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mosques, and a great number of Hindoo temples. The city ia well supplied with water both from the river and from two large tanks, one of which is very handsome. The head of the Scindia family has a palace here, spacious and commodious, but with little of exterior magnificence. Near it is an antique gate, said to have originally belonged to a fort built by » Primp, useful Vikramaditya, whose reign is placed by chronologists8 more rubies, 11.8i. than half a century prior to the commencement of the Christian era. At the southern extremity of the town is an observatory, « xi. Rm. ». 194 constructed4 by Jai Singh, the scientific rajah of Jeypoor or cTjayT sinhi*""" Amber, and minister of Mahomed Shah, emperor of Delhi, who

* Journ. As. Sor. reigned from 1719 to 1748. "Oojein," says a recent observer,8 —coniny?coi>7 "*a surrounded on every side but the south with an almost duion of oojein. uninterrupted belt of groves and gardens. Their names, had

I room for them, would be a history of the place and of its manners. On one side lies the garden of Dowlut-Rao, on the other that of his carpenter; here is the garden of Rajah Mai, whose name has outlived his history ; while near, and in contrast to it, is another, which, but a few days ago, gloried in the name of the Baizi Bai, now publishes, by a change of title, the fickleness of fortune. The Maharaj Bagh (Dowlut-Rao's) was formerly the pride of five proprietors; but the modernJAhab coveted his neighbour's vineyard, out of five small gardens made a large one, and deprived the owners of the inheritance of their fathers. The best of the gardens seem to have been planted by Mussulmans, who, we learn from Baber, introduced the fashion into India." About a mile to the north of the present city are the ruins of the ancient capital of Malwa,

• Hunter, ut which, according to Brahminical6 tradition, connected with a ridiculous fable, was overwhelmed by a shower of earth, poured down upon it as a divinely-inflicted punishment. On the cause of the destruction of the ancient city, different opinions have been advanced. It has been suggested that an inundation of the river might have produced the disastrous effect; and the suggestion is countenanced by the fact, that in modern times the river has been known to overflow a great part of the present town, and cause much damage, notwithstanding the shortness of its course, and its comparatively inconsiderable volume of water. Another conjecture has ascribed the catastrophe to an earthquake; but the alleged

supra, 30.

soundness of the walls is presumed to offer an obstacle to the

reception of this view. A third hypothesis assigns as the

cause, the operation of a violent wind, carrying with it showers

of loose earth or sand. To this, however, the nature of the

soil seems opposed. The first of these conjectures is embraced

by Malcolm,7 the last by Hunter.8 Other9 writers, however, 7 Central India,

consider that no extraordinary cause is required to account for «' Afc' rm. ^. so.

the state of the ancient city, which, as they believe, presents ^^,'""'1 M1

only the usual appearances of ruined walls throughout Hin

dostan; the earth, which in some instances is found to cover

fragments of masonry, being but the accumulation of the

rubbish from other buildings in different stages of decay.

Five1 miles north of the city, the river separates into two 1 Conoiiy. joum.

11.1 3 1111 • Ai. Soc. Bengal,

channels, and surrounds an oval-shaped rocky eminence, iM7> p. 8u. crowned by a palace never finished, and now in a state of ruin, though, from the excellence of the materials used in its construction, its decay is far less rapid than might be looked for. It is believed to have been erected on the site, and with the materials, of an ancient Hindoo temple. The island was connected with the left bank of the river by two bridges; one of which has been nearly swept away; the other is little, if at all, impaired. Close to this latter bridge are some curious works, by which the stream has been diverted to purposes of pleasure and ornament. The vicinity of these works is adorned by an arcade, and a walled inclosure at a short distance is suspected to have been once a garden.

The principal trade of Oojein is in cotton fabrics, the wares of Europe and China, imported by way of Surat, pearls, diamonds, and especially opium, the growth of the surrounding country.

Oojein is one of the seven sacred2 cities of the Hindoos, and * wiiion, Sanscrit the first meridian of their geographers.* It appears to be D'ct- 1S9' mentioned by Ptolemy under the name of Ozoana.f Its period of chief grandeur has been supposed to date from the era of Vikramajit; but previously, it is believed to have been

* Those who wish for information in regard to the superstitions connected with the place, may consult the lively paper, by Lieut. Edward

Conolly, in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1837, page 813,

. , . 1 . ^ 1 Eclaircissemen*

already referred to. >urCarU) d

t Not Ozene, as it is given by Danville,1 and copied by Kennell.1 '',nlJe>

"* Mem. Map of

HamdtOD, and others. Hindootan, 147.

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populous and wealthy. According* to the Mahawanso, a Ceylonese record, Piyadaso, or Asoka, or Dhanuiasoko, grandBon of the renowned Chandragupta, was in the year B.C. 325 viceroy of Oojein, being sent thither, as into honourable banishment, by his father Bindusaro, king of Patilipura or Patna, who dreaded his sanguinary and turbulent disposition. The same document states, "that4 B.C. 157 the Buddhist high-priest Dhanimarahkito took with him 40,000 disciples from the Dakkhinagiri temple at Oojein to Ceylon, to assist in laying the foundation-stone of the great temple at Anuradhapura." Later, Vikramaditya,* or Vikramajit, king of Oojein, was so renowned, that the Saravat era, 57 B.C., universally used throughout Hindostan to this day, dates* from the commencement of his reign. His son Chandrasen is represented6 to have possessed himself of all Hindostan. At the commencement of the eleventh century, when Mahnmd of Qhuznee invaded India, Oojein was the seat of an independent rajah ruling7 Malwa. It appears to have fallen into the hands8 of the Mussulmans in the year 1310; and after the assumption of independence in 1387 by the Dilawar Ghori, the viceroy of the Patan sovereign of Delhi, the seat of the government of Malwa was transferred first to Dhar, and subsequently to Mandu. In 1561 it was with the rest of Malwa subjugated9 by Akbar. It fell into the hands of the Mahrattas about the middle of the last century, and was regarded as the capital of Scindia's possessions, until Doulut Rao, in 1810, fixed his residence at Gwalior. Oojein, with its annexed lands, was assessed at 1,40,000 rupees annually to Scindia's government; but by a recent arrangement,1 the town and territory have been assigned to the Baiza Baee, formerly regent2 of Gwalior, at the same annual rent. Elevation above the sea 1,698 feet* The city is sometimes called Avanti and Visala. Distance4 S.W. from Goonah 152 miles, from Gwalior 260, S.W. from Allahabad, by Saugor, 598. Lat. 23° 10*, long. 75° 47'.

OOJHANEE,1 in the British district of Budaon, lieutenantgovernorship of the North-West Provinces, a town on the

* The diffuse and obscure Puranic lore respecting Vikramaditya, may be consulted in Wilford, As. Ees. viii. 268, 269; is, 117—241; x. 41—209.

route from Budaon to Allygurh, eight miles W. by S. of the

former. Population 6.361.2 Lat. 28°, long. 79° 4'. N.w'.'p^.is.

OOJKE CHOKEB,1 in the British district of Mirzapoor, ■ B.lo. M«. Doe. lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the route from the city of Benares to that of Allahabad, 422 miles W. of the former, 33 S.E. of the latter. Water can 5 GardTM, Tumm be obtained but from one well; but within a mile of the °*Roule"'107village is a jhil or pond, where it may always be had. The T^"",^'0,^',,,, road in this part of the route is excellent ;3 the country low, n. iss. level, and partially cultivated. Lat. 25° 19', long. 82° 25'.

OOKEB MTJTH,1 in the British district of Kumaon, lieu- 1 E.i.c. M». Doc tenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village g„^'Trlg0B" having a Hindoo temple, and lying on the route from Srinugur to Kedarnath Temple, 18 miles S. of the latter. It is situate on an eminence of gneiss2 rock, on the left bank of the * Joum. At. Soe. Mandakini, here crossed by a jhula or rope bridge. Elevation ^Herberf'Min"above the sea, of the temple, 4,339 feet: of the jhula, 3,464. «»i°«i«>> »»"°r

. . _ _ . r J of Ihe Himalaya.

Lat. 30° 31', long. 79° 8'.

OOKLEE.—A town in the British district of Sholapoor, E.i.c. M». nor. presidency of Bombay, 66 miles S. of Sholapoor. Lat. 16° 42', long. 75° 56'.

OOLAH.—A town in the native state of Hyderabad, or the Nizam's dominions, 129 miles N.N.W. from Hyderabad, and 144 miles 8. by E. from Ellichpoor. Lat. 19° lC, long. 78° 9'.

OOLAUL.—A town in the British district of South Canara, E.I.C. Mi. n»c. presidency of Madras, three miles S. of Mangalore. Lat. 12° 5C, long. 74° 54'.

OOLOOB.—A town in the native state of Travancore, 55 E.i.c. M». Doc. miles N.W. by W. from Cape Comorin, and five miles N.W. by N. from Trivandrum. Lat. 8° 32', long. 76° 58'.

OOLOWTEE, a river of Guzerat, rises in lat. 22° 13', long. 71° 33', and, flowing in an easterly direction through the British district of Ahmedabad for fifty miles, falls into the Gulf of Cambay, in lat. 21° 58', long. 72° 14'.

OOLPAB,1 in the British district of Surat, presidency of 1 E.i.c. M>. Doc. Bombay, a town situate on a small river, which, eight miles farther west, falls into the Gulf of Cambay. Population2 'Tmnsacu. of

« ,_, Med. and Phyi.

3,500. Distance N. from Surat 12 miles. Lat. 21 17, long. Soc. of Bombay,

79° A.V '• Gibson,

*'' SkrteliofGuicrat.

OOMDEE.—A town in the British province of Sattara, E.i.c. Ml Doc.

177.

presidency of Bombay, 108 miles E. by S. of Sattara. Lat.

17° 14', long. 75° 39'.

OOMERKOTE.—See Omeecote. E.I.C. Mt. Doc. OOMNEE.—A town in tbe native state of Oude, 12G miles

N. from Lucknow, and 60 miles E. from Pilleebheet. Lat.

28° 40', long. 80° 51'. 1 E.[.c. Mi. Doo. OOMRAIE,1 in the recently lapsed territory of Nagpore, a

town on the right bank of the river Amb, a tributary of the • Jenkini, Report Weingunga. Iron-ore2 is found in its vicinity. Distance from

on Nagpore, 15. ^ ^ q{ N&gpQT^ g E _ 34 mjleg Lat 2(f 5C, long. 79° 22'.

E.i.c. Mi, Doc. OOMEAIT.—A town in the recently escheated territory of Nagpore or Berar, situate 72 miles N.N.W. from Nagpore, and 56 miles E.N.E. from Baitool. Lat. 22° 7', long. 78° 45'. Gnrden, Tabi« ot OOMRAWAH, in the British district of Shahjehanpoor, lieutenant-governorship of the North-West Provinces, a village on the route from Futtehgurh to the cantonment of Shahjehanpoor, and 16 miles S.W. of the latter. The road in this part of the route is indifferent; the country level, open, and partially cultivated. Lat. 27° 46', long. 79° 50'.

OOMRAWTJTTEE.—A town situate on the ronte from Nagpore to Aurungabad, and in one of the districts of Hyderabad which has been recently transferred to the British government. It is a place of great commercial importance; several considerable firms are established here, and most of the influential merchants of Upper India, as well as those of Bombay of any note, have either correspondents or branch houses at this place. The subordinates of some of these firms spread themselves over the cotton-growing districts, and make advances to the cultivators, or assist them in paying their kists, on the agreement that the produce shall be at the disposal of their employer. When the crop is ready for picking, the cultivator for the most part has nothing farther to do with it, the speculating capitalists being apprehensive that if the cultivator were permitted to gather it, much would be purloined by him. When picked, it is transferred to Oomrawuttee, where are large warehouses appropriated to its reception, and where it is cleaned and repacked for exportation, either from Bombay or from Calcutta. The capricious and oppressive transit-duties levied in the Nizam's territories, in which Oomrawuttee was situate, formerly rendered the transport to either place both

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