« 이전계속 »
Yenikoi Point, forgetting that the current there generally sets out so strong to the south-east, that they could hardly fail in avoiding it. To the eastward of the hank there is a very good channel and anchorage, having from five to fifteen fathoms, and ships from the northward, with a commanding breeze, may use it with great advantage, as the current isat all times much less there than in the stream. Coming from the Black Sea with a northerly wind, this route will shotten the dfstance, and prevent a necessity for anchoring at Buyukdereor Therapia; should this wind fail; these places have deep water, and are awkward to get out of in light winds. To sail west of the banks from the northward, bring the old Genoese Castle on with the signal-post in the fort, at the foot of the Giants Mount north-east, until the southernmost high clump of trees on the shore, opposite Yenikoi Point, comes nearly on with it S-i E-, or if they are obscured, until the round tower above the walled fort, on the European side, comes open to the westward of its flag-staff, (N.b.E,)—run thus, until the Health Office, (a range of red buildings,) is well open of Point Unkiar Skalessi S-E.b.E., when you may haul over for it, as ships generally communicate here. In working to the southward, stand no nearer the bank than twelve fathoms, nor open the round tower to the eastward of the flag-stall' in the walled fort, as it is very bold to, shoaling suddenly to five and two fathoms. Wishing to pass through the eastern channel from the northward, haul round the point of Giants Mount as close as you please, in eight fathoms, to avoid the current which here sets strong towards the shoal. Stand into the little bay of Quarries, until Yenikoi Point comes open a ship's length of the Point of Unkiar Skalessi, which will lead through in twelve to eight fathoms. Ships from the southward, will have no difficulty in observing these directions, in a contrary manner.
A master of a ship from the Black Sea in the winter, not wishing to delay at Constantinople, and particularly in want of water, will find a good and well sheltered anchorage oif the Sultan's Valley; and if he takes a boat to Constantinople, arranges his business with the consul, he will on his return, find the ship watered, the British man-of-war rendering any little assistance required, and he clears the Bosphorus without having to anchor oif the Golden Horn, which, from its depth of water, frequently crowded and exposed stale, is, at this season of the year very objectionable.
The anchorages in the Bosphorus are, generally, on the European side very safe, and well out of the way of the current, being protected by the projecting points, and having an easy depth of water, and as it is indisputably the best shore to keep when bound to the northward, opportunities for anchoring are always present, in the event of light or contrary winds. Off Arnaoutki, in the little bay just within the Devils current, we reached into ten fathoms, the soundings varying from this to twenty fathoms inshore of us, where we lie, being but a continuation of a bank to the westward, the shoal part of which being neatly and conspicuously built over, an extremely good custom, and which is generally observed here.
The anchorage off Tophana is by no means good in the winter months, from the depth of water, indifference of holding ground, and violence and irregularity of the currents, which, under the influence of of strong variable winds are frequently very capricious. Twenty vessels within a cable's length of each other may be in as many different positions, and as they seldom take the trouble to moor, or give their vessels a good scope of cable, it is no uncommon thing to see tbem Tanging about and fouling each other in a serious manner, to the manifest danger and destruction of spars, bulwarks, &c, and this is considerably increased during the prevalence of southerly winds, which knock up a short and troublesome sea.
This may in a great measure be avoided by taking a berth more to the northward, nearer the Turkish men-of-war, or hauling at once into one of the tiers at the entrance of the Golden Horn; or if from circumstances connected with the disposition of cargo, &c, obliged to stay a few days off Tophana, it is decidedly best to moor, and the more out of the fairway of ships entering or leaving the Horn the better. All the additional trouble this may occasion to a merchant ship, will be amply repaid by the security derived from so necessary a precaution.
Men-of-war generally moor off the arsenal. We were in twenty fathoms, open to the southward; Galata tower W.b.N.; Seraglio point S.b.E.; and the new palace N.E.b.E. The best water about here is usually obtained from Scutari.
As the summer advanced, we shifted our berth out to the northward, to avoid the great heat, and chance of fevers said to be generated in the vicinity of the Valley. We moored north and south in thirteen fathoms off the southern extremity of the English Bank, it hearing N.b.E. £E., two cables; Giants Mount, north-east; Yenikoi point, south; British palace W. \ S.; and found this removal of great advantage, inasmuch as we were quite open to every quarter, and often enjoyed a cool and refreshing breeze, when the anchorage off the Valley was perfectly becalmed. During this period the thermometer ranged from 80° to 86£°, seldom below 78°; and though in the middle of the day we generally had a fine breeze, yet the air was very moist and hot.
From the delays, vessels bound up, are snbject to, by the prevalence of northerly winds, it is rather surprising that steam-tugs are not yet established in these waters. The Turkish government finding many gladly avail themselves thereof, are now allowing their small steamers to tow ships out to the Black Sea, for which they charge at the rate of half a dollar per ton, which must be infinitely preferable to loitering about the Bosphorus for many weeks waiting for a fair wind.
Winds And Weather on the north and north-west coast of New Holland—By Com. J. C. Wickham, of II.M.S. Beagle.
(Concluded from p. 726.)
That part of the coast of New Holland, from Cape York to Cape Van Diemen, and extending as far south as the parallel of 12° south latitude, may be said to be within the limit of the east and west monsoons as at a short distance from the coast, these periodical winds will be found to blow with gieat regularity.
Near the land, the easterly monsoon sets in between the first and middle of April, and the westerly monsoon in October, and sometimes not until November. At a distance from the land they are probably more regular, as the changes of the monsoons are said to take place about the first week in April and October.
In the month of July, we found the winds between Booby Island and Port Essington, fresh from the eastward, veering at times to E.S.E., and occasionally to south-east, but rarely to the northward of east. Close to the land these winds are not so constant, but take more the character of land and sea breezes, and the nights are mostly calm; this we found to be the case during part of the months of July and August, while at anchor in Port Essington ;—the general course of the winds during that period was as follows. A little before sunrise a breeze sprang up from south, or S.S.E., which gradually became more easterly as the sun approached the meridian. Sometimes in the middle of the day, it was light from the eastward, or calm, and at other times veered gradually to north-east, from which quarter there came a fresh sea breeze every afternoon. This breeze lasted until sunset, and at times later, but the nights were always calm.
We experienced similar winds between Melville Island and Port Essington, but being a short distance from the land, the nights were not calm, although the winds were very light.
During the easterly monsoon it is difficult to get to the eastward, as at a few miles from the land the current is always running to the westward, and runs strong past the projecting points; but by contriving to be near the land at daylight, (at which time the wind is always more southerly,) something may be gained.
At Port Essington, the rainy season can scarcely be said to set in before the middle of November, there is then squally dirty weather, with rain from the westward and north-west, and at this season there are at times heavy squalls from south-east, accompanied by rain, thunder, and lightning.*
In November, 1839, Port Essington was visited by a violent hurricane, that wrecked her Majesty's ship Pelorus, although perfectly landlocked, and several miles shut in from the sea.
This hurricane seems to have been confined to a very narrow belt, and to have travelled from W.b.N. toE.b.S., or perhaps more east and west. Between west and W.N.W. is the usual direction from whence the wind blows during the westerly monsoon. It was felt in the vicinity of Sandal-wood Island, near which a vessel that sailed from Timor lost her topmasts, and suffered considerable damage. It did not reach Timor, nor was it felt by the Beagle, then in Victoria River, 3£° to the southward of Port Essington, although we experienced a great deal of unsettled weather about that time, and which I supposed to be occasioned by the westerly monsoon, having set in upon the coast to the northward.
I was told at Timor, that that island was rarely, if ever subjected to such visitations; but that at a short distance to the southward of it, hurricanes were sometimes felt, perhaps one in four or five years.
* In 1838, the westerly monsoon set in at Port Essington in the first week in November,—there had been no rain before that.
The great extent of the north-west coast of New Holland, and lying as it docs between the parallel of 12° and 22° aoulh latitude, no doubt subjects it to a variety of wind and weather, that is not experienced on the north coast, although on that part of it, north of the parallel of IS*, there is probably mnch similarity.
As I cannot speak with certainty of the winds and weather that [reTail on this extent of coast, at all seasons of the year, the following remarks will be confined to such portions of it as were visited by the Beadle, and will apply only to the particular seasons in which she »ai employed there.
To the eastward of the meridian of 123" east longitude, and at a short distance from the land, the east and west monsoons will be found regular, but the easterly monsoon is very light to the southward of 13° latitude.
Between Clarence Strait and Cambridge Gulf, and during the mouths of September, October, November, and December, the wind during the dav is a sea breeze, between north-west and west. In September, and until the middle of October, we found the wind as follows:—about snnrise, a light breeze sprang up from south-east or east, which gradually drew to the northward towards the middle of the day. Id the afternoon, a sea breeze from north-west or west, becoming light towards sunset, but freshening again soon after that, and blowing a moderate and pleasant breeae between north-west and south-west all night.
During the latter part of the period, (November and December,^ the winds were more constantly from the west or W.N.W., blowing from that quarter throughout the twenty-four hours, but much more moderate at night than during the day. At full aad change of the moon the breezes were much stronger than at other times, and upon one or two occasions, at the time of the moon's quartering, there was a light breeze from ssilb-east in the morning.
During the month of November the ship was at anchor, twelve miles within the entrance to Victoria River, and 66 from Point Pearce ou the sea coast. For the first three weeks of this lime, the sea breeze was regular from north-west, or W.N.W., generally selling' in about noon, and lasting the greater part of the night; in the mornings, and until noon, it was mostly calm, or very light winds from the northward. In the last week of this month the weather was very unsettled and squally, with much thunder and lightning and rain, the wind mostly between south-east and north-east; after which, the westerly breezes set in again, and continued until we left the coast in the middle of December.
During the whole of this period, the westerly winds did not appear to come from any distance, but to be merely local sea breezes, as they did not cause any sea upon the coast, nor did they reach far inshore; as we frequently observed smoke at no great distance from the coast, rising perpendicularly, or influenced by a light south-easterly wind, and this at times "lien the sea breeze was strong. From this, it would appear that the westerly monsoon bad not reached so far to the southward, nor did we find, after sailing from Point Pearce, that the winds were at all steady frvm the westward, until we had reached to the northward of Cape Londonderry, which is in latitude 13" 45 south.
To the northward of this, the winds were from the westward, accompanied by fine weather, during the day to the southward of that point, sometimes as far as south-west, and at night inclining to the northward of west; but generally speaking, we found the wind to the southward of west, and the current running from half a mile to a mile an hour to the north or N.N.K.
The currents between New Holland and Timor, are said to run to the westward during the easterly monsoon, and in the opposite direction with the westerly, but they seem to be influenced by every trifling change of wind, as on the 20th, 21st, 22nd, and 23rd of December, (when the westerly monsoon might be supposed at its height,) we experienced light variable winds between south-east and E.N.K., during which period the current ran to the westward, at times a knot an hour. We were then between the parallels of 11^° and 13°, south of which, we experienced winds between S.S.W. and west, until we were to the southward of the north-west Cape, when they became more southerly, and at times S.S.E , (in January.) Throughout all this period the weather was fine, and different from what was expected during the westerly monsoon.
All that part of the north-west coast of New Holland, between the north-west Cape and Cape Londonderry, appears to lie very much subjected to light winds, particularly during the easterly monsoon, the strength of which is uot felt to the southward of 13° or 14° of south latitude.
During the westerly monsoon, strong winds and gales from the northwest at times blow upon the coast, but they do not appear to be frequent.
The strongest winds at this season are the heavy squalls between E.S.E. and north-east, (and which may with propriety be termed hurricane squalls;) fortunately they are not of long duration, rarely lasting over two hours. They give ample warning of their approach, by the gathering of a heavy bank of clouds between north-east and south-east, and much lightning in that quarter. Appearances such as these, frequently precede the squall some days, but coming gradually nearer to the westward. The barometer shows no indication of approaching bad weather, being only acted upon by the immediate change. These squalls mostly occur in the night, or between sunset and sunrise.
During the latter part of the westerly monsoon, on that part of the coast between Cape Villaret and Point Swan, we found the weather remarkably fine, with the exception of an occasional short but severe squall from the eastward. During the day, there was generally a moderate sea breeze, between north-west and south-west, commencing in the forenoon, and lasting sometimes nearly until midnight, (on which occasions it blew strongest during the night.) During the other part of the 24th, the wind was light from the eastward, or calm. Capt. King experienced similar weather in August.
It was not until we had reached Point Swan, in latitude 16° 20' south, that we experienced any of the bad weather that is usually met with at this season of the year, a few degrees to the northward. It commenced in the last week of January, aud continued until the middle of