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for him. The General used Sir Richard with all humanity, and left nothing unattempted that tended to his recovery, highly commending his valor and worthiness and greatly bewailed the danger wherein he was, being unto them a rare spectacle, to see one ship turn toward so many enemies, to endure the charge and boarding of so many huge armados, and to resist and repel the assaults and entries of so many soldiers.

Sir Richard died, as it is said, the second or third day aboard the General, and was by them greatly bewailed. What became 10 of his body, whether it was buried in the sea or on the land we know not; the comfort that remaineth to his friends is that he hath ended his life honorably in respect of the reputation won to his nation and country, and of the same to his posterity, and that, being dead, he hath not outlived his own honor.

-Abridged.

NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biographical and Historical Note. In the autumn of 1591 a small fleet of English vessels lay at the Azores to intercept the Spanish treasure ships from the Indies. On the appearance of the Spanish war-vessels sent to convoy the treasure ships, the much smaller English fleet took flight with the exception of the Revenge, commanded by Sir Richard Grenville. Lord Bacon described the fight as "a defeat exceeding victory."

This story of the fight of the Revenge was written by Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618), a cousin of Grenville's. He was an English explorer, colonizer, and historian. He planted the first English colony in America, on Roanoke Island, off the coast of North Carolina. Later, he was interested in an attempt to form a colony in Guiana, and his account of his experiences is one of the most thrilling adventure stories in the world. His daring exploits made him a favorite at the court of Queen Elizabeth, but after her death he gained the ill-will of James I and was executed on a false charge of piracy and treason.

Discussion. 1. Describe the English fleet as it lay anchored near Flores. 2. What was the condition of the men on the Revenge and the Bonaventure? 3. What two things could Sir Richard do? 4. Which did he choose? Why? 5. How were the Spanish ships manned as compared with the English? 6. What quality of character did Sir Richard show in his treatment of the George Noble? 7. Describe the condition of the Revenge on the second day of the fighting. 8. What was Sir Richard's order to the master gunner? 9. What was the opinion of the captain and

the Master? 10. What do you think about the reasons they gave? 11. What was the Spaniard's offer? 12. Would you have been on the side of the captain and the Master of the Revenge, or on the side of Sir Richard and the master gunner? 13. Pronounce the following: Armada; Azores; becalmed; tiers; bade; hovered; ravenous; dissuade.

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Discussion. 1. Which stanza refers to the present; which one to the past; and which one to the future? 2. Why does the poet take this view into the past and the future? 3. Notice the interesting rime in the seventh line of every stanza. 4. Compare the eighth, ninth, and tenth lines of the fourth stanza with the corresponding lines in the other stanzas. 5. Notice the pleasing effect which the poet produces by using, in one line, several words beginning with the same letter: "battle," "breeze," "loud and long." 6. Find other examples. 7. Show that this poem, written long after Sir Richard Grenville's death, expresses the spirit in which he fought.

glorious standard, 336, 5 field of fame, 336, 13 meteor fag, 337, 11

Phrases

danger's troubled night, 337, 13

star of peace, 337, 14

ocean-warriors, 337, 15

ENGLAND AND AMERICA NATURAL ALLIES

JOHN RICHARD GREEN

Whatever might be the importance of American independence in the history of England, it was of unequaled moment in the history of the world. If it crippled for a while the supremacy of the English nation, it founded the supremacy of the English 5 race. From the hour of American Independence the life of the English people has flowed not in one current, but in two; and while the older has shown little signs of lessening, the younger has fast risen to a greatness which has changed the face of the world. In 1783 America was a nation of three millions of inhab10 itants, scattered thinly along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. It is now [1877] a nation of forty millions, stretching over the whole continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific. In wealth and material energy, as in numbers, it far surpasses the mother-country from which it sprang. It is already the main branch of the Eng15 lish people; and in the days that are at hand the main current of that people's history must run along the channel not of the Thames or the Mersey, but of the Hudson and the Mississippi.

But distinct as these currents are, every year proves more clearly that in spirit the English people are one. The distance 20 that parted England from America lessens every day. The ties that unite them grow every day stronger. The social and political differences that threatened a hundred years ago to form an impassable barrier between them grow every day less. Against this silent and inevitable drift of things the spirit of narrow iso25 lation on either side the Atlantic struggles in vain. It is possible that the two branches of the English people will remain forever separate political existences. It is likely enough that the older of them may again break in twain, and that the English people in the Pacific may assert as distinct a national life as the two 30 English peoples on either side the Atlantic. But the spirit, the influence, of all these branches will remain one.

And in thus remaining one, before half a century is over it

will change the face of the world. As two hundred millions of Englishmen fill the valley of the Mississippi, as fifty millions of Englishmen assert their lordship over Australasia, this vast power will tell through Britain on the old world of Europe, whose nations s will have shrunk into insignificance before it. What the issues of such a world-wide change may be, not even the wildest dreamer would dare to dream. But one issue is inevitable. In the centuries that lie before us, the primacy of the world will lie with the English people. English institutions, English speech, English 10 thought, will become the main features of the political, the social, and the intellectual life of mankind.

NOTES AND QUESTIONS

Biography. John Richard Green (1837-1883) was born at Oxford, England. In his early life he entered the ministry and became not only an eloquent preacher, but an effective worker among his parishioners. Ill health caused him to resign and devote his time entirely to writing. He was a noted English historian, the author of A History of the English People and The Making of England. His vivid imagination enabled him to picture the life of the people and to make history interesting and popular.

Discussion. 1. What do you think of the reasoning in the first paragraph? 2. What victory was there in the political defeat of the British government? 3. How is the distance between England and America lessened today? 4. How are the ties between the two countries being strengthened? 5. What does the author hint at in the last part of the second paragraph? 6. What do you think of the prophecy in the first sentence of the last paragraph? 7. Is his dream any nearer reality today than when the author wrote these lines? 8. Pronounce the following: Thames; isolation; inevitable; primacy.

unequaled moment, 338, 2 material energy, 338, 12 impassable barrier, 338, 23 inevitable drift, 338, 24 narrow isolation, 338, 24

Phrases

political existences, 338, 27
assert their lordship, 339, 3
one issue is inevitable, 339, 7
primacy of the world, 339, 8
English institutions, 339, 9

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