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recollection that Minerva was born from the brain of the male Jove. So far as I have noticed the work of the women they have given more attention than the men to education and to proselytising, both of which are excellent instruments for advancing the cause. The men's associations have, on the contrary, given more time to extending and perfecting the reform in the spots where it is established.

To-morrow evening we attend a memorial meeting in honor of Carl Schurz, with music and speakers of distinction. If we seek a permanent memorial in his honor, it seems to me that there could be none better than to add five or ten more states to the cause which he served. Our recent activity in this direction shows what can be done. I understand that the extension to Wisconsin was almost wholly the result of the efforts of members of this League. At the Baltimore meeting I chafed a little because so much time was given to questions of administration, with no report of new states and cities won over, though there were pleas by Mr. Ordway and Mr. Richardson for more effort and more effective methods. The last (22nd) report of the United States Civil Service Commission gives such a report as I wish might be read here annually. The report shows new state laws in Wisconsin and New Jersey; gains in Cook County, Illinois, and in the Michigan State Board of Health; an attempt in Kansas City for a civil service charter which was barely defeated; an unsuccessful attempt to reform the state service in Colorado; civil service resolutions in Scranton, Reading, Wilkes-Barre and Pittsburg; the reorganization of the civil service bureau in Philadelphia ; attempts for the police service in Minneapolis and the state service in Kansas; and good civil service rules in Denver.

We have a special committee on organization of Civil Service Reform Associations. I wish it might be made a standing committee, and its report given special prominence at each annual meeting.

I should like also to see a field secretary with a liberal appropriation for traveling expenses. It seems to me that three thousand dollars a year would cover this, and that we are sufficiently in touch with men of means to get the money for effective work. The effort should be directed first of course to those states and cities where there is already some interest, and in such cases, much of the money could be raised locally. If money now comes with difficulty for our present needs, I believe the remedy is to ask for more money for more work. Phillips Brooks is reported to have said that the prayer of a strong man never is that his burden may be less, but that his strength may be more. I wish there might be a Carl Schurz Memorial Fund devoted wholly to this work of extension.

Our Constitution provides for Correspondence Committees in places where there is no Civil Service Reform Association, and no doubt the secretaries are forming such committees in other states, as they are in the smaller cities of New York state. It is not hard in any city to find the knot of men who work for better government. Mere wholesale circularizing often yields unexpected results. A newspaper report of the first annual meeting of the Buffalo Association, reads as follows: "The New York Association went vigorously to work to organize similar societies in other localities, and letters and documents were sent to several persons in Buffalo urging the formation of an association here. These repeated letters and showers of printed matter had the desired effect, and during the spring of 1881 several preliminary gatherings were had among the recipients of such communications. The result was that on June 13, 1881, a call was issued by forty gentlemen for a meeting to organize an association.

The women's auxiliary clubs have made much use of public addresses, before all sorts of organizations; and prizes for essays in women's colleges. If we could, in the same manner, interest the picked men graduating from college, at the Galahad age, it would be worth many times the cost. Pecunious friends of this cause could hardly do better service than by offering such prizes to the seniors in a few colleges or law schools. In some towns meetings have been arranged where the mayor and chief officials, the principal clergymen of all

has gone.

denominations, prominent citizens, and the graduating class of the high school have been assembled to hear addresses or a prize essay on civil service reform. Addresses before labor unions are also helpful.

The effective influence of some one from out of town who spends a few days in a place is sometimes remarkable. A field secretary can round up the latent interest in a city, organize a meeting, and set in motion what mere shame as well as interest will keep in motion after he

All these methods are too familiar to occupy your time. It is worth noting, however, that what we have to overcome now is inertia rather than disbelief. The strength of the federal law against all attacks proves that a majority of the country is converted to the system where merit is the only pull. To meet inertia we must have enthusiasm. It is of no use to say of any community that it is not interested. It can be made interested, but it takes fire to beget fire.

There are still many details and perhaps important principles of civil service reform on which we disagree, and these are discussed at length at our meetings. But if after twenty-five years we are not agreed on elementary principles which we can urge upon new communities, we never shall be It seems 'o me that we should raise a Schurz campaign fund that within a year or two will convert, say New England, to the elements of civil service reform, and that we should leave this meeting, and to-morrow night's memorial meeting with a resolution to carry the whole country, with more speed, for the cause which we all serve, and to report progress annually, through success and failure, to the end.

DISCUSSION.

Hon. Charles J. Bonaparte:

I listened to our friend Almy's paper with great pleasure. But it is not, I must say, quite accurate in alleging that nothing has been done in the line of civil service reform in the State which is honored by the residence of President Gilman and discredited by that of another person whose name he mentioned. It is true that vastly less has been done there than ought to have been done and that there is in Maryland an admirable field for anybody among us who wishes to work, and I may add, that nowhere would he meet with a more hospitable welcome. But, if it be a fact that the United States Civil Service Commission in recording the progress of civil service reform has left out that portion of our national territory, it will be decidedly in order for the Commissioner who is soon to speak to us to explain that omission, because it is quite inexcusable that Maryland should have been overlooked.

In point of fact a very considerable measure of civil service reform was introduced into the municipal service of Baltimore by the new charter which was adopted in 1898. Especially was this the case with regard to the public schools, the provisions for which were, I believe, prepared by President Gilman himself, who was a member of the commission which drafted the charter. It is probable that this particular part of the progress of the reform may have received less attention than it otherwise would have received because the civil service reform character of the provisions was as carefully concealed as possible, since, otherwise, the charter might not have been adopted. It is also true that under the first municipal government established after the charter went into effect we succeeded in extending the provisions of the merit system to the Fire Department of the city also, a branch of the public service of very great importance to the well-being of the community and affording a field of great utility for the application of civil service reform principles. Here again it is possible that the adoption of reform did not attract attention from outside the State because of the singular way in which it was administered by the first Board of Fire Commissioners whose duty it was to give effect to the ordinance. A majority of that board were very indignant to discover that they could not appoint anybody they pleased to fill vacancies and in order to show their displeasure they established as a rule that the man highest on the list of eligibles, the first man certified, should never be appointed. In one instance in which that rule was applied the fireman excluded-it was a case of promotionhad received from the same board a medal for an act of exceptional gallantry. On their attention being called to the fact that it was a little inconsistent for them to refuse him promotion merely because he had committed the crime of passing the best examination when they had given him a medal for exceptional good conduct, they voted to take away the medal. However, in time we got rid of those commissioners and in time we got in other commissioners who took a different view, and while the commissioners have gone, the reform has remained, and I believe, as far as I am informed, the system is applied in good faith at present. Furthermore, there was an attempt made, which might have been put down as among our well-meant failures to apply the merit system to the selection of our police force. That was nullified by a singular decision of our Court of Appeals, to the effect that, the word "nominate" having been used instead of "certify" or something of that kind, as to the persons who should be reported to the Board of Commissioners by the Board of Examiners as fit persons for appointment, the Court of Appeals decided that the Board of Examiners were entitled to “nominate” everybody on the list if they saw fit, and that for a long time they did, which seems to have been very much the same construction as put on one of the other laws mentioned here. Nevertheless even there a very great improvement has been made under the last Board of Police Commissioners that we have had—the present one-and I am informed that political considerations have been pretty well excluded in the matter of original appointment, so that altogether there has been, even in this neglected field, a beginning of our work, and if anyone wants to come down from the outside and help to do more work, as I have said before, we will receive them with open arms and all the other incidents of Maryland hospitality.

I mention this more particularly because it may possibly be that in other States a little of the grain that has

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