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15 vols. 8vo. The two first of these contain the “ History of his own Time, to the year 1745." The third and fourth, his “ History of the Seven Years' War." The fifth contains “ Memoirs from the Peace of Hubertsbourg in 1763, to the Partition of Poland in 1775.” The sixth is filled with miscellaneous matter, particularly “ Considerations on the present state of the political powers of Europe," and “ an Essay on Forms of Government, and on the duties of Sovereigns.” The seventh and eighth volumes contain poetical pieces, and some letters to Jordan and Voltaire. The remaining seven volumes continue his correspondence, including letters to and from Fontenelle, Rollin, Voltaire, D'Argens, D'Alembert, Condorcet, and others. Of these productions many are valuable, more especially his "
his “ History of his own Times,” where, however, he is more impartial in his accounts of his campaigns, than in assigning the motives for his wars, or estimating the merits of his antagonists.
His “ Memoirs of the House of Brandenburg" are disținguished by his correctness in facts, the liveliness of his portraits, the justness of his reflections, and the vigour of his style. The “ Frederician Code” displays him in the light of an able legislator, copying the Roman law, but adapting it with skill to the nature and circumstances of his own dominions. In his lighter productions he was an imitator of Voltaire, whose friendship he long cultivated, and whose irreligious opinions unhappily he too completely imbibed. The activity of his mind was easily discerned in the vivacity of bis eyes and countenance: and he was one of those extraordinary men who by an adroit and regular partition of their time, accompanied with strong spirits and perseverance, can pursue a variety of occupations which common mortals most contemplate with astonishment. Had be not been a king, he would in any situation have been a very distinguished man: being a king, he displayed those talents which usually require the retirement of private life for their cultivation, in a degree of excellenee wbich his situation and mode of life rendered not less extraordinary than those qualities which he possessed in the highest perfection.
As all particulars respecting a man so eminent are objects of attention, we shall subjoin the account of his habitual mode of life, as it is given by the best authorities. His dress was plain in the extreme, and always military ;
a few minutes early in the morning served him to arrange it, and it was never altered in the day; boots always made a part of it. Every moment, from five o'clock in the morning to ten at night, had its regular allotment. His first employment when he arose, was to peruse all the papers that were addressed to him from all parts of his dominions, the lowest of his subjects being allowed to write to him, and certain of an answer. Every proposal was to be made, and every favour to be asked in writing; and a single word written with a pencil in the margin, informed his secretaries what answer to return. This expeditious method, excluding all verbal discussion, saved abundance of time, and enabled the king so well to weigh his favours, that he was seldom deceived by his ministers, and seldom assented or denied improperly. About eleven o'clock the king appeared in his garden, and reviewed his regiment of guards, which was done at the same hour by all the colonels in bis provinces. At twelve precisely, he dined; and usually invited eight or nine officers. At table he discarded all etiquette, in hopes of making conversation free and equal; but, though his own bons-mots and liveliness offered all the encouragement in his power, this is an advantage that an absolute monarch cannot easily obtain. Two hours after dinner Frederic retired to his study, where he amused himself in composing verse or prose, or in the cultivation of some branch of literature. At seven commenced a private concert, in which he played upon the Aute with the skill of a professor; and frequently bad pieces rehearsed which he had composed himself. The concert was followed by a supper, to which few were admitted except literary men and philosophers; and the topics of conversation were suited to such a party. As he sacrificed many of his own gratifications to the duties of royalty, he exacted a serere account from officers, and all who held any places under him. But in many things he was indulgent, and particularly held all calumny in so much contempt, that he suffered some of the most scurrilous writers to vent their malice with impunity. “It is my business," said he, “ to do the duties of my station, and to let malevolence say what it will."
FREGOSO, or FULGOSO (BAPTIST), of the ancient family of Fregoso, was the son of Peter Fregoso, who was
1 Towers's Life of Frederic,--Thiebault's Anecdotes of Frederic the Great. Diet. Hist.
elected doge of Genoa in 1450, and arrived himself at that honour in Nov. 1478. His arbitrary conduct, however, assisted the ambitious designs of his uncle Paul, archbishop of Genoa, who procured him to be deposed in 1 483, and himself to be elected in his stead. Baptist was then banished to Tregui. When he died is not known. He amused himself in his exile by writing various works, among which was a collection of “ Memorable Actions and Sayings," addressed to his son Peter, and containing some particulars of his own life. Vossius has improperly classed bim among Latin historians, on account of this work, which was written in Italian, but he had probably seen only Ghilini's translation, published under the title “ Batistæ Fulgosi de dictis factisque memorabilibus collectanea a Camillo Ghilino Latina facta, libri novem," Milan, 1508, fol. and often reprinted at Paris, Basil, Antwerp, &c. in 8vo. The best editions are those of Paris, 1578, and 1585, $vo, which have additions by Gaillard. Fregoso also wrote “ La vita di Martino V.” pope, but it does not appear whether it was published; and “ De Fæminis quæ doctrina excelluerunt,” which appears to have been taken from his “ Dicta," and inserted in a collection respecting learved ladies by Ravisius Textor, Paris, 1521, fol. The only remaining publication of his was a treatise against love, entitled “ Anteros.” This is one of the earliest printed books, bearing date Milan, 1496, according to Ciennent, but Niceron says 1469.'
FREHER (MARQUARD), a German, was descended from a learned family, and born at Augsburg, July 26, 1565. He went into France very young, to study the civil law under Cujacius ; yet paid so much attention to history and criticism, that he became eminent in both. When he was scarcely three and twenty, he was chosen among the counsellors of Casimir, prince of Palatine, and the year after made professor of law at Heidelberg, where he lived in friendship with Leunclavius, Sylburgius, Opsopæus, the younger Douza, and other learned men of his time. Some little time after, he resigned his professor's chair, and was taken into the most important employments by the elector Frederic IV. This prince made him vice-president of his court, and sent him in quality of ambassador to several places. In the midst of these occupations he never inter
Niceron, vol. IX and X.-Clement Bibl. Curieuse.
mitted his usual method of studying; and wrote a great many works upon criticism, law, and history, the history of bis own country in particular. When we view the catalogue of them given by Melchior Adam, we are ready to imagine that he must have lived a very long life, and hardly have done any thing but write books; yet he died in his forty-ninth year, May. 13, 1614. Douza says that he seems to bave been born for the advancement of polite literature : and Thuanus acknowledges that it would be difficult to find bis equal in all Germany. Casaubon calls him a man of profound and universal knowledge ; and Scioppius says that he joined great acuteness to an incredible depth of learning. Add to this, that he was perfectly skilled in coins, medals, statues, antiques of all sorts, and could paint very well. His moral qualities are described as not inferior to his intellectual; so that Melchior Adam seems justly to bave lamented, that a man who deserved so much to be immortal, should have died so
His principal works are, 1.“ Origines Palatinæ, " fol. 2.“ De Inquisitionis processu," 1679, 4to. 3. “ De re monetaria veterum Romanorum, &c.” Leyden, 1605, 4to, inserted by Grævius in vol. II. of his Roman Antiquities. 4. “ Rerum Bohemicarum scriptores,” Hanau, 1602, fol. 5. “Rerum Germanicarum scriptores," fol. 3 vols. 1600-1611, reprinted in 1717. 6.“ Corpus bistoriæ Franciæ," fol. &c.
Paul Frener, author of the very useful “Tbeatrum Virorum eruditione singulari clarorum,” Norib. 1688, 2 vols. fol. was of this family. Of bim we have no account, except that he was a physician of Noriberg, where he was born in 1611, and died in 1682. The work was prepared for the press by a nephew.'
FREIGIUS, or FREY (JOHN THOMAS), a German, who acquired great reputation by his learned labours, was born at Friburg in the 16th century ; his father being a husbandman, who lived near Basil. He studied the law in his native country under Zasius, and had likewise Henry Glarean and Peter Ramus for his masters. He was strongly attached to the principles and method of Ramus. He first taught at Friburg, and afterwards at Basil; but, finding himself not favoured by fortune, he was going to disengage
· Moreri in Marquard.-Melchior Adam.- Freheri Theatrum.-Niceros, vol. XXI.-Baillet, Jugemeos des Savans.
himself from the republic of letters, and to turn peasant. While he was meditating upon this plan, the senate of Nuremberg, at the desire of Jerom Wolfius, offered him the rectorship of the new college at Altorf ; of which place he took possession in Norember 1575. He discharged the duties of it with great zeal, explaining the historians, poets, Justinian's institutes, &c. He returned to Basil, and died there of the plague in 1583, which disorder had a little before deprived him of a very promising son and two daughters. One of the latter was, it seems, a very extraordinary young lady; for, as he tells us in the dedication to his elegies, or “ Liber Tristium,” though scarce twelve years old, she had yet made such a progress in the Latin and Greek grammars, and the rudiments of other sciences, that she could translate out of her mother tongue into Latin, decline and conjugate Greek, repeat the Lord's Prayer in Hebrew, and scan verses : she understood addition and subtraction in arithmetic, could sing by note, and play on the lute. And lest his reader should conclude from hence, that she had none of those qualities which make her ses useful as well as accomplished, he calls her in the same place, “Oeconomiæ meæ fidelem administram et dispensatricem,” that is, a very notable housewife.
Freigius published a great number of books ; among the rest, “Quæstiones Geometricæ et Stereometricæ ;" a supplement to the history of Paulus Æmilius and Ferron, as far as the year 1596. “ Logica Consultorum :" a Latin translation of Frobisher's voyages, and of the African wars, in which Don Sebastian, king of Portugal, lost his life. “ Ciceronis Orationes perpetuis notis logicis, arithmeticis, ethicis, politicis, historicis, illustratie,” 3 vols. 8vo, at Basil, 1583.
FREIND (JOHN), a learned English physician, was born in 1675, at Croton in Northamptonshire, of which parish his father, William Freind, a man of great learning, piety, and integrity, was rector, and where he died in 1663. He was sent to Westminster school, with his elder brother Robert, and put under the care of the celebrated Dr. Busby. He was thence elected to Christ Church, Oxford, in 1690, over which Dr. Aldrich at that time presided ; and under his auspices undertook, in conjunction with another young man, Mr. Foulkes, to publish an edition of
i Qen. Dict.Moreri.-Saxii Onomast.