launceston, and Sydney.

This noble vessel, the " Clonmell," whose arrival here has been so anxiously looked for, was first seen about six o'clock on Saturday morning last, and at about eight she took up her berth alongside the "Samuel Cunard" store-ship. Upon enquiry as to the cause of her detention in Sydney so far beyond the time specified for her leaving, we learn that her owners finding that some part of her machinery would require alteration, owing to the smallness of the coal, determined on at once putting it into effective condition, rather than run any risk which might endanger the character of the vessel, and therefore kept her until perfectly satisfied that she was " all right."

The "Clonmell " left the Sydney Heads at six o'clock on Tuesday evening last, and anchored inside the heads in this bay at seven o'clock on Friday evening, having made the run from Heads to Heads in seventy-two hours, including six hours she was detained in Batemans Bay, to land passengers and luggage. She started from Sydney with a very strong head wind, which lasted until she rounded Cape Howe, against which her speed averaged seven and a half knots. Her machinery is of a most superior description, having beea valued by two competent surveyors previous to her leaving England, by one at eighteen thousand and the other at sixteen thousand pounds. She carries three engines, with a crew of officers and men amounting iu number to thirtyeight; her consumption of coals is about thirty tons per day. Her terms are precisely the same as the sailing vessels, namely, twelve guineas. Her fittings up are altogether of a most superb description, and the services and attendance >'.;ii:il to a first-rate hotel; and her larder is amply stocked. An address was presented by the cabin passengers to Captain Tollervey on their arrival here, thanking him for his urbanity and attention.

The "Samuel Cunard," which has arrived here as a coal depot, is to he converted into a store-ship, into which all goods brought by the "Clonmell" will be discharged.

The "Clonmell " sails for Launceston this evening, and returns here in time to leave for Sydney this day week.—Port Phillip Patriot, December 7/4

Observatioms Of Planets At Sea During The Day.

H.M.S. Indus, off Cape Trafalgar, 20th Aug., 1841.

Sir.—It occurs to me that many practical seamen, readers of your admirable periodical, may be pleased to learn that they may often obtain their latitude by the meridian altitude of Venus, and sometimes by that of Jupiter, in the day time, an advantage which may frequently he of considerable use in the navigation of a ship.

You will no doubt remember, that in the fine clear skies of the tropics, we were in the habit of using Venus for this purpose,—but you may perhaps not be aware that she is very often available in these northern regions. On the occasion of this voyage from England to the Mediterranean, I have amused my leisure, being a passenger, with oliserving the latitude daily both by Venus in the morning, and by the planet Jupiter in the evening, the sun being well above the horizon in both cases.

It will sometimes happen that these planets cannot be seen with the naked eye, and yet be quite within the range of the inverting telescope of a sextant. In these cases, the simplest method is to compute the altitude as near as the dead-reckoning allows of; then fix the index of the sextant to this angle, and by means of the back screw bring the telescope as close to the plane of the sextant as possible. If the telescope be then directed a little to the eastward of the meridian the planet will be seen dancing along the horizon like a brilliant spot, and its altitude may be obtained with great precision.

While I am writing on this subject I may call the attention of nautical men to the great advantage of determining the latitude by the meridian altitude of the stars during that portion of twilight in which, both they, and the horizon are to be seen with distinctiveness. People too often wait till it is so dark that the line of the horizon becomes indistinct; whereas the true time to take the Pole Star or any other star whose time of meridian passage suits, is after the sun has set, or before he rises.

You will remember, too, I am sure, how often we profited by the period in question to take sights for time by the stars, and thus, not only to get the latitude, but the longitude by chronometer nearly at the same time—both in the morning early and late in the afternoon.

As almost every ship now carries a sextant, I may give it as a good rule that, whenever the horizon is sufficiently distinct to be seen clearly with the inverting telescope, the altitudes taken, whether for latitude or for lime, may be safely relied on.

I am well aware that there is nothing new in this communication, but possibly it may not be the less useful on that account, for practical men who wish to do their business in the best way, are generally glad to interchange information of this kind with persons who have had much experience.

I remain, &c,

Basil Hall,

To the Editor of the Nautical Magazine. Captain B.N.

[We would direct the attention of masters of ships to the foregoing useful suggestions of Capt. Basil Hall, as it must at ell times be desirous that they should lose no opportunity by which they may obtain a correct latitude; and such opportunities, we apprehend, have frequently been lost even by inadvertency. In a journal of I lie Ship Florentia written by her intelligent Commander Capt W. Goodwyn, a part of which we have printed, he says on the 22nd uf October when between the Cupe and St. Helena, "The planets Jupiter and Venus are in conjunction; they afford a very splendid sight, " and on the 26th " the evening was remarkably calm and clear, not a cloud in the sky: the new moon (thirty-six hours old) the planets, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn all near each other (within 26° of the horizon) make a very remarkable appearance, and shine with remarkable brilliancy;" and no doubt affording good opportunities for a meridian observation which seamen should look out for.—Ed. N.M.

Notice To Mariners.

We have collected the following notices, and insert them as being useful to seamen, reserving our own remarks on them for another occasion.

Light At Winga.—Swedish and Norwegian General Consulate, Sept. 4— The light on the coast of Winga, at the entrance to Gothenburgh, as also the auxiliary lights on the Buskaret and Botto, situate in the channel up to the said town, will be exhibited for the first time on the 1st of November next, and the light on Winga will be continued the whole year, but the lights on the Buskaret and Botto will only be exhibited from Aug. 15 to April. 15. Shipping Gazette.

Trinity Home, London, August 10, 1841.

Coquet Liout-house, Northumberland.—Notice is hereby given, that the works connected with the establishment of a Light-house upon Coquet Island, off the entrance to Warkworth harbour, on the coast of Northumberland, being nearly complete, a light will be exhibited in the said Lighthouse for the first time on the evening of Friday, the 1st of October next, and thenceforth continued every night from sunset to sunrise.

Mariners are to observe, that at this station a fixed bright light will be exhibited, visible in all directions seaward from N.by E. \ E. to S. by W. i W. by compass.

Notice is also given, that buoys of direction for the anchorage within the said island will also be forthwith placed, in respect of which all necessary particulars will be published in due course.

By order, J. Herbert, Secretary.

Coquet Light And Buoys.—The Biioys for the anchorage within the Island, referred to in the above notice, have now been placed in the undermentioned situations, and with the following marks and bearings, viz.:

A Red Beacon Buoy, marked "N.E. Coquet," in five and a half fathoms water:—

The south end of Morwick trees in line with the house on Amble Point,

bearing W.b.N, A slated roofed house at Bondicar, in line with Hauxley Point, S.W. J S. Coquet light-house, S.S.W. i W. A Red and White Buoy, painted in Circles, marked "N.W. Coquet," in two fathoms:—

The southernmost of two clumps of trees on the south land, its apparent

width on Bondicar Point, bearing S.W.b.S. The west end of a long wood, in line with the east end of the sand hills next

west of Alnmouth, N.b.W. J W. North-east Coquet Buoy, E.N.E. Coquet light-house, S. { E.

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