« 이전계속 »
Edinburgh—Killed, two seamen, one drummer and one private royal marine. Wounded, Com. F. U. Hastings, Mr. John Davies, master, Mr. Joseph I'limsoll, assistant-surgeon, Mr. Henry Boys, midshipman, one seamen, ono boy, and one sergeant royal marines, all slightly.
Benbow—None killed or wounded.
Pique—None killed or wounded.
Carysfort—None killed or wounded.
Talbot—Wounded, Lieut. G. B. Le Mesurier, since dead; Mr. Henry 1 laswell, mate, slightly; one seamen severely.
Gorgon—None killed or wounded.
Wasp—Wounded, five seamen, one royal marine severely.
Stroinboli—None killed or wounded.
Phoenix—None killed or wounded.
Vesuvius—None killed or wounded.
Hazard—Wounded, one royal marine, one boy slightly.
Turkish flag-ship, Rear-Admiral Walker,—four killed: three wounded.
Medea, Austrian flag-ship, Rear-Admiral Bandeira—one killed, four wounded.
Guerriera, Austrian frigate—one killed, two wounded.
Particulars Op Tiie Bombardment And Fall Of St. Jean D'acre.
Malta, Nov. \bth, 1840.—The Phoenix, steam-frigate, arrived on Thursday evening last, bringing the momentous intelligence of the capture of St. Jean d'Acre, the far-famed fortress of the Levant, by the combined fleets of the allies. The action is the most splendid of all the recent naval achievements in these seas, demonstrating to ihe staggering faith of the politicians in Europe, that nothing can withstand British genius and valour. Vainly have the French incendiaries defied the British naval forces to take the great "fort of the East;" for, whilst they pour out their bitter invectives, and sing their savage war-whoop of nationality, a council of war is formed to attack these redoubtable batteries, it is decided in a moment, ami in another St. Jean d'Acre is a heap of smoking ruins, dyed with the profuse blood of the enemy.
We cannot pass by the splendid action of Admiral Stopford—an action which has covered the admiral.with immortal honour. It was Admiral Sir Robert Stopford who left his flag-ship in the Phoenix—who directed the attack—who fired the first shot upon the devoted fortress— who neared the formidable batteries, and under the bristling cannon (the labour and accumulations of ages) stood up with coolness, daring, unshaken courage, and commanded the whole operations.
The admiral was nobly seconded by General Sir C. F. Smith, of the Royal Engineers, who was with him on board the Phcenix, and by other brave and intrepid officers under his command. Commodore Napier—the glory of the British sailor—headed one of the two divisions, and would not cease his fire till every gun of the enemy was silent. Admiral Walker behaved also most admirably, and look his flag-ship under the guns.
The result of this grand action is 3,000 prisoners, an immense quantity of warlike stores, accumulated for years in this celebrated fortress, and possession of the entire coast of Syria.
The fall of Acre will echo and re-echo throughout the world. Th^ sovereigns of Enrope will see that the spirit of Nelson still lives in the British navy, that her fleets can yet batter down mighty works, deemed by ordinary people impregnable, and that England is yet the undisputed mistress of the sea.
We refer our readers for the details of this splendid achievement to our correspondent's communication from the scene of action.
The Phcenix, steam-frigate, arrived in port on Thursday afternoon, from Acre the 6th inst., with the important intelligence of the fall of that fortress on the 3rd.
The attack commenced at half-past two o'clock, P.m., and became general at three P.m. At twenty minutes past four a large magazine blew up, by which one entire regiment was sacrificed. At five o'clock the southern division ceased firing, and at forty minutes past five the north-western. The batteries fired until the last. During the night the place was evacuated. At three A.m. Walker Bey landed with some troops and took possession.
British loss—18 killed and 41 wounded.
Egyptian loss—1,500 to 1,700 killed by explosion. 500 killed on the ramparts. Wounded unknown.
The only officer killed was Lieut. Le Mesurier of the Talbot, who received a severe contusion, of which he died on the following day.
The British ships engaged were the Princess Charlotte, Powerful, Thunderer, "Benbow, Revenge, Edinburgh, and Bellerophon of the line; Castor, Pique, Carysfort, and Talbot frigates; Wasp and Hazard sloops; Gorgon, Vesuvius, Stromboli, and Phoenix steam-frigates. Two Austrian frigates and a corvette, and a Turkish ship of the line, with the flag of Admiral Walker.
Some of the ships were a good deal cut up about the rigging and spars, and a prodigious quantity of powder and shot was expended.
The Phoenix proceeded to England yesterday with the despatches from Admiral Slopford.
Theatre Of War.—Operations Of The Allies Off The Coast Of
Acre, Nov. 6th, 1840.—Since may last strange events have occurred, of which I will endeavour to give you a sketch.
On the 24th ult. the Medea steamer arrived from Malta and England; the same day the Turkish admiral (Walker,) with the Gorgon and Phoenix steamers, sailed for Acre; and the day following, having reached their destination (where they found the Revenge and Pique,) sent in a flag of truce, summoning the town, which, however, was not received, and the boat threatened to be fired on, if not immediately off. The Gorgon and Phoenix therefore returned to Beyrout, but on the latter's arrival there found that the admiral, with the Bellerophon and Edinburgh, and the two Austrian frigates, had sailed for Acre, to which place she accordingly returned, and learned that on the previous evening the Gorgon had fallen in with the Princess Charlotte, and strange to say, received orders for all the ships, excepting the Pique, to return to Beyrout, to which place we all accordingly proceeded. On the 29th the Vesuvius steamer arrived from Malta and England, and the same day an Austrian steamer from Constantinople, bringing troops, and despatches from Lord Ponsonby. On the 30th ult. a general order was issued by command of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, thanking the fleet for their zeal and exertions ; and on the same day a council of war was held, at which an immediate attack on Acre was decided on. The same evening the supernumerary marines were embarked, and on the following day about 3,000 Turkish troops, each ship taking a portion according to her size; General Sir C. F. Smith, R.e., accompanying them. In the afternoon, the steamers Gorgon, Vesuvius, Stromboli, and Phoenix, started for their destination. On the morning of Sunday, November the 1st, the steam division arrived off Acre, where they found the Pique, and in the forenoon commenced throwing shot and shell into the devoted town, which was briskly returned, but fortunately without effect. This amusement continued at intervals during the day, and must have harassed the enemy a good deal, as a number of shot and shell were seen to fall and burst in the very centre of the town. In the evening, the steamers anchored just out of range, and the Talbot and Wasp joined. At daylight on the 2d, the Turkish and Austrian admirals made their appearance, and at eight o'clock the steamers weighed and resumed their work, which was continued at intervals throughout the day, the batteries returning the fire as yesterday, and with the like harmless effect. In the afternoon we had the satisfaction of making out the admiral and squadron running down before, a fine breeze from the northward: shortly before sunset the whole anchored off the town. The forces now assembled consisted of the following vessels: Princess Charlotte, (flag) Powerful, (broad pendant,) Thunderer, Bellerophon, Revenge, Edinburgh, and Benbow, of the line; Castor, Pique, Carysfort, and Talbot, frigates; Hazard, corvette; Wasp, brig; steam frigates Gorgon, Vesuvius, Stromboli, and Phoenix; the Austrian frigate Guerriera, and Medea, and a corvette; and the Turkish admiral and cutter tender. The night was spent in sounding, laying down buoys, aud making the necessary preparations. It was originally intended that the steamers should lash alongside and tow the liners into their stations; but finding too much swell on in the morning, that plan was necessarily abandoned, and it was determined to proceed to attack under sail.
At half-past nine A.m., all being ready, the signal was made to weigh, with a light wind from the south-west. The Admiral aud Sir Charles Smith went on board the steam-frigate Phoenix, from which vessel they conducted the attack; the flag, however, still remained flying on board the Princess Charlotte. Unfortunately, about noon, the wind fell very light, and the ships were obliged to wait for the sea breeze, which happily sprung up sufficiently strong a little before one P.m., when the signal was made to bear up, and for the steamers to engage, (they had in the forenoon thrown a few shot and shell.) At fifty minutes past one the Phoenix opened her fire. The Powerful, closely followed by the Princess Charlotte, Thunderer, Bellerophon, and Pique, stood to the northward, (it would be as well to state here that the town presents two faces to the sea, one to the west and the other to the south,) and then bore up, and anchored off the north-west angle of the town iu the order named above. The Castor, Carysfort, Talbot, Benbow, Edinburgh, Turkish Admiral, Hazard, Wasp, and Austrians, stood in for the south face; the Revenge was ordered to keep underway as a reserve.
At a quarter-past two o'clock the batteries to the south opened on the Castor, as she most gallantly, and to the admiration of the whole fleet, took up her station within about seven hundred yards of the batteries, where she and her consorts opened their fire, as had also by this time the northern division; the steamers were placed between the two divisions, underway, and thus the action became general. It would be impossible to attempt a description of the scene at this moment, but had those who have heretofore doubted the bravery and constancy of the Egyptians, then witnessed the animated fire kept up by the batteries they would no longer be sceptical as to their courage or endurance. At about three o'clock, the Revenge was ordered in to support the Powerful's division, and took up an admirable position ahead of that ship. At twenty-five minutes past four, the action being at its height, a terrific explosion took place in the town, which for a time wholly concealed it, and the southern division from view; its appearance was truly awful,and I can compare it to nothing but as if a huge yew tree had suddenly been conjured up from the devoted town—it hung for many minutes a mighty pall over those hundreds it had hurled into eternity, and then slowly, owing to the lightness of the wind, drifted to the southward.
It proved to be the explosion of the principal magazine of the place, one-third of which it has destroyed, and, from a whole regiment having been quartered in a khan immediately adjoining, it is supposed from 1,500 to 1,700 soldiers perished in the ruins, besides a number of camels, horses, bullocks, and donkeys. After this fearful event, the fire from the southern batteries nearly ceased, but the western one still kept it up with animation, and was answered broadside after broadside with redoubled vigour and tremendous effect. Shortly before five o'clock the admiral made the signal to discontinue the engagement, but from the smoke it could not be seen for some time by the Powerful's division, who continued until half-past five to fire at the few guns that still maintained the action, after which not a shot was fired either from the town or fleet. This sudden silence immediately succeeding such a dinning uproar, had a very peculiar effect.
In the early part of the night the Princess Charlotte and Revenge shifted further out, and the Benbow, Edinburgh, and Castor were hauled further in, for the purpose of breaching the south face in the morning; the steamers anchored as convenient. Admiral Walker made one or two unsuccessful attempts to land some spies; but happily about thirty minutes after one, A.m., a small boat came off from the captain of the port, to say that the Egyptians were leaving the town, and that if a party was landed at the water-gate it would be found open ; this was of course immediately done, and two hundred Turks and a party of Austrian marines took unopposed possession at daylight; the remainder of the Turkish troops and a considerable number of marines were landed and quietly marched into the place.
Thus has fallen the far-famed fortress of Acre ! after a bombardment of only about three hours' duration. Any attempt to describe the awful «cene of carnage and destruction that presented itself would be impos
ENLARGED SERIES- NO. 1 VOL. FOR 1841. C
sible. I shall, therefore, not attempt the task, but confine myself to giving you the numbers supposed to have perished and the damage done. From 1,500 to 1,700 are supposed to have perished by the explosion of the magazine, and about 300 were killed in the batteries. 3,000 prisoners were taken; 700 of one regiment, who had evacuated the town on the night, marched down to the beach with drums beating and quietly laid down their arms. The batteries are awfully knocked about, many guns upset, and several burst. Correct returns of the number of guns mounted have not been received, but I should suppose that there are about 120 on the sea faces, and about 20 mortars, chiefly brass, 13-inch. Vast quantities of munitions of war and provisions, together with specie, to the amount 5,000/. were found in the town. Youssouf Aga (Colonel Schultz, a Pole,) the chief engineer of the army of Syria, was taken prisoner seriously wounded in the arm—the defence of the place had been entrusted to bim. Mahmoud Bey, the governor, effected his escape, but has since been taken by the mountaineers. It now only remains for me to state the loss sustained by the attacking force, which amounts in all to 14 English and 4 Turks killed, and 48 wounded: the only officers who suffered were Lieut. Le Mesurier, of the Talbot, who received a severe contusion, of which he died the following day; and Commander Hastings, Mr. Davis, an assistant-surgeon, and a midshipman, all of the Edinburgh, wounded by the bursting of a shell on the quarter-deck before she anchored, which also killed three seamen and one marine. Some of the ships are a good deal cut up about the rigging and spars. The Edinburgh's mizen-mast is shot through, the Castor's bowsprit, the Hazard's mizen-mast, and the Wasp's fore-mast all severely struck, are the principal spars that suffered. The Benbow was struck by a 14-pound shot in the hull, but, strange to say, not a man was touched. The Austrians sustained but little, if any injury. The wonderful precision and rapidity of the fire are best appreciated by Youssouf Aga, the Pole, declaring that no men could possibly have stood to their guns in the batteries—the Princess Charlotte alone fired 4,400 shots. Little damage has been sustained by the works on the land side, which are even now very strong, but which a few months more would have rendered almost impregnable, Some hundreds of sick and a number of dead were found in the hospital, many having been killed in their beds during the bombardment, and all appear to have been sadly neglected.
Ibrahim Pacha is reported to be at a place called Zehle, between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, with a force of from 15,000 to 20,000 men.
The prisoners taken at Acre are embarking on board the English ships, which are shortly to proceed to Marmorice for the winter, leaving a squadron of frigates and steamers under Capt. Collier of the Castor on the coast of Syria.
The Phoenix, with the despatches for England, will leave this morning. Reinforcements from Constantinople continue to arrive, but the campaign is supposed to have finished for the winter. Mr. Gennys, mate of the Carysfort, is promoted into the Talbot, vice Le Mesurier, dead. Admiral Walker is to leave in the Vesuvius with the despatches for Constantinople; he has been made a Pasha.