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and the words “Glassgorman Bank,'' in white letters on the broad end; it is moored in five fathoms at low water.

Arklow Rock (outer point) bearing . . N.b.w.
Tara Hill . . . . . " . West
The bearings stated are magnetic.

By Order, H. VEREKER, Sec.

The Havre Rock, North of New Zeeland. The following is important to navigators, not having yet found its way into the charts. It appears to have connection with a group of islands to t!.e northeast of New Zeeland.

" Capt. Privat, of the whaler Havre, reports, that he has discovered, in the waters of New Zeeland, 5 leagues W.N.W. N. by compass, of the rock Esperance (middling variation 120 10' N.E.) a dangerous rock. According to soundings of the eaptain, it is the extremity of a rock about the size of a ship with only three to four feet water on the top of it, whilst all around it there were from twelve to nineteen fathoms. This rock is situated at 31° 19' S. lat., and 178° 35' E. long., according to two chronometers, which also agrees with the situation of the Rock Esperance. As this rock as yet nerer was laid down in any chart, the captain has given it the name “Havre."-Shipping Gazette.

Leghorn Light. 'The Grand Ducal Government of Tuscany has given notice that the light of the Port of Leghorn (Livorno) in latitude 43° 321411 North, and longitude 10° 17' 25'' East, which has hitherto been a fixed Light, will appear from the 15th of next December as an Interinitting Light, alternately Red and White, each for an interval of forty seconds, and with intervening eclipses.

The height of the light, being 154 feet above the sea, will render it visible at the distance of 20 miles; and during the eclipses a faint light may be seen within the distance of 9 miles, the total darkness not being complete except beyond that distance.

LIGHT-HOUSES AND Beacons, Extract of a letter received at Lloyd's, from their agent at Sydney, Cape Breton, dated Sept, 27, 1841:

“I observe in some of the charts made up to 1839, that they hare omitted to lay down the Light-house at Flat Point, at the entrance of this river, and instead of a beacon at the mouth of Louisbourg-harbour, a Light-house is laid down."

These are the kind of charts by which some ships are sailed; incorrect eren to placing a beacon instead of a lighthouse, or a lighthouse instead of a beacon. Then the ships are lost and the charts are blamed. We advise their owners to consult the admiralty charts.

The Maidens Light-HOUSE IN A Fog. To render our light-houses conspicuous at all times and under all circumstances of weather, is a very important object. In clear weather, by night or day, they are sufficiently visible, but in fog they are unhappily not so. There are conditions, however, which may assist in rendering them conspicuous, if due attention he paid to them. With few exceptions it has been a general Qustom to white wash the buildings, or paint them white, thus rendering


them perfectly invisible at any moderate distance in foggy weather. A white light-house is certainly rendered more conspicuous by a dark back ground either of downs or cliffs, but the cliffs in a fog would be seen when the light-house would not be.

Again, when seen with no back land whatever, owing to their having no strong contrasting colour, or being white of the same nature as the fog itself, they become fairly concealed by it, at the very time when they are most wanted.

This subject has engaged the attention of Capt. Beechey, R.N., who in the course of his survey of St. Georges Channel has had frequent opportunities of observing this great defect. To remedy it he suggested that a band or portion of the building should be painted red, which suggestion has been adopted with complete success. The Ballast Office at Dublin has readily carried out his plan on the Maidens Light-house, as will be seen by the following notice, and the good effects of it have become evident. We annex Capt. Beechey's report on it, accompanied by a lithographic view, which he has sent us, showing that the part of the Maidens light-house which has undergone the process is distinctly visible through fog, while the other part is concealed by it We have also a letter from a Master of the Royal Navy confirming this fact. Our commissioners of lights will see the importance of this subject to our coast navigotion, and we have no doubt will give it immediate attention.

MAIDENS Rocks Light-HOUSES, North-east Coast of Ireland.

Ballast Office, Dublin, Sept. 9th, 1841. The Corporation for Preserving and Improving the Port of Dublin, bereby give notice that an alteration is now in progress of being made in the appearance of the towers of the Maidens Rocks Light-houses, which on and from the Ist of November next, will be marked with broad red belts or zones.

Specification given of the appearance of the towers, by Mr. Halpin, the Inspector of Light-houses.

Those towers have been hitherto coloured white; the lower spaces will be still continued white; the central belts red; and above these, white to the projecting galleries.

The red belts or zones will be nearly one-third of the heights of the towers from their bases to the outside galleries.

The belt being 18 feet in height on the North Light-house.
I 19

South ditto.
Note-No change will take place in the appearance of the Lights.

By Order, H. VEREKER, Sec.

Tue Maidens Ligut-houses. Dear Sir.-A few days ago we had an excellent opportunity of observing the improvement that has been made in the colouring of the Maiden Light-houses, by painting a broad red stripe across the tower, which before was entirely white.

We were endeavouring to make these light-houses in very hazy weather, and when within about a mile, we observed three dark spots somewhat elevated, and a long dark line at the horizon. The spots proved to be the red band which had been recently painted, and the slated roofs of the light-keepers' cottages; whilst the dark line at the horizon was the nalural colour of the rock below the whitewash, but no part of the whited tower or of the rocky island which had been whitewashed could be discovered ; and it was not until we were quite close that we could discover a faint outline of these objects, the appearance of which may be imagined from the sketch annexed.

There could not have been a stronger proof of the great mistake that has been made in white-washing many of the light-houses in this gea, in the hope of rendering them more conspicuous, but especially in the Maiden towers and rocks, which have been annually coated with lime down to the waters' edge,

and had it not been for the red stripe and the dark roofs of the cottages, which could not be seen when viewed end-ways, the vessel might hare been too close to hare aroided the danger, and had this occurred the loss of the vessel would have been entirely owing to the expensive process of whitening the rocks and towers.

On a clear day when the sun shines bright upon a whited tower we must all acknowledge the brilliant effect produced by the lime, but at such times we care very little about light-houses, and at night the light is, of course the best guide. It is in foggy and hazy weather and during gales, which in this sea are almost always attended with mists, that we want our land marks, and there certainly is not any colour which at such times so effectually evades the eye as white.

Captain White in his Channel directions, complains of the difficulty of discerning the Hook light-house in consequence of its whiteness. Lieut. Frazer in his recent survey to the southward of Dublin, could scarcely make any use of the lower Wicklow light-house from the same cause.

I hare frequently run for Carlingford Lough, at the entrance of which there is a beautiful light-house 110 feet high, of snow white purity, and in the misty weather which usually attends such exploits have always seen the Black house, a low ruiu about a cable's length inside the light tower, and eren the black tase of the tower below the whitewash, long before the lower itself could be distinguished.

I could furnish many other instances of a similar kind, but I hope that those which have been given will be sufficient to call further attention to the subject, and that the plan now upon trial at the Maidens under the direction of that most excellent Board, the Ballast office at Dublin, will be generally adopted. But I must observe that at present the plan is only half carried out at the Maidens, as the tower has only one band of red, whereas it should have two, each one third the height of the tower in width, and then the lantern may be white.

I must also remark that this rule should not be applied indiscriminately to all light-houses; for instance, Port Patrick, the Baily, Mull of Kintire, Douglas, and in fact all light-houses situated close under cliffs are decidedly more cunspicuous when white; but all towers which stand alone, or, which have half a mile and more of atmosphere between them and the back ground, should be striped, and the stronger the contrast the better,

I am, &c., • To the Editor, fe.

F. W. B.

SIR.—Being off the Maidens Rocks on the 23d Sept. 1841, in hazy weather, the great u:ility of the red band lately painted round the light-houses was very apparent; this, the railing round the lantern, and the darkness of the two cottages at the base of the tower being the only parts visible. It is evident that the roofs of these cottages in certain positions cannot be seen, we should, therefore, have been very close to the rocks before they were discovered, had it not been for the band,

As these dangers are fire miles distant from the nearest land, swept by a rapid tide, and the lead gives us no warning of an approach to them, every means should be used to render them visible in hazy weather. This appears partly accomplished ; and were there another band leaving the centre of the tower white, it would be still more so, and at the same time prevent the possibility of their being (from a 'casual glance) mistaken for vessels under sail, which might be the case were they painted entirely red.

I am at a loss to account for the rocks being whitewashed, as they would surely be more easily seen were they left their natural colour, or blacked over, As it is in your power, through your valuable periodical, to call general attention to so important a subject, I veuture to trouble you with this note. To the Editor, fc.

A MASTER, 8.8.

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