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nomen of Camillus was Marcus, and not Lucius: Which is an evident Argument how little the ancient Greeks knew of Rome. f Pliny observes, that Theophrastus was the first that wrote any thing, with Exactness, of the Romans, and that Theopompus, before whom no Author had mentioned them, only said, that the City was taken by the Gauls; and Clitarchus, who next took any notice of it, said only, that an Embassy was sent from thence to Alexander; but Arrian proves that none was sent. The Affairs both of the Romans and Carthaginians, before the second Punick War, were but little known to the Greeks: For which Reason b Polybius found it requisite in his Two firft Books, to give an Account of the preceding State of Rome, before he entred upon the History of that War.
Yet many of the Heathen Writers, as Josephus fhews, have made famous mention of the Jews; though others have given a wrong and malicious Account of them, whom he proves to contradi& one another, and fome times themselves, Some, again, have omitted the mention of the Jews, though they had never so much occasion for it; of which he gives a remarkable Instance in one Hieronymus, who though he were Governor of Syria, and wrote a Book of the Succeffors of Alexander, and lived at the same time with Hecateus, both being contemporary with Alexander; yet never vouchsafed to speak of the Jews, of whom Hecateus wrote a particular Book. The general Silence in relation to the Jews, in the Histories of Alexander's Life which are now extant, could proceed from nothing but Envy and Ill-will; since it is incredible, that a People so very considerable as the Jews, should be the only Nation, whom he over-looked, without requiring the least Submission from them. But Pliny, i to whom we owe divers things; omitted by the proper Historians, informs us of Alexander's being in Judæa. Demetrius k. Phalereus wrote an Historical Account of the Kings of the Jews. The Works of Hecatæus, of Demetrius, and of many other Greek Authors, are now loft, which were written concerning the Fows, the Fragments whereof are still to be seen in Josephus, Clem. Alexandrinus, Eufebius, and others. Of those whose Works remain, Herodotus, relating the Victory of Pharaoh Necho, in the Battle at Megiddo, calls Jerusalem, Cadytis; by a small Variation, as | Dr. Lightfoot has observed, for Kedofha, that is, the Holy City; the usual Denomination of that City! m Herodotus likewise saying, that Circumcifion was used by the Syrians in Palestine, must mean the Jews. for n all others there were uncircumcifed':' tho'wheni he says, that they acknowledged themselves to have received it from the Ægyptians, this shiews, bow much he was misinformed concerning them, and how juste ly the Ignorance of Herodotus in things relating to the Ægyptians, is by Scaliger ascribed to the Partiality of the Ægyptian Priests, from whom he had his Informations: for they concealed all that was disgraceful; and told him nothing, but that which was for the Glory of their own Nation. And this Observation may well be apply'd to other Instances, besides that; which gave Scaliger the occasion to make it; and to other Historians, besides Herodotus. It is ' probable, that Circumcision was introduc'd by Joseph into Ægypt. The Colchi are thought to have received it from the Ten Tribes dispersed throughout those Countries, and the Æthiopians from the Posterity of Abraham by
f Plin. Hist. 1. 3. C. 9. h Polyb. 1. 1. init.
& Arrian. de Expedit. Alex. 1.
i Alexandro magno res ibi (in Judea) agentė. Jhin. Hist. lib. 12. c. 25.
* Joseph. contra Ap. 1. 1. Clem. Alux. Strom. I. Lightf. Chorog. on St. Mark, c. 3. $ 6. m Herod. 1. 2. C. 104.
Jofeph. contra Ap. t. t. • Scalig. Not. in Græc. Fragm. p. 11.
P Grot. Ep. 327. H
Keturau All the 9, Nations, of whom we have any Account that they observed Circumcision, were either in the Neighbourhood of Palestine, or had fome Affinity or Comuñunicatiơn with the Hebretus. . Strabo mentions Mofeso and the ancient Jews with Commens dation an Hei says that many, in Honour to the Di-, vine: Majafty, i went out of Ægypt with Moses, rejecting the Worship of the Ægyptians and other Nations, inasmuch as Mofes instructed them, that God was not to be worshipped by any Image, and that he would revealohimself only to the Pure and Vertuous. He
, obferves, that Moses had great Success in the Eltablishment of his Government, and the reception of his Lawis among the neighbouring Nations, and that his Succeffors, for ifome Ages, pursued the fame Methods, being:Juft; and truly Religious. Which Words,
Ifaao Casaubon remarks, deserve to be written in Let+ rers of Caldo Diodorus Siculus names Mofes among the chief Law-givets of ancient Times.in/ Cadmus Milefiup and Acufilaus Argitus, the two ancientest Greek Hiltotians, lived but a while before the Persian Expedition into Greece. m. We have bụt-four Greek Historians remaining, who wrote before the Reign of ffudiue:C«far; and in the first of them, Herodotus, we fint. Padages relating to the Jews; but Thucydides and Xetapbdn .confining themselves to particular Hiftorics, could have no occalion to take notice of them ? And Polybius's History is most of it lost, who,
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2. Altarum eis quadam parte Gentjum, o maxime que Juded Yatestinaqué cones fint, que hodie popali çircumciduntur, & Xrxcipue gyprije Vuoneis simmonita e Moabite; & omnis Regio Sarracenorum, qui habirat in folitudine cim prater Ægyptios, Idum eos, ommonitas, e Moabitas, Hi/maelitas in folitudine commoránte's, quorum plerumgie pars, circumcisa est ; omnes alie Nationes in totoi libe cireuincije fint carne. Hieron. in Hierem.
r. Strab. l. 76.95 Comment, in Strab. ib. Diod. Sic. I. 1. * Jofeph and app.cubois
in his 'w Sixteenth Book, not only mention'd the Jews, but said of Jerusalem, that much was to be spoken of it, especially by reason of the Fame of the Temple, which he deferred to another opportunity. But we see, the next general Historians, Didorus Siculus, and Strabo the Geographer, mention them with Honour.
Trogus Pompeius feems to have been one of the first learned Romans that ever undertook to write a Latin History; for the x ancient Histories written by Romans even of Consular Dignity, concerning Roman AFfairs, were in the Greek Tongue: Trogus was the first, at least, that attempted an Universal History in the Roman Language, and he lived but in Auguftus's time? He says so much Truth of the Jews, that his Mistakes are the more excufable ; since from an 'Epitome only of so great a Work, it cannot be known from whence they might proceed. He y attributes their prosperous and flourishing State to a mixture of Justice with Religion in their Government. He gives a very higli Character of Joseph, saying, that being throʻ Envy sold by his Brethren to foreign Merchants, who carried him into Ægypt, he soon became very dear to the King that he was the first that understood the Interpretation of Dreams, that he foretold a Famine mány Years before it happen'd, and preservd Ægypt, by advising the King to provide Stores of Corn against the time of Famine, and that there had been fo much experience of the Truth of his Anfwers, that they feemed to be given rather by a God than by'a Man z Pliny says, Jerusalem was the most famons City, not only of Judæa, but of the whole East. a Tacitus himself gives this Testimony of the Jews, That they worshipped the Supreme, Eternal, Immutable Being. b Dion. Caffius speaking to the same purpose, says, that
Jofeph. Antiq. 1.1. C. 3. x Justin. Praf. Dion. Halicar. 1. 1. y Júltin. 1. 36. C.-2. z Plin. Nat. Hift. 1. ,5. C. 14. a Tacit. Hift. l. 15.
b Dio. l. 37. H2
many had written of the God of the Jews, and of the Worship which they paid him. But above all, Varro, c the learnedest of the Romans, much approved their way of Worship, as being free from that Idolatry which he could not but dislike in the Heathen Religion. And it is generally agreed by all, that the Religion of the Jews was receiv'd all over the World; and, as Seneca express'd it, Vikti victoribus leges dederunt.
II. There have been always remaining divers Memorials and Remembrances of the True Religion amongst the Heathen. The Flood of Noah and the Ark were generally taken notice of by Heathen Historians; and the Account of the Flood of Deucalion was plainly transcribed from that of Noah. *Jove is a plain depravation of the word Jehovah; and Diodorus Siculus said, 6. that Mofes profess’d, that he receiv'd his Laws from the God law, which is another variation from it, or from Jah,which is a word often used in the Old Testament. But both the Fathers and the Modern Criticksgenerally derive Jao from the h Terragrammaton. And this proves the Antiquity of the Heathen Tradition concerning the True God; since the Jews of latter Times would not speak the Name themselves, much less communicate it to others. Apollo, Clarius being consulted to know who the God Jao was; answerd, That he is the Supreme God of All, (as Macrobius informs us from Cornelius Lebéo :) which both shews, that the Heathen had knowledge of the God Jehovah, and that the Oracles themselves were sometimes forced to confess Him to be the Supreme
:. S. Aug. Civ. Dei, 1. 4. C. 31.
:.d Ibid. 1.6, C. 11., e Jofeph. Antiq. 1.1. C. 4. Euseb. Præp. 1. 9. C. 12. i Lucian. de Deâ Syr. & in Tiinon. Plut. de Solert. Animal.
Mercurias, Fovis, Neptunus, Vulcanus, Apollo. Enn. Epigr. & Diod. Sic. l. I. h Vid. Voff. de Idolatr. 1. 1. C. 32. Bochart. Hieroz. Part. I. l. 2. c. 18. Walton. Prolegom. 8.
i Macrob. Saturn. I. I. c. 18. Fuller. Miscell. 1, 2. C. 6.