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tive system in states and cities. The most recent reform action includes the passage of a Civil Service Law in Wisconsin; in Illinois an extension of the merit system to all state charitable institutions, including about nineteen hundred employees; in Michigan a system of ex aminations has been introduced by the State Board of Health; in New Jersey the police and fire departments of cities of the first-class are brought under Civil Service regulations. There are indications of the spread of a desire for civil service regulations, although all the efforts have not succeeded. Existing provisions in the various states and cities are enumerated in this report of the Commission. This chapter is, on the whole, inspiring, but there is so much detail that I can only refei to it.

The Commission regards the policy of the Post Office Department, inaugurated in April, 1905, which provides for the retention of fourth-class postmasters during satisfactory service, as "distinctly the most important administrative reform effected within the past year. The fourth-class postmasters constitute the largest class of employees selected without examination of any kind. For many years these positions have been treated as political spoils and appointments made to them with slight regard to the best interests of the service."

The vigorous utterance of the Postmaster General in an address which he delivered to the National League of Postmasters of Fourth-Class Offices contains these ringng words:

"The postal service should be a business institution, It cannot be made such if other considerations than merit govern in the discipline of its force. Postmasters hold a peculiarly important relation to the communities in which they live. They are direct representatives of the Department. Their service reflects credit or discredit upon it. They should serve the interests of all the people in their communities without regard to political, social or business affiliations. This does not mean that they are divested of their rights as citizens. They would be unfit for their positions if they did not take a proper interest in public affairs; but to take a proper interest in public affairs as a matter of course bars them from participation in factional differences or any other political action that would bring discredit upon the service or show a lack of appreciation of their relation to it."

When the Philippine and other islands came into the possession of the United States grave apprehensions were felt by many patriotic persons lest these outlying regions should become the prey of adventurous office seekers. So sang the pessimists. The optimists, on the contrary, were encouraged by the experience of Great Britain which taught us that the excellent results accomplished in the far Orient reacted at home and that Civil Service Reform was quickened by an observation of its results at a distance. We have the like reason for rejoicing that the conduct of our affairs in the Philippines has been fruitful of good. Years ago, that excellent review of the Colonial Civil Service in England, Holland and France, by our associate, Professor A. Lawrence Lowell, was full of encouragement and instruction, and now the public utterances of Secretary Taft and others of the highest representatives of the United States in our distant possessions show that hope has become reality. Porto Rico has already come into line, and Hawaii leaves not much to be desired.

Considering the clamor for official appointment, I am rather surprised to notice that the Civil Service Commissioners regret that the public service presents such slight attractions to ambitious and well educated young men. “All of the higher positions are outside of the competitive classified service, and no system has been established by which those who have distinguished themselves in the service can be promoted to the more important offices and at the same time enjoy reasonable security of tenure. There is not sufficient inducement for the most capable men to enter the examinations, as they can do better by seeking employment in large corporations, trusts and other institutions, where they can in time command much higher salaries than they can ever hope to secure in the Government service." While this may be regretted we must remember that this state of things is not without its parallel in other walks of life, and in other countries. There are certain minds contented, all their lives long, with routine. Indeed they prefer it. So long as they are secure in their position and income, they care not for the increased anxiety and responsibilities of higher station.

The most gratifying of all the advances recently made is the extension of the merit system to the consular service of the National Government and to Secretaries of Embassies and Legations. Just a year ago, on the authority of the President of the United States, the Secretary of State issued an order appointing a Board of Examiners which should certify to the Department of State the qualifications of those persons who desired to become secretaries of Embassies and Legations. The subjects to which the examination shall relate are these:

International law, diplomatic usage and modern languages. Familiarity with at least one foreign language will be required. This language may be either the language spoken in the country in which the Embassy or Legation is located, or French.

A few months later Secretary Root presented to the President a draft of the executive order "designed to extend the system commonly called the Merit System of the civil service to the consular branch of the service.”

In explanation of the draft the Secretary wrote as follows:

"The main features of the order were embodied in the early forms of the consular reorganization bill passed at this session of Congress, but they were dropped out largely for the reason that their enactment by Congress would appear to be an infringement upon the President's Constitutional power to appoint consuls. Your adoption of these rules by Executive order will be free from that objection, and, judging from the very positive commendation which many members of both Houses have expressed for the proposed change in the method of appointing consuls, I do not doubt that the new system will receive the hearty approval of the Senate and Congress whenever occasion may arise for an expression upon the subject.

“The principle of the new rules was heartily approved by a very representative convention held in Washington last winter, composed of leading business men from all parts of the country; and both the principle and the practical adaptability of the rules have been subjected to careful consideration by a Board of five of the most able and experienced officers in the consular service, convened in Washington on the 4th of this month for the purpose of advising upon the application of the new reorganization act to the service. That act by its terms is to take effect on the 30th day of June, and it is desirable that the new rules take effect at the same time.”

The President at once issued an order, (June 27, 1906,) appointing a Board of Examiners for admission to the consular service, consisting of the Secretary of State or a subordinate officer from the Department, the Chief of the Consular Bureau, and the Chief Examiner of the Civil Service Commission or his representative.

He directed that the scope and method of the examinations be determined by the Board of Examiners, but among the subjects must be included at least one modern language other than English; the natural, industrial and commercial resources and the commerce of the United States, especially with reference to the possibilities of increasing and extending the trade of the United States with foreign countries, political economy; elements of international, commercial and maritime law. Still later a special order has been issued for the selection by merit of student interpreters in China.

As it is now generally admitted that the Merit System works well in the administration of the National Government, it is quite time to advocate, vigorously and systematically, its extension to states and municipalities. Much has been done in this way; much remains undone. The methods are easily introduced, especially in educational departments and in public and private boards of charity, and they are equally important in every organization where "Pull” and “Push” have hitherto been clamoring for control. Mr. James C. Carter, a few years ago, was so bold as to suggest that attention to municipal affairs is vastly more important in immediate results than any attention to National politics. It is commonly safe to follow this eminent lawyer, and we can certainly agree with him that "the moment unscrupulous men get possession of municipal affairs and turn them to their own purposes, your schools begin to suffer degradation, the pavement of your streets is affected, the cleanness of your city is gone, your police come into alliance with crime and you are threatened with every sort of danger; and there is no form of social or political life in which you do not instantly feel the result."

Among the records of reforms in the public service, some greater and some less, secured in the separate states, none has come under my eye so vivid, so comprehensive, so inspiring as the story of Pennsylvania told by our associate, Hon. Wayne MacVeagh, in a recent number of the North American Review. This success of young men, acting as if they were trained veterans in politics, is “so astonishing," says Mr. MacVeagh, "as to be almost incredible.” He enumerates many gains, but perhaps, from our point of view, the most significant is the act which applied “true, practical, sensible, civil service methods to all appointments to subordinate offices in Pittsburg and Philadelphia.” Subordinate employees in those great cities, says our colleague, are now lifted out of their depraving servitude to political masters and placed among self-respecting servants of the public, with an assured tenure of office during good behavior.

Is it not time for the League to urge upon the authorities of our universities and colleges to provide every year for the presentation of the Merit System to the students under their guidance, by addresses, lectures and discussions and perhaps by the offer of prizes for essays to be written by undergraduates and law students ? As the welfare of the country depends upon its youth, opportunities should be sought for to awaken and inform those who are soon to be the leaders of public opinion. Such a movement was initiated several years ago by President Woolsey, Mr. Curtis and others of the faithful, ---but their plans were not quite matured when they were interrupted by the passage of the Pendleton Bill. This seemed at that time such a victory that further agitation was needless.

To college students of the present day—and not to

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