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certainly have reckoned him among the supporters of the merit system and the enforcement of the law under his administration would have commanded our approbation as an improvement upon what had gone before.

In New York City also we have seen in the last year a marked improvement in the administration of the law by the Municipal Civil Service Commission, and it can be said of them also that they have gone as far as the attitude of the city administration would permit. That attitude has not been favorable. To the great surprise and disappointment of the thousands of independent voters who voted for Mayor McClellan on the strength of his previous record, and to whom he owed his re-election, he has descended into a fight for the control of the Tammany organization and is using the patronage at his command to further this end. This is demoralizing the service and inevitably affects detrimentally the administration of the civil service law.

Mr. Hughes is not merely an endorser but a warm advocate of the merit system and will be looked to to bring about the much needed revision of the classification of the State service, which will materially reduce the large number of places now excepted from competition, and to see to it that the State Commission uses its power of supervision and investigation of the work of municipal commissions to put an end to political interference with the administration of the law wherever such interference exists.

We have a good civil service law, thanks to Governor Roosevelt, and the merit system in the State of New York has been steadily, if somewhat slowly, advancing under it. The severest blow it has received since the enactment of the law was the failure of Governor Higgins to uphold his Civil Service Commission in the recent Bender case. For the first time the Association was able to present to the State Commission evidence of the collection of campaign contributions from employees by public officials, although this has been carried on with apparent impunity for many years. This evidence was much strengthened by the results of the investigation by the State Coinmission. The case of Harry H. Bender, Fiscal Supervisor of State Charities, was a peculiarly flagrant one because he was at the time the contributions were levied the Treasurer of the City and County Republican Committees and had a doubtless well deserved reputation in Albany, as a successful collector of campaign funds. He and his private secretary, Herbert F. Prescott, were the chief persons accused by the evidence and the unanimous report of the State Commission found them both clearly guilty of violation of the law. In addition to this they had both practically confessed their guilt by endeavoring to stave off further investigation by questioning the power of the State Commission to conduct investigations and by taking the case to the Court of Appeals. Yet the Governor, in spite of this conduct and in the face of the report of his State Commission, by making use of a technicality which had been discussed and rejected by the State Commission, dismissed the charges with merely a reprimand to Bender.

We find the interest in the work of the Association unabating and its influence at least as great as ever. I will not weary you with the details of that work, which consists in investigating, in examining into and presenting complaints, in urging the passage of legislation to strengthen the merit system, and in watching the progress of all bills which in any way tend to injure it. But there is one point particularly worthy of singling out, the work that the Association has been doing, chiefly through its Assistant Secretary, in establishing correspondence committees in cities throughout the State. By this means the influence of the Association in fighting adverse legislation has been greatly increased and we are able at the same time to keep track of the manner in which the law is administered in other cities than New York. We shall not rest satisfied until a correspondence committee has been established in every city of the State in which a civil service commission exists.

Mr. George Burnham, Jr. submitted the following report from the Civil Service Reform Association of Pennsylvania:

The Pennsylvania Civil Service Reform Association submits the following brief summary of the results which it has secured during the past year. It will doubtless be recalled that at the last meeting of the League it was reported that Mr. William S. Leib had just been removed by the President for his persistent failure to observe the provisions of the Federal Civil Service Act. This conspicuous example has had a most beneficial effect in causing the other United States officials throughout Pennsylvania to observe the law in letter and in spirit. As a result no serious violations of the Act have been reported to the Association during the past year. We believe that the President is entitled to warm commendation for his vigorous action in the Leib case, not only because that punishment was well merited, but even more because the example has convinced other officeholders that the administration regards the observance of the Civil Service Act as a matter of great importance.

Satisfactory as it is to make such a good report with regard to the Federal service, it is with even greater pleasure that we report the marked gains which have been made within Pennsylvania. Shortly after the last meeting of the League the Pennsylvania Legislature was convened in special session and given authority by the Governor to consider, among other subjects, the passage of civil service reform legislation. After a bitter contest, the closeness of which can be seen when it is stated that a single vote would have defeated our bill, an excellent Civil Service Act, applying to Philadelphia, was passed by the Legislature. Great credit is due to Senator Gable for this success, which was followed by the appointment by Mayor Weaver of an admirable Commission, which has, by its ability and persistence, secured a vigorous enforcement of the provisions of the new Act. The sudden transition in the city of Philadelphia from the degradation of a most vicious and complete spoils system to the adoption and enforcement of an excellent Merit System is to be regarded as the greatest victory secured during the past year.

A strong effort was also made to obtain from the Legislature the passage of an adequate act applying to the civil service of the commonwealth, but so strenuous was the opposition of the old Republican "Machine" that this bill was defeated in the House of Representatives on the last day of the session. The present Governor-elect has pledged his support for the passage of a proper civil service reform law and the Association hopes that with his co-operation the Legislature may see fit to apply a Merit System to the State offices, and to the appointments in the larger cities.

In addition to the Philadelphia Civil Service Act the last Legislature passed an effective measure prohibiting the assessment of municipal employees in Philadelphia for political purposes, and also an Act restricting their political activity in the same general manner that is prescribed in the regulations affecting Federal officeholders.

The Association co-operated also in urging the passage of a Corrupt Practices Act which was advanced by Senator Algernon B. Roberts, and finally approved by the Governor. It is believed that this Act will aid greatly in obtaining a diminution of bribery at elections and in preventing the use of corporate funds to control political movements. A special committee of the Association has undertaken to secure a strict observance of this new law.

The Mayors of the cities of Pittsburg and Scranton, elected last February, are both members of the State Association, and there is every reason to believe that they will use their efforts to secure a strict observance of the somewhat meagre provisions relating to the Merit System in the charters of these two cities until better laws can be enacted.

During the past year a vigorous local association has been established in Luzerne County and has accomplished a great deal in the direction of arousing public opinion in that vicinity.

The prospects for the future are very bright, as there is a marked trend of public sentiment in the direction of the establishment and enforcement of civil service reform principles, not only throughout the State but also in many of the cities. The membership of the Association now exceeds eight hundred. During the recent session of the Legislature the active support of the individual members of the Association proved a very effective means of creating a widespread public demand for the passage of our bills.

Mr. John A. Butler submitted the following report from the Civil Service Reform Association of Wisconsin:

I am very glad to be able to add a word to what has been said in regard to the spread of Civil Service Reform principles in the different cities and States of this country. I think it is an admirable thing to get together and compare notes and encourage each other. Experience meetings go a long way toward promoting esprit du corps and unity of aims and action.

I reported so fully, and quite accurately, I think, ai the Milwaukee meeting, in regard to the Wisconsin situ ation, that it would be superfluous to again detail what was said at that time. But there is one thing, in regard to Wisconsin, which I think may serve to encourage those who wish to secure Civil Service Reform legislation in other States. There was no organized general demand for the Wisconsin law outside of our Association, and a good many people were very much surprised-a good many politicians, a good many reformers, and the people of the State at large-when they found that we finally had a law. Several years ago, Mr. Bonaparte, Mr. Richardson of Philadelphia, and Mr. Woodruff of Philadelphia, talked the matter over with me, and we thought the time would soon approach, when the question of State Civil Service Reform legislation ought to be agitated in Wisconsin. I accordingly wrote a letter to Governor La Follette, asking him if, when the time came, he would co-operate with us, and he immediately wrote in reply cordially offering us his aid. How well he supported the cause is indicated by the fact that he advocated the Merit System in his first message, and his administration presented a bill which made it unnecessary for us to prepare one. We turned in and helped to support that bill, and Mr. Dana, Mr. Cooley and Mr. Goodwin came out to Milwaukee and Madison pursuant to a previous arrangement, and helped to revise, amend, and improve the bill, and make it what it now is. The point which I wish to speak of as particularly fortunate and significant

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