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plants had four or five leaves, on June 1, they were thinned, leaving one or two plants every 3 inches. On the second date of thinning, June 13, they were thinned to one plant in every 9 inches. Three cultivations were given-on June 13, 21, and 27, the ground being kept free from weeds, and loose. The cultivation consisted of running a hand cultivator twice in the row and afterwards hoeing the plants. It was necessary to spray with arsenate of lead because of the presence of blister beetles.
Only two samples of beets were received for analysis, the data for which and the meteorological data for the growing season at Lexington are given in the following tables:
Agricultural and analytical data on beets grown at Lexington, Ky., and forwarded to Wash
ington, D. Č., for analysis, 1904.
The estimated yield per acre at Lexington was quite low, namely, 8.9 tons. The percentage of sugar in the beet was considerably higher than in former years, reaching 11.5 per cent. The purity,
. however, was exceptionally low, being represented by the coefficient 72.4. The mean temperature from May to July inclusive was 69.8° F. and presents a very fair range for the three months; the average temperature from August to October was 66.9°, that of the three growing months, June to August, 73.3o. The average for the six months was 68.4°, a temperature favorable to the production of a beet with a reasonably high percentage of sugar. The rainfall, although slightly deficient, was very evenly distributed, the smallest precipitation occurring in September and October, when it is least needed, and being therefore favorable to the production of a beet with a reasonably high percentage of sugar. The ratio of clear days to cloudy ones shows a remarkable freedom from heavy clouds. The number of clear days is almost four times that of the cloudy days reported. The percentage of sunshine is also very high. In spite of the small percentage of cloudy weather, the temperature was below normal. All conditions, therefore, combine, in so far as the meteorological data are concerned, to produce a crop of beets remarkably rich in sugar for that latitude and such a crop was actually produced.
THE MICHIGAN STATION.
The beets were planted at the Michigan Station on May 11, thinned on June 17, and sampled on October 15, 22, and 28. The weather was dry from July 8 to August 25, but otherwise the season was favorable. The following data were obtained on the three samples analyzed: Agricultural and analytical data on beets grown at Agricultural College, Mich., and forwarded
to Washington, D.C., for analysis, 1904.
The yield per acre at the Michigan Station is very satisfactory, viz, 15.2 tons, notwithstanding the fact that the size of the beets is considerably less than a pound, averaging 9.9 ounces. The tonnage, high sugar content, 15.5 per cent, and high purity, 86, combine to make the production of the crop remunerative. The data on the yield as obtained at the Michigan Station are almost identical with the figures obtained at Washington.
The average temperature from May to July was 64.1°F.; from August to October, 58.8°; from June to August, 66.9°; and the average temperature of the six months was 61.5o. The warmest month was July, with an average temperature of 69.2o. August was much cooler, averaging 65.99. The rainfall also was well distributed, with the exception of July, during which month the precipitation was below the normal. Both September and October, especially the former, show a precipitation which would have a tendency to continue growth and to stimulate it. However, it was not an excessive precipitation, and probably did not interfere greatly with the ripening of the beet. The other meteorological data are taken from the station at Detroit, and indicate an excess of cloudy weather. Upon the whole, the meteorological data may be considered favorable to the production of a beet of high quality.
Meteorological data for Agricultural College, Ilich., 1904.
a Data for Detroit, Mich., about 15 miles southeast of Agricultural College, the nearest point at which the sunshine data were observed
Ten days missing from record.
THE INDIANA STATION.
A very complete report was received from Mr. W.J. Jones, jr., of the Indiana Station, including a comparison of results obtained on fertilized and unfertilized plats. The infertilized plat, No. 2, was reported as the one especially devoted to the cooperative work, and the average data obtained from the two untertilized plats are used in the graphic charts. The following cultural data were reported:
The dimensions of the plat were Is by 2 15 feet, and the area 0.56 acre.
April 29.-Ground plowed to depth of 9 inches and harrowed. Soil and subsoil sampled and samples forwarded to Washington.
Mayi. Soil harrowed both ways and broken with clod crusher. Beets planted; rous 18 inches apart. Day warm and partly cloudy. Soil in excellent condition; temperature of soil 60- F.
May 16.—Beets coming through. Stand apparently good.
May 23.- Beets all up. Stand thick with a few barren spots. Owing to low temperature and cold rains beets have made but little progress since coming up. Seed seems to have all germinated.
May 25.--Beets very weedy. C'ultivated with hand cultivator.
May 27.- Beets doing nicely. Fourth leaf appearing, but plants too small to thin. Rows at edge of field are being attacked by cutwornis
June 2.-- Ground full of cutworms which have destroyed many plants. Transplanted beets to all spaces of 9 inches or over. Day partly cloudy, temperature moderate, soil hard but moist All conditions favorable for successful transplanting. Transplanted only healthy plants in bunches; used transplanter and making deep holes. Thinned plants to clumps of 3 inches with 6-inch spaces between clumps. Stand excellent All weeds removed with hoe and soil loosened around beets.
June 4. - Weeding of plants finished. Transplanted plants doing nicely, and entire field making great progress.
June 9.- - Plants in good condition, but show need of rain. Cutworms still working.
June 14. Plants making rapid growth; thinned to 9 inches, and weeds removed from between plants.
June 20.- Plants growing rapidly. Stand excellent, but a little irregular as to size of plants. Plants have 10 leaves. Soil in excellent condition. Cucumber bugs in field. So loss from transplanting.
June 22. -Beets cultivated.
June 21. -- Plants in excellent condition, and have made rapid progress since June 22. Plants practically the same size in all parts of field. Stand perfect. Field clean and soil in fine condition. Plants large enough to shade the ground. Cucumber bugs have done little damage.
June 30.-- - Part of field hoed. Hailstorm eut leaves badly, but the damage is not serious.
July 9. Weeding of plants concluded. Plants in fine condition, and leaves broken by hail are still large enough to shade ground.
July 17. Condition of plants very satisfactory. Ground baking and needs cultivation.
July 25. Field in fine condition and beets making good growth; foliage much larger.
July 30.- Beets showing effect of drought and wilting badly; growth good, but the need of rain very apparent.
August .3. - Effect of drought very marked; leaves badly wilted and turning yellow.
Jugust 1. Plants making some progress, but drought is delaying growth and leaves are gradually falling off. Huston's Evil Eye making its appearance.
August 14. - Ground so dry it has begun to crack. Plants making but little progress.
August 28. - Plants and soil in fine condition. Very clean; no bugs. Rain produced marked improvement.
September 6.--Field clean and in satisfactory condition. Effect of drought still apparent. Many leaves turning brown, which may be due to arsenite.
September 11.--Beets making good progress. Other conditions almost as on the 4th.
September 19.-- Marked improvement since the 11th. Dead leaves disappraring and foliage green and bright. Beets were evidently stunted by drought.
September 25.--Entire field shows marked improvement in every particular.
October 2.-Improvement continues, especially noticeable in appearance of leaves which are making a new growth.
October 9.--Field almost as on October 2.
October 11. Samples taken to-day following rain on 10th. Ground very hard at a depth of 4 inches. Beets show a tendency to form subdivided roots and are hardly up to the average in size and shape.
October 15.---Fifty feet of fourth row of beets removed for first sample and forwarded to Washington.
With the first sample of beets, forwarded under date of October 15, the following comments were made:
We were unable to have the ground subsoiled, and this, in my opinion, has been slightly detrimental. The stand, however, is the best that we have had in years, though the dry weather in July and August resulted in smaller beets; in fact, for three or four weeks their growth seemed to be entirely checked, and the effect of the drought was seen in the wilting and dying of the leaves.
There was a marked difference between the beets grown on the unfertilized and fertilized plats, the latter standing the drought much better and presenting a better appearance, both as to foliage and growth, throughout the season.
The beets showed the same tendency as in 1903, to have subdivided roots-sometimes as many as four prongs being formed. This may have been due to lack of subsoiling, though in 1903 the ground was subsoiled at the proper time.
The weather is quite mild and conditions at present are not favorable for an early maturing of the beets since we have as yet had no severe frosts.
On October 24 five samples of beets were sent, three of which (plats 1, 3, and 5) were grown with fertilization and the others without. The description of these plats and their fertilization is as follows:
Plat 1.—Ten rows, 18 inches apart, making 0.09 of an acre. On May 17, when beets were just up, the following materials were applied: 10.5 pounds of nitrate of soda, 12.9 pounds acid phosphate, 3.6 pounds of potassium sulphate. On June 9 and 20 the application was repeated.
Plat 2. Regular experimental plat from which sample was sent on October 15. Ten rows, 18 inches apart; no fertilizer applied.
Plat 3. --Eight rows, 22 inches apart. Same fertilizer applied as in the case of plat 1 and on the same dates.
Plat 4.-Eight rows, 22 inches apart. No fertilizer applied.
Plat 5. –On May 17 the following fertilizer was applied: 10.5 pounds of nitrate of soda, 5 pounds of bone, and 3.6 pounds of potassium sulphate. On June 9 this application was repeated, and on June 20 the following fertilizer was applied: 10.5 pounds of dried blood, 5 pounds of bone, and 3.6 pounds of potassium sulphate.
The following comments on the conduct of the work were reported on this date (October 24):
The total amount of plant food applied to the fertilized plats was 3 pounds of nitrogen in the nitrate of soda, 1.5 pounds of nitrogen in dried blood, 5.4 pounds of phosphoric acid, and 4.5 pounds of potash (K40). The bone contained 35.8 per cent of total phosphoric acid soluble in citrate and is therefore essentially a dicalcium phosphate.
The cultural data for all the plats are the same and have been previously given. It was a very noticeable fact throughout the season that the fertilized plats stood the drought much better than the unfertilized, and this was especially true of plat No.5, to which the bone