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in it. During the engagement a fleet of war junks came out of a creek. The Nemesis moved towards them, but afraid of her 31-pounders, they retreated into the creek. Thither the Nemesis pursued them, and during three hours the sailors were busy in setting fire to at least forly junks. Having completed the work, the steamer emerged from the creek decorated with the flags and pendants of the junks; the sailors too presented a comical sight, they were dressed in Chinese robes—some with Mandarin caps, and others, particularly one boat's crew, had each a Chinaman's tail hanging at the back of their necks.
On Sunday, the 23rd of May, the squadron and the troops arrived, and the chiefs, Elliott, Senhouse, and Gough, held a conference. They then sent Capt. Belcher, of Her Majesty's ship Sulphur, to reconnoitre the river, and to find a place for landing on the north side. This reconnoissance was altacked, but beat off the assailants, and burned twentyeight of their boats. An excellent place for landing the troops and gups was then discovered.
On the 24th, at 2 o'clock in the afternoon, the troops being in the boats, the steamers proceeded to tow them to their destination. The Atalanta took the right column, under the command of Major Pratt, of Her Majesty's 26th regiment, to serve and hold the factories on the bank of the river to the south of the city, while the Nemesis towed the left column towards Tsing-hae, five miles up the river. The guns were landed during the night. Before the right column landed the Dutch and British factories had been most thoroughly plundered by the mob of the city.
Iu the official account sent by General Sir Hugh Gough will be found an animated detail of the proceedings of the gallant soldiers. The Mandarin Governor of Canton was soon forced to cry out for quarter, and after various parleys Capt. Elliot agreed to spare the city from an assault, and withdraw the British troops and ships-of-war from the river, upon the conditions—first, of the three imperial commissioners and all the troops under their command (the provincial troops alone excepted,) quitting Canton and its vicinity, and marching sixty miles from it, and of the forts not being restored ; second, 6,000,000 dollars to be paid for the use of the British Crown within one week, the first million before sunset of that day (the 27th); and third, the troops to remain in their positions until the two former conditions were completed ; and the ransom to be increased to 7,000,000 if seven days elapsed, to 8,000,000 if 14 days, and to 9,000,000 if 20 days were allowed to elapse. The losses sustained in the factories, and by the destruction of the Spanish brig Bilbaino, to be paid within a week. The assent of the three Imperial Commissioners was also required to the convention. This was soon granted.
After three days delay, the whole of the conditions having been complied with, the British troops, who had previously bad several skirmishes with the Tartar troops, were withdrawn, the Chinese furnishing every means to get rid of them and their guus. The heat was excessive-one officer, Major Becher, fell dead from a stroke of the sun. There were several thunder-storms, and sickness was apprehended from the ricefields around the forts where the troops had taken their stations. Ninety. seven men, including fifteen officers, were wounded, and ibirteen killed, including Lieut. Fox, of the Nimrod. Sir H. Le Fleming Senhouse died on board the Blenheim on the morning of the 14th of June, in consequence of fever caused by excessive fatigue.
The latest intelligence from Macao is to the 21st of June ; it represents the Chinese as highly incensed with the acts of the British, and their determination to resist as most uncompromising. The Emperor's nephew had sent a report to his uncle, in which he declares that the English did great execution at Canton, and that the cries of the inhabitants for peace tore his bowels with anguish, and that he had given them several millions “ for the opinm," and to induce them to withdraw; and that, as he had beguiled the barbarians away, he would set about the repairs of the forts on the river. This report is looked upon as an irrefragable proof of Chinese perfidy, and no security existed for peace.
In the meantime Capt. Elliot was busy in settling the sites of the houses in the new city, of which he has laid down the foundation in the island of Hongkong. Preparations were, however, going forward for an expedition destined, as it was stated, to proceed to the northward, as some conjecture, to attack even Pekin itself. Sir J. J. Gordon Bremer had arrived in the Queen steamer from Calcutta. The steamer having on board the new Plenipotentiary, Sir H. Pottinger, and the Admiral, Sir W. Parker, had been spoken with on the 28th of July, in the Straits of Malacca, and was expected to arrive at Macao early in August. Her Majesty's steamer Nimrod came with the despatches to Earl Auckland at Calcutta, and the gallant Capt. Barlow was to proceed by this mail with the despatches for London. A steamer took him on the 10th ult., from Calcutta to Masulipatam, whence he proceeded, notwithstanding the most formidable obstacles in crossing the torrents, with all haste to join the steamer for Suez.
It may be proper to mention that the rumours at first circulated respecting the steamer Atalanta having broken her back in the Canton river turn out to be exaggerated. She was injured, but not seriously. She is expected to arrive soon in Bombay, in order to be effectually repaired.
In consequence of the non-arrival of the Calcutta overland mail, which was delayed by the torrents on the road to Bombay, the departure of the steamer was postponed until the 2nd ult.
The Castle Huntley, a merchant ship, arrived on the 20th of June. The newspapers to that date add but little to the intelligence already stated. The health of the troops, which had suffered from great heat and great rains during the attack on Canton, was improving. The deaths are mentioned of Capt. Brodie, of the troop-ship Rattlesnake, by apoplexy; Dr. Wallace, of Her Majesty's ship Conway; Adjutant Wilson, of the 18th Royal Irish; and Lieut. Fitzgerald, of Her Majesty's ship Modeste, in consequence of a wound received during the attack-Times.
Official ACCOUNTS OF THE LATE NAVAL AND Military Orerations in China.
(From the Calculta Gazetle, Extra, Aug. 7.)
Fort William, Secret Department, Aug. 7, 1811. The Right Hon. the Governor-General of India in Council having this day received intelligence of the happy result of the joint operations of Her Majesty's and the Hon. Company's naval and military forces in an attack upon the Chinese forces in front of ihe city of Canton, on the 25th and 30th of May last, is pleased to direct the publication for general information of the following despatch from General Sir Hugh Gough, KCB., commanding the land forces, and extracts from a despatch addressed by Capt. Henry Le Fleming Senhouse, ich., the senior naval officer of the fleet at Canton, to his Excellency the Naval Commander-in-Chief in India, which has been communicated to the Supreme Government.
These accounts of the brilliant successes of the British arms have been received with the highest gratification by the Governor-General in Council, who, in expressing his admiration of the gallant conduct of every portion of the forces employed in this service, has deeply to lament the loss which has been sustained by the death of Capt. Sir H. Le Fleming Senhouse, who is reported to have subsequently stink under the fatigue and exhaustion caused by his exertions in the actions with the Chinese.
The Governor-General in Council is pleased to direct, that in honour of this
T. H. Maddox,
Head Quarters, ship Marion, Canton River,
proceeding to Hongkong, June 3. My Lord.—My letter of the 18th from Hongkong will have made your lordship aware of the teniporary abandonment of the movement on Amoy, in order to resume active operations against Canton, consequent upon the constant arrival and concentration of a large force from the several provinces, and other demonstration indicative of an interruption to our friendly intercourse with the provincial Government.
2. From the judicious and unwearied exertions of Sir Le Fleming Senhouse, the senior naval officer, the fleet of men-of-war and transports was prepared to sail on the 18th, but in consequence of light and variable winds the whole did not get underway until the 19th. Her Majesty's ship Blenheim took up her position within six miles of Canton in the Macao passage on the 21st ult., but the whole of the force wss not assembled until the morning of the 23rd, when I proceeded with Sir Le Fleming Senhouse to the vicinity of the suburbs of the city, for the double object of meeting Her Majesty's Plenipotentiary and ascertaining, as far as possible, the extent of the enemy's preparations.
3. It being the anxious wish both of Sir Le Flensing Senhouse and myself to commence active operations on so auspicious an epoch as the anniversary of the birth of our sovereign, every exertion was made, and the troops were placed by 2 P.M. on that day in various craft, procured during the previous day and night by the great exertions of the Royal nary.
4. From all the sources from which I had been enabled to collect information, or rather from the conjectures of persons who have long resided in China (for no European had been permitted to see the country above the factories, and the Chinese would give no information), I was induced to decide on making my principal point of debarcation to the north-west of the city, while another column was to take possession of the factories, drawing the attention of the enemy to that quarter, and at the same time to co-operate with the naval force which was to attack the river defences, in order to silence numerous new works recently erected by the Chinese along the whole southern face of the city. A most spirited and judicious reconnoissance made by Captain Belcher, of H.M.S. Sulphur, the previous evening, established the practicability of effecting a landing at the point I had selected.
5. Every arrangement having been completed by 2 o'clock, and the boats and other craft placed in tow of the steamers, the force moved to the point of attack as follows:
Right column, to attack and hold the factories, in tow of the Atalanta, consisting of Her Majesty's 26th regiment, (15 officers and 294 other ranks,) an officer and 20 rank and file of the Madras Artillery, with an officer of engineers, under Major Pratt, of Her Majesty's 26th.
Left column, towed by the Nemesis, in four brigades, to move in front.
Fourth (left) brigade, under Lieut.-Col. Morris, 49th regiment.-Her Majesty's 49th, commanded by Major Stephens, 28 officers, 273 other ranks ; 37th Madras Native Infantry, Capt. Duft, 11 officers, 219 other ranks; one company of Bengal Volunteers, Capt. Mee, 1 officer, and 114 other ranks.
Third (Artillery) brigade, under Capt. Knowles, Royal Artillery.-Royal Artillery, Lieut. Spencer, 2 officers, and 33 other ranks; Madras Artillery, including Gun Lascars, Capt. Anstruther, 10 officers, 231 other ranks ; Sappers and Miners, Capt. Cotton, 4 officers, 137 other ranks.
Ordnance.-Four 12-pounder howitzers, four 9-pounder field guns, two 6-pounder field guns, three 53-inch mortars, and one hundred and fifty-two 32-pounder rockets.
Second Naval brigade, under Capt. Bourchier, H.M.S, Blonde.-First naval battallion, Capt. Maitland, H.M.S. Wellesley, 11 officers, 172 other ranks ; second naval battalion, Com. Barlow, H.M.S. Nimrod, 16 officers, 231 other ranks.
First (right) brigade (reserve), under Major-Gen. Burrell.-Royal Marines, Capt. Ellis, 9 officers, 372 other ranks; 18th Royal Irish, Lieut.-Col. Adams, 25 officers, 495 other ranks.
6. The right column reached its point of attack before 5 P.m., and took possession of the factories, when Major Pratt made the necessary, arrangements, strengthening his post, holding his nien ready for offensive or defensive operations.
7. The left column, towed by the Nemesis, from the difficulties of the passage with such a fleet of craft as she had in tow, did not reach the Sulphur until dusk, which vessel Capt. Belcher had judiciously anchored close to the village of Tsing-hae, the point of debarcation, about five miles by the river line above the factories, I could therefore only land the 49th regiment, with which corps I made a reconnoissance to some distance, meeting a few straggling parties of the enemy. After placing the pickets, the corps fell back on the village of Tsinghae to protect and cover the landing of the guns, which was effected during the night by the zealous efforts of the artillery. The following morning the remainder of the column landed, and the whole proceeded soon after daylight.
8. The heights to the north of Canton, crowned by four strong forts and the city walls, which run over the southern extremity of these heights, including one elevated point, appeared to be about three miles and a half distant; the intermediate ground, undulating much, and intersected by hollows under wet paddy cultivation, enabled me to take up successive positions, until we approached within range of the forts on the heights and the northern face of the city walls. I had to wait here some time, placing the men under cover, to bring up the rocket battery and artillery.
6. I have already informed your lordship that I was totally unacquainted with the country which I had to pass over, the amount of the enemy's force, or the difficulties that might present themselves at every step ; but I had the proud consciousness of feeling that your lordship had placed under me a band whom no disparity of numbers could dishearten, and no difficulty could check. They nobly realized, by their steadiness under fire, their disciplined advance, and their animated rush, my warmest approbation.
10. Having at 3 o'clock got up the rocket battery, with two 51-inch mortars, two 12-pounder howitzers, and two 9-pounder guns, a well-directed fire was kept up on the two western forts, which had much annoyed us by a heavy fire. I now made the disposition for attack en chellon of columns from the left, and directed the 49th regiment to carry a hill on the left of the nearest eastern fort, supported by the 37th Madras Native Infantry and Bengal Volunteers, under ENLARGED SERIES.NO. 11.--VOL. FOR 1841.
Lieut.-Col. Morris, of the 49th regiment. The 18th Royal Irish, supported by the Royal Marines, under Major-Gen. Burrell, I directed to carry a hill to their front, which was strongly occupied, and flanked the approach to the fort just mentioned. This movement was to cut off the communication between the two eastern forts, and to cover the advance of the 49th in their attack and storm of the nearest. Major-Gen. Burrell bad directions to push on and take the principal square fort when the 49th made their rash. Simultaneous with these attacks, the brigade of seamen was to carry the two western forts, covered by a concentrated fire from the guns and rockets.
11. During the whole of the advance my right had been threatened by a large body of the enemy, which debouched from the western suburbs, and just as I was about to commence the attack a report was made that heavy columus were advancing on the right; I was, therefore, compelled to detach the Marines under Capt. Ellis, to support the brigade of seamen, and to cover my right and rear.
12. At about half 9 o'clock the advance was sounded, and it has seldom fallen to my lot to witness a more soldierlike and steady advance, or a more animated attack. Every individual, native as well as European, steadily and gallantly did his duty. The 18th and 49th were emulous which should first reach their appointed goals; but, under the impulse of this feeling, they did not lose sight of that discipline which could alone insure success. The advance of the 37th Madras Native Infantry and Bengal Volunteers, in support, was equally praiseworthy.
13. The result of this conibined movement was, that the two forts were captured with comparatively small loss, and that, in little more than half-an-hour after the order to advance was given, the British troops looked down on Canton within 100 paces of its walls.
14. The well-directed fire of the artillery in the centre was highly creditable, and did great execution.
15. In co-operation with these attacks, I witnessed with no ordinary gratification the noble rush of the brigade of seamen, under their gallant leader Capt. Bourchier, exposed to a heavy fire from the whole of the north-western rampart. This right attack was equally successful, and here also the British standard proudly waved on the two western forts, while the British tars looked down upon the north-western face of the city and its suburb.
16. During the greater part of the day a very spirited fire from heavy pieces of ordnance, gingals, and matchlocks, was kept up on the different columns occupying the heights and forts.
17. A strongly intrenched camp of considerable extent, occnpied apparently by about 4,000 men, lay to the north-east of the city upon rising ground, separated by a tract of paddy land from the base of the lieights. Frequent attacks were made upon my left by bodies sent from this encampment, but were as frequently repulsed by the 49th. This, however, exposed the men to a heavy fire from the walls of the city.
18. About 2 o'clock, perceiving that Mandarins of consequence were joining this force from the city, and had occupied a village in the rear to my left, i directed the 49th to dislodge them. This was instantly effected in the same spirited manner that had marked every movement of this gallant corps. About 3 o'clock it was evident that some Mandarin of high rank had reached the eneampment (I have since understood that it was Yang, the Tatar General), and that preparations were making for a fresh attack. I ordered down the 18th, therefore, with one company of the Royal Marines to re-inforce the 49th, and directed Major-General Burrell to assume the command, to repel the projected attack, and instantly to follow up the enemy across a narrow causeway, the only approach, and take and destroy the encampment. This duty was well and gallantly performed, but I regret to say with severe loss, from the difficulty of approach, exposed to a heavy fire from the guns and gingals on the north east face of the city wall. The enemy were driven at all points and fled across the country; the encampment was burut, the magazines, of which there were