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triumph of faith than a temporary triumph of the contrary principle. It is, however, a dear-bought experience that drives men back to faith from infidelity; and we do wrong to make up our minds to that course as the necessary and inevitable progression of society. Rather, even if it actually occurs, faith wins its renewed victory through those who refuse to give way, and show to an ungodly world the standard of a divinely supported courage, and of a belief steadfast amidst the wreck of Christian institutions. The moral of a brief review of the course of this world is, certainly, the immense importance and responsibility of every step that is taken, and that especially in a critical period, and on the most critical ground. England is still the field where acts leave the most durable impress on institutions and on national character, and where seeds of principle have the greatest chance of growing to an important and extensive development. Ideas thrown out or actualised in England, spread their influence through her colonies and through the United States of America ; and her intercommunion of thought and life with the countries of Continental Europe is daily becoming closer. It may not improbably be true that the Oceanic Mission, which is to unite the earth in one, is in a great measure confided to her; and although there seems no human probability, at this moment, that her Church can spread itself effectually throughout the whole range of her language or her empire, yet we know not what may be accomplished by even a few years of vigorous action, when once she has a powerful central spring at work.
On her acting as a body depends, humanly speaking, the question, whether the unitary influence, which almost confessedly amongst all thinkers is allowed to England at this time, shall - assume the Unitarian or the Catholic character. Liberals in the Church are nearer than they think to the former; a perpetual negation of mystery, authority, and sacramental agency, will soon lead into its lowest, coldest, and dreariest flats. The latter is the proper work of the Church of England as such. Her place between Romanism and Presbyterianism, and united with both now in a triple establishmentfor Romanism is acknowledged by the State-is most favourable for promoting a mutual understanding amongst Christians, and for discovering the common ground on which they can meet, without sacrificing their faith. And the great liberty of private action as yet subsisting in England, (though yearly diminished by democratic enactments, which place the conduct of the individual often most vexatiously under the control of the majority, or the noisy minority,) is favourable to any such action of the Church, through semi-official organs or organ. izations, as may extend her influence over the moral life of the community.
Every Church institution that tends to exhibit and strengthen any truly Christian form of life, or to organize any Christian aims and efforts in an effectual manner, works powerfully toward the consummation which every good Churchman ought to desire. And whoever will look back a few years upon the state of England in this respect, may easily satisfy himself that we have learned much as to the duty of legitimate and authorised organization, and the danger of desultory and self-willed movements. Still what we have learned of things that ought to be, is far more than what we have yet accomplished ; and we must confess ourselves as yet to live in a semi-barbarous and confused order of things, if order it can be called where there is no order. But the field is open before us, though under the jealous supervision of a Government which will scarce let anything be done decently and in order, lest we should seem to be enforcing that order on some imaginary dissentients, and which always protects private rights in opposition to any useful public reformation that is not called for by a popular cry. Patience and perseverance will succeed, in spite of the democratic prejudice, that no man is to be compelled to do right except by Act of Parliament. Real moral improvements will win their way, and good works will find at last their meed of approval, and the encouragement that is necessary for their success. Education will be maintained on the basis of religion in spite of each man's determination to oppose every man's religion but his own, and the determination of many to have none rather than that of the Church. Even the loss of privileges long enjoyed by the Church, and reasonably due to her, may in some cases conciliate minds that have long been alienated; and joint works begun or long carried on in a merely secular spirit, may at last be brought under the influence and sanction of religion. These changes are not greater than what our own day has seen, and the times seem daily to favour the possibility of quicker and quicker change. One thing is certain, whether in our victory or our defeat, our humiliation or our glory—“Great is the truth, and will prevail.'
Art. IV.-God in Christ. Three Discourses, delivered at New
Haren, Cambridge, and Andover. With a Preliminary Diskertation on Language. By HORACE BUSHNELL, D.D. London:
John Chapman. The title which we have ventured to affix to the present article is one which frequently arrests the course of the uplifted paper-knife, and causes it to pass, per saltum, to pages which promise a less dry and repulsive subject of study. As, however, the discussion of such themes is thoroughly germane to the purpose of this Review, and as the thinkers who give attention to them are precisely those who prove most influential in guiding and affecting other minds, the dedication of a certain amount of our space to the consideration of this branch of divinity can hardly be censured by the majority of our readers, and may possibly, we trust, prove welcome to the few.
If Theology be rightly defined as 'the science which treats of God, and of His creatures in so far as they are related to Him,' it will not be difficult to show the intimate connexion of its various branches with Dogmatic Theology, which may indeed be justly regarded as being in some sense the root and basis of the rest. The other leading divisions of Theology are Devotional, Moral, Liturgical, and Exegetical. Devotional Theology is, from its very nature, the least conversant with books, the most immediately concerned with the believer's inward life and personal experience. Yet, that aid may herein be derived from the wisdom and spirituality of others, is evident from the abundance of books of prayer and meditation, and the popularity among religious people of books which treat of the inward life, such as Scupoli's Spiritual Combat,' or Bishop Taylor's · Holy Living and Dying.' Such works, though they refrain from any direct discussion of dogmas, are yet compelled by their very nature to assume them. A Christian uttering in private or in public such supplications, for example, as the opening suffrages of the Litany, must needs, if he is to pray with the heart and understanding, and not with the lips only, believe the Church's doctrine of the Holy Trinity; if, with Jeremy Taylor, he meditates on the Practice of the Presence of God,' he will not stay to combat, even in thought, the Pantheistic notions of a Soul of the Universe, but take for granted the existence of a living, personal Jehovah ; if he contemplates, with pious awe and sorrow,
| Holy Living, chap. i. sec.
the corruption of his own nature, or the humanity of his God and Saviour, he will accept the doctrines which have been handed down to him, without lingering over the fatal errors of Pelagius and Socinus. In a word, the very idea of prayer and religious exercises presupposes the acceptance of certain dogmas. • He that cometh to God must believe that He is, and that He is a rewarder of them that diligently seek Him.'
In the case of Moral Theology, so largely treated by the greatest of the schoolmen, Aquinas, and among ourselves by Bishops Sanderson and Taylor, a portion of the basis may be fairly considered to consist of Moral Philosophy, and the admitted facts of human nature, as recognised even by heathen sages. But Christianity is needed, in order that a sound and durable superstructure may be raised; it is needed partly as an authoritative republication of natural religion; and, again, as involving in its dogmas several new and distinct precepts of duty.
The intimate alliance between morality and the faith of the Gospel, which is constantly implied in Holy Scripture, appears to be distinctly stated in such passages as the following :-* The law ' is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and dis
obedient, for the ungodly and for sinners . ... for liars, for 'perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary
to sound doctrine (doarxaría)' If there come any unto you ' and bring not this doctrine (didaxnv), receive him not into your house, neither bid him God-speed; for he that biddeth him
God-speed is partaker of his evil deeds' (KOLVwvel Tois épyous avtoll Tois provpois). "God be thanked, that ye were the ser'yants of sin, but ye have obeyed from the heart that form of doctrine (TÚTOV didaxñs) which was delivered you.'
The comparatively modern study of liturgies, while it throws vast light upon the faith of antiquity, so obviously starts with the assumption of those verities of the creeds, (which have now for twelve centuries been incorporated into most of them,) that the connexion between ritualism and dogmatism need not be further insisted upon. There is, indeed, no danger of our ritualists becoming insensible to the importance of Dogmatic Theology; while, on the other hand, those who neglect and undervalue dogmatics,' have seldom any taste for liturgical studies.
It may perhaps, at first sight, appear that Exegetical Theology can dispense with all appeal to dogmas. If, it is urged, Holy Scripture contain all truth necessary to salvation, the science of its interpretation should commence with the abnega
Bp. Butler's Analogy, Part II. cap. i.
tion of all prior principles. These should be sought within its pages-pot in any wise assumed from other sources. We reply that such a course of proceeding is impossible, and that even if it were possible, it would be erroneous. That it is impossible, is admitted by writers very alien from the tone of thought which we would humbly strive to inculcate. “It has often been ' said,' writes Neander, that in order to true inquiry, we must ' take nothing for granted. Of late this statement has been
reiterated anew, with special reference to the exposition of the • life of Christ. At the outset of our work we refuse to meet such a demand. To comply with it is impracticable; the very attempt contradicts the sacred laws of our being. We cannot entirely free ourselves from presuppositions .... they control our consciousness, whether we will or no; and the supposed freedom from them is, in fact, nothing else bat the exchange of one set for another." . The doctor,' says Sir James
Stephen, whether he has graduated in law or divinity, has 'grown up from the cradle in the arms of traditions, and in the lap of prepossessions, which have indelibly impressed their own character on all the knowledge which he has afterwards derived * from his books.'? That such erasure of prepossessions would be erroneous, if possible, arises from the consideration of the rightful authority of parents and teachers, who were to us the appointed channels of our earliest impressions ; from the fact that there are right and salutary, as well as wrong and injurious, prejudices;' and that Holy Scripture itself does not profess to fix its own canon, or more than partially supply its own interpretation, these things being left in part to the ordinary means of acquiring knowledge, in part to the teaching of that body which is the pillar and ground of the truth.'
By a dogma, then, we understand a fundamental article of saving truth, asserted or implied in Holy Scripture, taught by the Church Universal, and consonant to sound reason. It must
1 Life of Christ, Introduction.
3 •You see, Sir, that in this enlightened age, I am bold enough to confess that we are generally men of untaught feelings; that instead of casting away all our old prejudices, we cherish them to a very considerable degree; and, to take more shame to ourselves, we cherish them because they are prejudices, and the longer they have lasted, and the more generally they have prevailed, the more we cherish them. We are afraid to put men to live and trade each on his own private stock of reason, because we suspect that this stock in each man is small, and that the individuals would do better to avail themselves of the general bank and capital of nations and ages. . . . . Prejudice is of ready application in the emergency : : prejudice renders a man's virtue his babit, and not a series of unconnected acts, Through just prejudice his duty becomes a part of his nature.'—Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France.
* See Five Sermons on Faith and Church Authority, by Rev. C. Marriott. A.D. 1850. Preface.